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名词性从句 -学生版


名 词 性 从 句
在复合句中起名词作用的从句叫做名词性从句。它包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句 和同位语从句。 一、名词性从句 主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句、同位语从句,在整个句子中所起的作用, 相当于一个名词。因此,这四种从句通称为名词性从句。 (一)主语从句 作句子主语的从句叫主语从句。主语从句通常由从属连词 that,whether,if 和连接代词 what,who,which,whatever,whoever 以及连接副词 how,when,where,why 等词引导。 that 在句中无词义,只起连接作用;连接代词和连接副词在句中既保留自己的疑问含义、又 起连接作用,在从句中充当从句的成分。例如: What he wants to tell us is not clear. 他要跟我们说什么,还不清楚。 Where the English evening will be held has not yet been announced. 英语晚会将在哪里举行, 还 没有宣布。 有时为避免句子头重脚轻, 常用形式主语 it 代替主语从句作形式主语放于句首, 而把主语 从句置于句末。主语从句后的谓语动词一般用单数形式。注意在主语从句中用来表示惊奇、 不相信、惋惜、理应如此等语气时,谓语动词要用虚拟语气“ (should) +do”。常用句型如 下: (1) It + be + 名词 ( a pity a shame, no wonder, etc.) that ?? 如: It’s no surprise that our team has won the game. 我们队赢了比赛并不惊奇。 (2)It + be + 形容词 ( necessary ,important, natural, strange, etc.) that ?? 如: It is certain that she will do well in her exam. 可以肯定她会考得很好。 (3)It + be + 动词的过去分词 (suggested requested, proposed, desired, etc.) that??如: It is said that Mr. Green has arrived in Beijing. 据说格林先生已经到北京了 【连接高考】 ①(2011 北京) _ A. Which ② (2008 山东) A. It modem hotel or not. A. whether B. when C. which D. where ④ (2010 浙江)It is uncertain two thousand patients have taken it. A. that (二)宾语从句 名词用作宾语的从句叫宾语从句。 引导宾语从句的关联词与引导主语从句表语从句的关联 词大致一样,在句中可以作谓语动词或介词及形容词的宾语。 1 作动词的宾语 (1)由 that 引导的宾语从句(that 通常可以省略),如: 1)I heard that he joined the army.
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Barbara Jones offers to her fans is honesty and happiness. B. What B. This C. That C. What D. Whom D. As _was most important to her, she told me, was her family. the old bus station should be replaced with a

③ (2011 重庆)It is still under discussion

side effect the medicine will bring about, although about C. how D. whether

B. what

2)John said that he was leaving for London on Wednesday. (2)由 what, whether (if)等引导的宾语从句,例如: 1) She did not know what had happened. 2) I wonder whether you can change this note for me. 2. 动词+间接宾语+宾语从句 She told me that she would accept my invitation. 3.作介词宾语如: Our success depends upon how well we can cooperate with one another. 4. 作形容词的宾语 I am afraid (that) I’ve made a mistake. 5. It 可以作为形式宾语,而真正的宾语 that 从句则放在句尾, 特别是在带复合宾语的句子中。 We heard it that she would get married next month. 6. 某些及物动词或短语不能直接加宾语从句,此时用 it 作形式宾语,然后再接宾语从句,常用 于这种结构的动词有 like、dislike、hate、appreciate allow, refuse, let, cause, force, admire, condemn, celebrate, , love, help, take, forgive 等。具体为“动词/介词+ it + 从句”。例如: I don’t like it that when you look at me like that. You may depend on it that everything will be all right. Someone always took it for granted what they did.有些人总是把他们做的事情想当然了。 【连接高考】 ①(2011 江西)The villagers have already known A. this to succeed. A. why know . B. which lane he is entering D. which lane is he entering _all the lights were off, the boy D. where D. these B. how C. what D. which ③(2010 上海)When changing lanes, a driver should use his turning signal to let other drivers A. He is entering which lane C. is he entering which lane opened the door to his bedroom. A. why A. this (三)表语从句 在句中作表语的从句叫表语从句。表语从句位于连系动词后,有时用 as if 引导。其基本 结构为:主语 + 系动词 + that 从句。例如: The fact is that we have lost the game. 事实是我们已经输了这场比赛。 That is why he didn’t come to the meeting. 那就是他为什么不到会的原因。 It looks as if it is going to rain. 看上去天要下雨了。 需要注意的,当主语是 reason 时,表语从句要用 that 引导而不是 because。例如: The reason why he was late was that he missed the train by one minute this morning
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we’ll do is to rebuild the bridge. C. what D. which we do and who we are if we want

B. that

②(2011 四川)Our teachers always tell us to believe in

④(2007 湖南)Having checked the doors were closed, and B. that B. that C. when C. it

⑤(2007 天津)He didn’t make

clear when and where the meeting would be held.

【连接高考】 ①I’d like to start my own business-----that’s A. why B. when I’d do if I had the money. C. which D. what

②(2010 北京)Part of the reason Charles Dickens loved his own novel, David Copperfield, was it was rather closely modeled on his own life. A. what (四) 同位语从句 B. that C. why D. whether

同位语从句对于名词进一步解释,说明名词的具体内容。同位语从句通常由 that 引
导,可用于同位语从句的名词有 advice、demand、doubt、fact、hope、idea、information、 message、news、order、problem、promise、question、request、suggestion、truth、wish、word 等。 The news that we won the game is exciting. 我们赢得这场比赛的消息令人激动。 I have no idea when he will come back home. 我不知道他什么时候回来。 The thought came to him that Mary had probably fallen ill. 他想到可能玛丽生病了。 【连接高考】 ①(2011 辽宁)When the news came A. since warmer these years. A. what B. which C. that D. though 二、引导名词性从句的连接词可分为三类: 连接词:that, whether, if 连接代词:what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose, which. 连接副词:when, where, how, why 1) 从属连词 that 只起连接主句和从句的作用, 在从句中不担任任何成分, 本身也没有词义。 从属连词 if, whether 只起连接主句和从句的作用, 在从句中不担任任何成分, 但具有 “是 否”之意。 (if 只用在宾语从句中) 2) 连接代词 what, who, whom,. whose, whoever, whatever, which, whichever 在从句中作主 语、表语 、宾语 、 定语。 连接副词 where, when, how, why 在从句中分别作地点、时间、方式、原因状语。 三 易混淆的引导词的区别
类 别 说 明 what 表示“所??的(东西)”之意,相当于“the +名词+ that /which”或“all that”, what 与 that 的区别 可指代不确定的事物,在从句中作主语、 宾语或表语;而 that 在名词性从句中只起引导 作用,不表达任何意思。 两者都表示“是否”,都可引导宾语从句,但下列情况只能用 whether: ③ whether 与 if 的区别 导主语从句、表语从句、同位语从句时; ②位于句首时;

the war broke out, he decided to serve in the army. C. that D. because the earth is becoming warmer and

B. which

②(2009 江西)The fact has worried many scientists

③后跟 or not 时; ④作某些及物动词(如 discuss、decide、argue 等词)的宾语时 ;⑤与不定式连用时; ⑥作介词的宾语时。因此,若 if 与 whether 同时出现在选项中,

当表示“是否”之意时,一般情况下舍 if 选 whether。 3

wh-与 wh-ever 的区别 no matter + wh-与 wh-ever 的区别

wh-ever 引导宾语从句时,含有“无论??”之意,其引导宾语从句时无疑问意义, 而 wh-多有疑问之意。 no matter + wh-只能引导让步状语从句;而 wh-ever 既可引导状语从句,也可引导名词 性从句。 前者是对前面的某一名词的内容进行解释或说明;后者一般是对某一名词进行修饰 限定。注意:that 引导定语从句时要充当句子成分,定语从句中作宾语时可以省略;

同位语从句和定语 从句的区别

that 引导同位语从句时, 没有实际意义, 不充当句子成分, 一般不能省略。 如在 I had no idea that you were here 句中 that 引导同位语从句,不能省略。 而 Have you got the idea (that) this book reveals of life in ancient Greece? 中 that 引导定语从句,指代 the idea,作 reveal 的宾语,可以省略。

巩固练习
一、判断下列各句哪句含有名词性从句,并指出是什么从句: 1. My hometown is not what it used to be twenty years ago. 2. The thought came to him that Mary had probably fallen ill. 3. It was snowing when he arrived at the station. 4. How he persuaded the manager to change the plan is interesting to us all. 5. The news that they had won the game soon spread over the whole school. 6. The news that you told me yesterday was really disappointing. 7. The problem is who is to pay and when we can start. 8. He spoke as if he understood what he was talking about. 9. Do you remember the teacher who taught us English at middle school? 10. I think it necessary that we take plenty of boiled water everyday. 二、用适当的连词填空: 1.I can’t decide 2.We promise 3.I am very interested in 4. 5.The fact we want to know is dictionary I should buy, and that’s I turned to him for help. attends the party a chance to have a photo taken with the movie star. he has improved his pronunciation in such a short time. he will come to speak to us. she can have easy access to places like shops. t she had not said anything at the meeting surprised everybody.

6.One reason for her preference for city life is others actually understand. 8. We haven’t discussed yet 9.

7.The message you intend to convey through words may be the exact opposite of we are going to place our new furniture.

you didn't know the rules won't be an excuse for your failure to report. we had enough money for our research. we currently know as gymnastics. he will come to our aid. he was late was that he missed the train this morning. I don’t agree. You should have a more active life.
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10.The question was put forward at the meeting 11.You can depend on it 13. The reason ---That’s 12.The sport then was a little different from

14.---I prefer shutting myself in and listening to music all day on Sundays.

15.Evidence has been piled up contributes to one's health. 三、单项选择题 ---- 基础题

t drinking water after getting up in the morning

1.(2015 安徽 25)A ship in harbor is safe, but that’s not ______ ships are built for. A. what A. when A. Where A. that B. whom B. how B. How B. where C. why C. where C. Why C. what D. when D. why D. When D. why 2.(2015 重庆 8)We must find out ____ Karl is coming, so we can book a room for him. 3.(2015 北京 35)_____we understand things has a lot to do with what we feel. 4. (2015 北京 33)I truly believe ______beauty comes from within. 5.(2015 浙江 6)If you swim in a river or lake, be sure to investigate ________is below the water surface. Often there are rocks or branches hidden in the water. A. what getting there. A. what achieved in literature. A. what B. that C. why D. how 8. (2014 大纲全国, 24) Exactly ____ the potato was introduced into Europe is uncertain, but it was probably around 1565. A. whether A. that B. why B. what C. when C. how D. How D. Whether 9.(2014 福建, 34)Pick yourself up. Courage is doing ________you're afraid to do. 10.(2014 北京, 33)Some people believe _____ has happened before or is happening now will repeat itself in the future. A. whatever B. whenever C. wherever D. however 11.(2014 江苏,26) —What a mess! You are always so lazy! —I’m not to blame, mum. I am ________ you have made me. A. how A. that A. where position. A. that A. Why B. which B. When C. as C. That
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B. who

C. that

D. whoever

6.(2015 湖南 26)You have to know ________ you're going if you are to plan the best way of B. that C. where D. who

7.(2015 陕西 19) Reading her biography, I was lost in admiration for______Doris Lessing had

B. what B. this B. what

C. that C. it C. which

D. Who D. Her D. why

12.(2014 山东,4) Susan made______ clear to me that she wished to make a new life for herself. 13.(2014 山东,7) It is difficult for us to imagine_____ life was like for slaves in the ancient world. 14.(2014 陕西,13)Please send us all the information _____ you have about the candidate for the D. What D. What

15.(2014 陕西,15)________ the delayed flight will take off depends much on the weather. 16.(2014 陕西,21)I’d appreciate ________ if you could let me know in advance whether or not

you will come. A. it some won’t accept it. A. That A. what B. Why B. that C. Where C. which D. How D. Who 18. (2014 天津,14)I think _______ impresses me about his painting is the colours he uses. 19.(2014 重庆, 12) --- Is it true that Mike refused an offer from Yale University yesterday? --- Yeah, but I have no idea ___ he did it; that's one of his favorite universities. A. when may be to victory. A. how A. Whoever B. that B. Whatever C. which C. Whichever D. where D. Wherever. 21.(2013 江西, 30)________ one of you breaks the window will have to pay for it. 22.(苏州市 2014 届高三调研测试 )You should be grateful to your employees, because you wouldn’t be ______ you are now without them. A. why put into practice. A. that B. which C. what D. whether 24.(2013 安徽, 21)From space, the earth looks blue. This is ________ about seventy-one percent of its surface is covered by water. A. why tell me. A. what 四、提高题 1.(2015 福建 29)—I wonder___________ —By working out every day. A. where A. where A. what 4. It is known to us all that A. whichever B. however B. how B. why B. it C. why C. what C. that C. whatever D. if D. which D. which D. whether 2.(2015 四川 8)The exhibition tells us__________we should do something to stop air pollution. 3. The computer and the effect _____ brought about did a lot of good to our business. we learn at present is closely linked with our future. Mary has kept her figure after all these years. B. how C. that D. whether B. how C. because D. whether 25. (2014 浙江, 8) “Every time you eat a sweet, drink green tea.” This is _____ my mother used to B. how C. where D. which 23.(2013 陕西, 20) It remains to be seen ________ the newly formed committee’s policy can be B. why C. that D. How 20.(2013 湖南, 28)Do not let any failures discourage you, for you can never tell ___ close you B. you C. one D. This 17.(2015 江苏 25) ________ Li Bai, a great Chinese poet, was born is known to the public, but

5. (南京市、盐城市 2014 届高三一模)We have offered him the position, but I don’t have the slightest idea ______ he will accept it. A. how B. if C. whether
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D. that

6.(2014· 盐城模拟)Scientists have found evidence from their research ________ painful early

experiences can make the nervous system experience pain more strongly in the future. A.where B.what C.that D.when 7. (常州 2013 届高三调研) All across India, people are all debating on ________ the country has a problem of violence against women and ________ to do with it. A. how; how B. why; what C. whether; how D. why; whether 8. (成都市 2014 届高三摸底测试模拟) In Obama’s inaugural speech he made the promise _______ the America would be more prosperous than ________ used to be. A. that; what B. that; it C. in which; it D. which; what 9.(南京盐城 2013 届高三三模)--Sir, I feel it complicated to apply to a university abroad. --Why not read our guide? This is ________ the relevant information is available. A. what B. how C. where D. that 10. (2013 届苏锡常镇四市高三调研二) Israel was created as a homeland for homeless Jews after World War II. However, the creation of Israel in ________ used to be Palestine left many Palestinians homeless. A. what B. which C. where D. that 11. (苏州市 13 届高三期中测试) The Chinese government has made it clear _______ it strives to achieve in space science in the next 5 years. A. what A. that what B. that B. what that C. how C. that that D. which D. whether what 12. All of the students held the view _____the teacher advised them to do was reasonable. 13. --- What is upsetting you, dear? --- ___ it is necessary for us to move our home to the city. A. Why B.How C.That D.Whether 14. -- What impressed the interviewers most? -- _____he could speak three foreign languages so fluently. A. Because B. That C. As D. Whether 15. --He is eager to try something he has never tried before. ---Oh, I see. That’s _____he’s different from others. A. when B. how C. what D. where 16. ---The two people speak different languages and can not communicate with each other well. ---Oh, I see. That’s ___ misunderstanding occurs. A. when A. how A. when B. what B. if B. how C. which C. whether C. that D. why D. that D. whether 17. We have offered him the position, but I don’t have the slightest idea ____ he will accept it. 18. Scientists study ____ human brains work to make computers. 19. The South Pole isn’t _____ people could find a comfortable place to live, for the average winter temperature there is below -40℃. A. which A.whether B. that B.where C. what C.which
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D. where D.that

20. It suddenly occurred to him ________he had left his keys in the office.

21. The limits of a person’s intelligence,generally speaking, are fixed at birth, but ______he reaches these limits will depend on his environment. A. where A whatever A. what; that A. who B. whether B. whichever B. that; what B. whoever C. that C. whenever C. that; that C. whomever D. why D. wherever D. what, what D. no matter who 22. As many as five courses are provided, and you are free to choose ______ suits you best. 23. It is ____ he often breaks the school rules _____ makes his teacher unsatisfied with him. 24. This book is sure to be treasured by ______ gets it. 25. Twenty years later, I returned to the small village and found ______ remained unchanged was the local people’s enthusiasm. A. where B.what C. that D. which 26.I was shocked by the poor results of the exam, ______ made me realize ______ terrible problems I would face. A. which , where B.which, what C. that, that D. that, why 27.Scientists have found evidence from their research _____ early painful experiences can make the nervous system experience pain more strongly in the future. A. where A. when B.what B.what C. that C. that D. why D. why 28. In the English language, sentence stress is like word stress and is___ gives English its rhythm. 29. ---Sir, I feel it complicated to apply to a university abroad. ---Why not read our guide? This is _____ the relevant information available. A. where B.what C. that D. why 30.—What impresses you most about Beijing? —The street, the length of ______ is four times______ it is in my hometown. A. it; what B. which ; what C. what; than D.that ; as 31.The manager has decided to put ______ he thinks is energetic and clever in the position of the leadership of the company. A.whoever B. anyone C.whomever D. those 32. It is difficult to tell exactly ______ the saying began, but it is probable _____ it was in the theater or movie industry. A. how; when B.where ; that C.when ; how D. why; whether 33. _____was a great pleasure that through five years of medical care and treatment, he recovered from the terrible disease. A. That A. that B. It B. which C. What C. what D. When D. when 34. That evening, _____ I will tell you more about later, I ended up working very late. 35.(2014· 苏北四市模拟)—Why didn't you chat with that friendly foreigner just now? —I'd like to, but the trouble was________ he said was difficult for me to understand. A.what which B.that what C.that that
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D.what that

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