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合同翻译学习笔记和例子分析


合 同 翻 译 学 习 笔 记
现在对外交流事例逐渐增多, 英文合同特别是经济合同的翻译愈显重要, 若译文不准确 或不严谨,势必会引起不必要的经济纠纷。 故今以一英文(经济)合同写作书籍为蓝本,录入一 些有益文字,希望大家共同提高英文(经济)合同的翻译和写作。 合同文件是合同双方签订并必须遵守的法律文件,因此合同中的语言应体现其权威性。 英文合同用语的特点之一就表现在用

词上,即选择那些法律用词,以及正式用词,使合同表 达的意思准确无误,达到双方对合同中使用的词无可争议的程度。 一、hereby 英文释义:by means of , by reason of this 中文译词:特此、因此、兹 用法:常用于法律文件、合同、协议书等正式文件的开头语;在条款中需要强调时也可用。 语法:一般置于主语后,紧邻主语。 例 1: The Employer hereby covenants to pay the Contractor in consideration of the execution and completion of the Works and the remedying of defects therein the Contract Price or such other sum as may become payable under the provisions of the Contract at the time and in the manner prescribed by the Contract. 参考译文: 业主特此立约保证在合同规定的期限内,按合同规定的方式向承包人支付合同价,或合 同规定的其它应支付的款项,以作为本工程施工、竣工及修补工程中缺陷的报酬。 注释: (1) hereby: by reason of this 特此 (2) covenant: v. make a formal agreement 立约、签订合同、条约; n. legal agreement 具 有法律约束的正式合同 (3) completion of the Works: 工程的竣工 (4) therein: in the Works 在本工程中 (5) the Contract Price: 合同总价,指工程的总造价 (6) such...as: 关系代词,相当于 that, which (7) under: in accordance with 根据,按照 (8) the provisions of the Contract: terms and conditions of the Contract 合同条款 例 2: We hereby certify to the best of our knowledge that the foregoing statement is true and correct and all available information and data have been supplied herein, and that we agree to provide documentary proof upon your request. 注释: (1)hereby:特此 (2)to the best of our knowledge:as far as we know 据我们所知 (3)foregoing statement:above-mentioned statement 上述声明

(4)herein:in this, in the statement 在声明中 (5)documentary proof:证明文件 参考译文: 特此证明,据我们所知,上述声明内容真实,正确无误,并提供了全部现有的资料和数据, 我们同意,应贵方要求出具证明文件。 例 3: This Contract is hereby made and concluded by and between Co. (hereinafter referred to as Party A) and Co. (hereinafter referred to as Party B) on (Date), in (Place), China, on the principle of equality and mutual benefit and through amicable consultation. 注释: (1)hereby:特此 (2)hereinafter referred to as Party A:以下称甲方 (3)on the principle of equality and mutual benefit:在平等互利基础上 (4)through amicable consultation:通过友好协商 参考译文: 本合同双方, 公司(以下称甲方)与 公司(以下称乙方) ,在平等互利基础上,通 过友好协商,于 年 月 日在中国 (地点) ,特签订本合同。 例 4: This agreement is hereby made and entered into on (Date), by and between Co. China (hereinafter referred to as Party A) and Co. (hereinafter referred to as Party B). 注释: (1)this agreement is hereby made and entered into:特此订立本协议 在法律文件中表示“订立本协议”可用以下 4 个动词: sign (make, conclude or enter into) this agreement, 按照同义词连用的写作特点,可用上述 4 个动词中的两个来表示) 。 (2)hereinafter referred to as Party B:以下简称乙方 参考译文: 本协议特由中国 公司 (以下简称甲方) 与 公司 (以下简称乙方) 于 年 月 日 订立。 二 hereof 英文释义: of this 中文译词:关于此点;在本文件中 用法:在表示上文已提及的“本合同的、本文件的……”时,使用该词。例如表示本合同条件、 条款时,可以说“the terms, conditions and provisions hereof”,这里 hereof 表示“of this Contract”;又如表示本工程的任何部分,可用“any parts hereof”,这里 hereof 表示“of this Works”。 语法:一般置于要修饰的名词的后面,与之紧邻。 hereof 和 thereof 的区别:hereof 强调“of this”。例如,上面的“the terms, conditions and provisions thereof”中的 thereof 表示 of the Contract;“any parts thereof”中的 thereof 表示 of the Works。

例1

Whether the custom of the Port is contrary to this Clause or not, the owner of the goods shall, without interruption, by day and night, including Sundays and holidays (if required by the carrier), supply and take delivery of the goods. Provided that the owner of the goods shall be liable for all losses or damages including demurrage incurred in default on the provisions hereof. 注释: (1) Whether the custom of the Port is contrary to this Clause or not:不论港口习惯是否 与本款规定相反,whether… or not:不论……是否 (2) the owner of the goods:货方 (3) without interruption:无间断地 (4) carrier:承运人 (5) in default on the provisions hereof:违反本款规定 hereof:of this Clause 参考译文: 不论港口习惯是否与本款规定相反,货方都应昼夜地,包括星期日和假日(如承运人需要) , 无间断地提供和提取货物。 货方对违反本款规定所引起的所有损失或损坏, 包括滞期应负担 赔偿责任。 例2 Foreign trade dealers as mentioned in this Law shall, in accordance with the provisions hereof, cover such legal entities and other organization as are engaged in foreign trade dealings. 注释: (1) foreign trade dealers:对外贸易经营者 (2) as mentioned in this Law:本法所称 (3) the provisions hereof:the provisions of this Law 本法规定 (4) legal entity:法人 (5) be engaged in foreign trade dealings:从事对外贸易经营活动 参考译文: 本法所称对外贸易经营者,是指依照本法规定从事对外贸易经营活动的法人和其他组织。 例3 The establishment of a limited liability company or a company limited by shares shall comply with the conditions and provisions of this Law. A company complying with the conditions and provisions hereof may be registered as a limited liability company or a company limited by shares. Provided that if a company fails to comply with the conditions and provisions hereof, the company in question shall not be registered as a limited liability company or a company limited by shares. 注释: (1)a limited liability company:有限责任公司 (2)a company limited by shares:股份有限公司 (3)provisions hereof:本法规定 hereof: of this Law (4)may be registered as:登记为 参考译文: 设立有限责任公司、股份有限公司,必须符合本法规定的条件。符合本法规定的条件的,登 记为有限责任公司或者股份有限公司; 不符合本法规定的条件的, 不得登记为有限责任公司 或股份有限公司。

例4 If, as a result of withdrawal or any other reasons, an arbitrator fails to perform his duties as an arbitrator, another arbitrator shall, in accordance with the provisions hereof, be selected or appointed. 注释: (1) as a result of withdrawal or any other reasons:回避或者其它原因 (2) arbitrator:仲裁员 (3) the provisions hereof:the provisions of this Law 本法规定 (4) be selected or appointed:选定或指定 参考译文: 仲裁员因回避或者其它原因不能履行职责的,应当依照本法规定重新选定或指定仲裁员。 例5 In the event of conflict between the provisions on arbitration formulated and prepared prior to the effective date of this Law and the provisions of this Law, the provisions hereof shall prevail. 注释: (1) conflict:相抵触 (2) prior to the effective date of this Law:本法施行前 (3) the provisions hereof shall prevail:以本法为准 hereof:of this Law 参考译文: 本法施行前制定的有关仲裁的规定与本法的规定相抵触的,以本法为准。 例6 Where, in accordance with laws, the circumstance(s) specified in Article 15 and Article 16 of this Law is /are confirmed, the organization with compensatory obligations shall pay compensation in any of the circumstance in question. Where the claimant for compensation demands the confirmation of one of the circumstances specified in Article 15 and Article 16 hereof, and the demanded organization refuses to make the confirmation, the claimant shall have the right to lodge a complaint. Where the claimant claims compensation, the claim, shall, first, be lodged to the organization for compensatory obligations. The provisions of Article 10, Article 11 and Article 12 hereof shall apply to/ in the procedures of compensation. 注释: (1) the organization with compensatory obligations:赔偿义务机关 (2) shall pay compensation:应当给予赔偿 (3) the claimant for compensation:赔偿请求人 (4) Article 15 and Article 16 hereof:本法第十五条、第十六条 hereof:of this Law (5) shall have the right to lodge a complaint:有权申诉 (6) claims compensation:要求赔偿 (7) apply to/ in:适用 More Examples: The comment applies equally here. /That argument does not apply in this case. /That applies to at least nine-tenths of the people we see about. /These remarks apply to every town in this kingdom. /The rules of safe driving apply to everyone. 参考译文:

赔偿义务机关对依法确认有本法第十五条、第十六条规定的情形之一的,应当给予赔偿。 赔偿请求人要求确认有本法第十五条、 第十六条规定情形之一的, 被要求的机关不予确认的, 赔偿请求人有权申诉。赔偿请求人要求赔偿,应当先向赔偿义务机关提出。赔偿程序适用本 法第十条、第十一条、第十二条的规定。 例7 If an arbitrator involved in one of circumstances specified in Item 4, Article 34 of this Law, and if it is serious, or those specified in Item 6, Article 58 hereof, the arbitrator in question shall, in accordance with the law, bear the legal liability and responsibility. The arbitration commission shall remove the name of the arbitrator in question from the list of arbitrators. 注释: (1) arbitrator:仲裁员 (2) Article 58 hereof:本法第五十八条 hereof:of this Law (3) bear the legal liability and responsibility:承担法律责任 (4) the arbitration commission:仲裁委员会 (5) remove the name of the arbitrator in question from the list of arbitrators:将其除名 参考译文: 仲裁员有本法第三十四条第四项规定的情形, 情节严重的, 或者有本法第五十八条第六项规 定的情形的,应当依法承担法律责任,仲裁委员会应当将其除名。 例8 If, pursuant to this Law, the relevant responsible authorities with the duty of approvals fail to grant approval to such an application as meets the requirements and provisions hereof, or the company registration authorities fail to register a company whose application meets the requirements hereof, the party in question may, in accordance with laws, apply for reconsideration or bring an administrative suit. 注释: (1) the relevant responsible authorities with the duty of approvals:履行审批职责的有 关主管部门 (2) meets the requirements and provisions hereof:符合本法条件 (3) the company registration authorities:负责公司登记的主管部门 (4) the requirements hereof:本法条件 hereof: of this Law (5) apply for reconsideration:申请复议 (6) bring an administrative suit:提起行政诉讼 参考译文: 依照本法,履行审批职责的有关主管部门,对符合本法条件的申请不予批准,或负责公司登 记的主管部门不予登记,当事人可以依法申请复议或者提起行政诉讼。 例9 This Decision shall apply to the crimes committed against Article 9, Article 10 and Article 11 hereof by the staff and workers of enterprises other than limited liability companies and companies limited by shares. 注释: (1) the crimes committed:犯罪行为 (2) against Article 9, Article 10 and Article 11 hereof:犯有本决定第九条、第十条、第 十一条规定 hereof: of this Decision 参考译文:

有限责任公司、股份有限公司以外的企业职工有本决定第九条、第十条、第十一条规定的犯 罪行为的,适用本决定。 例 10 Companies registered and established prior to the effective date of this Law shall, in accordance with Laws, administrative regulations, local regulations and pursuant to the “Standard Opinion on Limited Liability Companies” or the “Standard Opinion on Companies Limited by Shares” issued by the relevant responsible department of the State Council, continue to exist. Those companies not completely satisfying the requirements of this Law shall, within the specified time limit, meet the requirements hereof. Specific methods for implementation of this Law will be set out in separate regulations issued by the State Council. 注释: (1) companies registered:已登记成立的公司 (2) the “Standard Opinion on Limited Liability Companies”: 《有限责任公司规范意见》 (3) the “Standard Opinion on Companies Limited by Shares”: 《股份有限公司规范意见》 (4) the relevant responsible department of the State Council 国务院有关主管部门 (5) in separate regulations issued by the State Council:由国务院另行规定 参考译文: 本法施行前已登记成立的公司,应依照法律、行政法规、地方性法规和国务院有关主管部门 制定的《有限责任公司规范意见》 ,和《股份有限公司规范意见》 ,继续保留。其中不完全具 备本法规定的条件的,应当在规定的期限内达到本法规定的条件。具体实施办法,由国务院 另行规定。 例 11 Unfair competition mentioned in this Law refers to acts of such business operators as contravene the provisions hereof, with a result of damaging the lawful rights and interests of other business operators, and disturbing the socio-economic order. 注释: (1) unfair competition:不正当竞争 (2) business operators:经营者 (3) contravene the provisions hereof:违反本法规定 the provisions hereof:本法规定 hereof:of this Law (4) the lawful rights and interests:合法权益 (5) disturbing the socio-economic order:扰乱社会经济秩序 参考译文: 本法所称的不正当竞争,是指经营者违反本法规定,损害其他经营者的合法权益,扰乱社会 经济秩序的行为。 三 hereto 英文释义: to this 中文译词:至此,在此上。 用法:在表示上文已提及的“本合同的……本文件的……”时,使用该词。例如表示“本合同双 方”,可以说“the Parties hereto”,这里 hereto 表示“to this Contract”;表示“本协议附件 4”, 可用“Appendix 4 hereto”,这里 hereto 表示“to this Agreement”。 语法:一般置于要修饰的名词的后面,与之紧邻。

hereto 和 thereto 的区别: 同前面所言 hereof 和 thereof 的区别类似, hereto 强调的是“to this”。 例1 All disputes arising from the performance of this Contract shall, through amicable negotiations, be settled by the Parties hereto. Should, through negotiations, no settlement be reached, the case in question shall then be submitted for arbitration to the China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission, Beijing and the arbitration rules of this Commission shall be applied. The award of the arbitration shall be final and binding upon the Parties hereto. The Arbitration fee shall be borne by the losing party unless otherwise awarded by the Arbitration Commission. 注释: (1) the performance of this Contract:履行本合同 (2) through amicable negotiations:友好协商 (3) the Parties hereto:the Parties to this Contract 本合同双方 (4) shall then be submitted for arbitration:提交进行仲裁 (5) the China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission, Beijing:中国 国际经济贸易仲裁委员会(北京) (6) the arbitration rules of this Commission:其仲裁规则 (7) the award of the arbitration:仲裁裁决 (8) unless otherwise awarded by the Arbitration Commission:仲裁委员会另有裁定的 除外 参考译文: 对于因履行本合同所发生的一切争议,本合同双方应友好协商解决,如协商无法解决争议, 则应将争议提交中国国际经济贸易仲裁委员会(北京) ,依据其仲裁规则进行仲裁。仲裁裁 决是终局性的,对双方都有约束力。仲裁费用应由败诉方承担,但仲裁委员会另有裁定的除 外。 例2 “Patented Technology” means such patent, and such applications for the patent as are presently owned or will hereafter be acquired in the future by Party B, or as Party B has or may have the right to control, or as are permitted to be transferred during the effective period of this Contract in any or all countries of the world, and as are applicable to or may be used in the manufacture of Contract Products specified by the Parties hereto. 注释: (1) patented technology:专利技术 (2) patent:专利 (3) application for the patent:专利申请 (4) may have the right to control:可能有权控制的 (5) permitted to be transferred in any or all countries of the world:在世界任何国家许可 转让 (6) Contract Products specified by the Parties hereto:本合同双方规定的本合同产品 hereto: to this Contract 参考译文: “专利技术”,系指乙方目前拥有的或未来获得的,或乙方有权或可能有权控制的,或在本合

同有效期间在世界任何国家许可转让的, 适用于或可能适用制造本合同双方规定的本合同产 品的专利和专利申请。 例3 “Technical Documents” means the data and the information specified in Appendix 1 hereto, such as engineering, manufacturing and original information relating to the manufacture and maintenance of the Contract Products, including drawings, blueprints, design sheets, material specifications, photographs, photostats and general data, and design and their specifications relating to manufacturing euipment, tools and facilities. Provided that the above-mentioned information shall be such information as is only available to Party B and applicable to the business operation of Party A under this Contract. 注释: (1) technical documents:技术资料 (2) the data and the information:资料 (3) engineering:工程 (4) manufacturing:制造 (5) original information:原始资料 (6) blueprint:蓝本 (7) design sheets:设计图表 (8) material specifications:材料规格 (9) photostats:影印资料 (10) general data:一般资料 (11) design and their specifications relating to manufacturing euipment, tools and facilities:与制造设备、工具和装置有关的设计及其说明书 参考译文: “技术资料”系指列于附件 1 与制造和维修合同产品有关的工程、制造及原始资料,包括与制 造设备、工具和装置有关的图纸、蓝本、设计图表、材料规格、照片、影印资料和一般资料、 设计及其说明书等,但上述资料仅限于乙方拥有的资料和甲方用于本合同业务活动的资料。 例4 If Party B demands to audit the accounts of Party A, Party B shall, within 10 days after receiving the written notice issued by Party A under Sub-Clause 3.4 of this Contract, notify Party A of the mater in question. The specific contents and procedure of auditing accounts are detailed in Appendix 4 hereto. 注释: (1) audit the accounts of Party A:查核甲方的帐目 (2) Sub-Clause 3.4 of this Contract:本合同第 3.4 款 (3) the specific contents and procedure of auditing accounts:其具体的查帐内容和程序 (4) Appendix 4 hereto:本合同附件 4 hereto:to this Contract 参考译文: 乙方如需查核甲方的帐目时,应在接到甲方依上述本合同第 3.4 款规定开出的书面通知后 10 天之内通知甲方,其具体的查帐内容和程序详见本合同附件 4。 例5

The parties to this Agreement agree that either Party hereto shall, immediately and fully, notify the other Party hereto of any such matters comprising an improvement, modification, further invention or design as the Party in question may discover, make or develop with respect to manufacture and assembly of the Licensed Products or components thereof. The Party discovering, making or developing the subject matter in question may, at its own expense and its own name, file application for Letter Patent or take other necessary legal steps to protect the same, and any patent arising therefrom shall belong to the Party in question. The other Party may, during the effective period hereof, make use of, and sell products utilizing such improvement, modification, further invention or design (whether patented or un-patented) without charge and royalty fee in any manner consistent with this agreement. 注释: (1) either Party hereto:本协议各方 (不译成“one Party hereto) 。 (2) improvement, modification, further invention or design:改进、修正、更新本发明或 设计 (3) discover, make or develop:开发 (4) manufacture and assembly of the Licensed Products or components thereof:生产 及装配许可证产品或部件 (5) file application for Letter Patent:申请专利 (6) take other necessary legal steps to protect the same:其它必要的法律保护程序 the same: Letter Patent (7) any patent arising therefrom:由此产生的专利 (8) consistent with this agreement:与本协议不相矛盾 参考译文: 本协议各方同意,一方对于有关生产及装配许可证产品或部件所做的改进、修正、更新发明 或设计均应立即全部通知另一方。 开发改进的一方可以自负费用并以自身名义申请专利或采 取其它必要的法律保护程序,由此产生的专利将属于该方所有。在本协议的有效期内,另一 方可以与本协议不相矛盾的方式无偿使用和销售利用改进、修正、更新本发明或设计(无论 其是否取得专利权)生产的产品。 例6 The Parties to this Agreement agree that Y shall supply to FCAM certain license and technical assistance for manufacturing Products. The Technical Assistance Agreement to be concluded between FCAM and Y shall be deemed to be an attachment as Appendix 2 hereto (hereinafter referred to as the “Technical Assistance Agreement”). 注释: (1) certain license and technical assistance for manufacturing Products:有关生产产品 的许可证和技术服务 (2) the technical assistance agreement:技术服务协议 (3) Appendix 2 hereto:本协议附件 2 hereto:to this Agreement 参考译文: 本协议双方同意 Y 将向 FCAM 提供有关生产产品的许可证和技术服务,FCAM 和 Y 将订立 技术服务协议并作为本协议附件 2(以下称作“技术服务协议”) 。

例7 The Parties to this Agreement agree and ensure that FCAM will, to the maximum extent practicably possible, use the forms required by Y for such data on management and financial information as are given by FCAM to the Parties hereto, and that FCAM shall prepare and keep accounting and financial records and books available for inspection or audit by either Party hereto. 注释: (1) to the maximum extent practicably possible:尽实际可能最大限度地 (2) data on management and financial information:管理和财务信息材料 (3) prepare and keep accounting and financial records and books:建好会计和财务帐 目 (4) available for inspection or audit by either Party hereto:以备本协议各方的检查或审 计 either Party hereto: either Party to this Agreement 本协议双方 inspection: 检查 audit: 审计 参考译文: 本协议双方同意保证 FCAM 将尽实际可能最大限度地使用 Y 所要求的表格式样, 用于 FCAM 向协议各方提供管理和财务信息材料;并且 FCAM 应建好会计和财务帐目以备协议双方的 检查或审计。 例8 The Parties to this Agreement agree that the Board of Directors authorized by the Parties hereto to administrate or manage FCAM shall be responsible for approving the overall business management plan of the company, and monitoring the execution of the plan in question. Provided that the business management plan in question shall be submitted to the Parties hereto for review and approval. 注释: (1) Board of Directors authorized by the Parties hereto:本协议双方授权的董事会 hereto:to this Agreement (2) to administrate or manage FCAM:管理 FCAM administrate:行政管理 manage: 业务管理 (3) the overall business management plan of the company:公司整体经营计划 (4) monitor the execution of the plan in question:监督该计划的执行 (5) review and approval:审阅和批准 参考译文: 本协议双方同意授权管理 FCAM 的董事会对公司整体经营计划的报批和监督执行负责。该 经营计划需要提交协议双方审阅和批准。 例9 The Parties to this Agreement agree, and will cause FCAM to agree, that Y will sell to FCAM, and FCAM will buy from Y, all such specialized machinery and equipment as is determined through mutual consultation by and between Y and FCAM for the effective utilization of the technical know-how supplied by Y to FCAM under the Technical Assistance Agreement at such prices and on such terms and conditions as are determined by and between the Parties hereto.

注释: (1) specialized machinery and equipment:特定机器设备 equipment: (单数形式)设 备 (2) determined through mutual consultation:协商决定 (3) the effective utilization of the technical know-how:有效使用技术诀窍 (4) terms and conditions:条件 (5) (such…) as:作关系代词,意为 which, that 参考译文: 本协议双方同意并将使 FCAM 同意 Y 将向 FCAM 出售,FCAM 从 Y 购买经过 Y 和 FCAM 协商决定的特定机器设备,以保证根据技术服务协议由 Y 向 FCAM 提供的技术诀窍得到有 效使用,并以协议双方同意的价格和条件成交。 例 10 The termination of this Contract shall not in any way affect the outstanding claims and liabilities existing between the Parties hereto upon the expiration of the validity of the Contract and the debtor shall continue to be kept liable for paying the outstanding debts to the creditor. 注释: (1) the termination of this Contract:本合同期满 (2) outstanding claims and liabilities:未了债务 (3) debtor:债务人 (4) creditor:债权人 参考译文: 本合同期满时, 双方之间发生的未了债务不受合同期满的影响, 债务人应向债权人继续支付 未了债务。 四 herein 英文释义:in this 中文译词:此中,于此 用法:表示上文已提及的“本合同(中)的……,本法(中)的……”等时,使用该词。如表示 “本法(中)所称的不正当竞争”,可译为“unfair competition mentioned herein”,此处 herein 表示“in this Law”;表示“本协议(中)内容”,译为“the Contents herein”,此处 herein 表示 “in this Agreement”。 语法:置于所修饰词后,紧邻所修饰词. 例1 Unfair competition mentioned in this Law refers to such acts of business operators as contravene the provisions hereof, with a result of damaging the lawful rights and interests of other business operators, and disturbing the socio-economic order. Business operators mentioned herein refer to such legal persons, other economic organizations and individuals as engage in the trading of goods or profit-making services (hereafter called Goods including services). 注释: (1) unfair competition:不正当竞争

(2) mentioned in this Law:本法所称 (3) refer to:是指 (4) contravene the provisions hereof:违反本法规定 (5) damage the lawful rights and interests of other business operators:损害其他经营 者的合法权益 (6) disturb the socio-economic order:扰乱社会经济秩序 (7) business operators mentioned herein:本法所称的经营者 herein:in this Law (8) engage in the trading of goods or profit-making services:从事商品经营或营利性服 务 engage in:从事,be engaged in:忙于 参考译文: 本法所称的不正当竞争,是指经营者违反本法规定,损害其他经营者的合法权益,扰乱社会 经济秩序的行为。 本法所称的经营者,是指从事商品经营或营利性服务(以下所称商品包括服务)的法人、其 他经济组织和个人。 例2 This Law is hereby formulated and prepared in order to develop the foreign trade, maintain the foreign trade order and promote the healthy development of the socialist market economy. Foreign trade mentioned herein shall cover the import and export of goods, technology and the international trade in services. 注释: (1) this Law is hereby formulated and prepared:兹制定本法 (2) maintain the foreign trade order:维护对外贸易秩序 (3) promote the healthy development of the socialist market economy:促进社会主义 市场经济的健康发展 (4) foreign trade mentioned herein:本法所称对外贸易 herein:in this Law (5) the international trade in services:国际服务贸易 参考译文: 为了发展对外贸易,维护对外贸易秩序,促进社会主义市场经济的健康发展,兹制定本法。 本法所称对外贸易,是指货物进出口、技术进出口和国际服务贸易。 例3 The term “company” mentioned herein refers to such a limited liability company or such a company limited by shares as are established within the territory of China in accordance with this Law. 注释: (1) mentioned herein:mentioned in this Law 本法所称 (2) limited liability company:有限责任公司 (3) company limited by shares:股份有限公司 (4) within the territory of China:在中国境内 参考译文: 本法所称公司是指依照本法在中国境内设立的有限责任公司和股份有限公司。

例4 Illegal gains from the crimes as specified in this Decision shall, if any, be confiscated. Where those commit crimes against the provisions herein, with their illegal gains to be confiscated, a fine imposed on, their property forfeited and a civil compensation assumed by, and their property and assets are insufficient for the payments of all the above items, they shall first be liable for the civil compensation. 注释: (1) illegal gains:违法所得 (2) shall be confiscated:应当予以没收 (3) the provisions herein:the provisions in this Decision 本决定规定 (4) illegal gains to be confiscated:被没收违法所得 (5) a fine imposed on:判处罚金 (6) property forfeited:没收财产 (7) a civil compensation assumed by:承担民事赔偿责任 参考译文: 犯本决定规定之罪有违法所得的,应当予以没收。 犯本决定规定之罪,被没收违法所得、判处罚金、没收财产、承担民事责任的,其财产不足 以支付时,先承担民事赔偿责任。 例5 The terms “FOB”, “CFR” or “CIF” shall be subject to the “International Rules for the Interpretation of Trade Terms” (INCOTERMS, 2000) provided by International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) unless otherwise specified herein (in this Contract). 注释: (1) (1)“FOB”(free on board)(…Named port of shipment):船上交货(…<指定装 运港>) (2) (2)“CFR”(Cost and Freight)(…Named port of destination):成本加运费(…< 指定目的港>) (3) (3)“CIF”(Cost, Insurance and Freight)(…Named port of destination):成本、 保险费加运费(……<指定目的港>) (4) (4)the “International Rules for the Interpretation of Trade Terms” (INCOTERMS, 2000): 《国际贸易术语解释通则(INCOTERMS)2000》 参考译文: 除非本合同另有规定,“FOB”、“CFR”和“CIF”均应依照国际商会制定的《国际贸易术语解释 通则(INCOTERMS)2000》办理。 例6 Unless otherwise expressly provided for herein, if all disputes, controversies or differences arising out of or in relation to the execution of this Agreement between the Parties hereto, or any breach or default of the provisions hereof (including but not limited to, a dispute concerning the existence or continued existence of this Agreement, and the validity of the Arbitration Clause) fail to be settled amicably, the disputes, controversies or differences in question shall be submitted for arbitration. 注释:

(1) unless otherwise expressly provided for herein:除非另有明确表示 herein:in this Agreement (2) dispute:争议 (3) controversy:纠纷 (4) difference:歧意 (5) the Parties hereto:the Parties to this Agreement 本协议双方 (6) any breach or default of the provisions hereof:任何违约及过失 (7) including but not limited to:包括,但不限于 (8) the validity of the Arbitration Clause:仲裁条款有效性 arbitration clause 仲裁条款 参考译文: 除非另有明确表示, 则由于执行本协议所引发或与本协议有关的协议双方的所有争议、 纠纷 或歧意,以及任何违约及过失(包括,但不限于有关本协议存续的争议,仲裁条款有效性的 争议) ,如不能以友好协商的方式解决,则提交仲裁。 例7 The Agent shall, pursuant to the conditions and provisions specified herein, on the Disbursement Date, credit the funds received to such account as is specified by the Borrower under Sub-Clause 2.2 of this Contract. 注释: (1) the Agent:correspondent bank 代理行 (2) pursuant to the conditions and provisions specified herein:按照本合同规定的条件 herein:in this Contract (3) on the Disbursement Date:在付款日 (4) credit the funds received:贷记入所收资金 (5) the Borrower:借款人 参考译文: 代理行应按照本合同规定的条件,在付款日将所收资金贷记入借款人根据 2.2 款指定的帐 户。 例8 All the rights provided for herein (in this Contract) shall be cumulative and shall not be exclusive of any other rights, powers, privileges or remedies provided for by laws. 注释: (1) cumulative:累加的 (2) shall not be exclusive of:并不排除 (3) privilege:特权 (4) remedy:补救方法 (5) provided for by laws:法律规定的 参考译文: 本合同规定的各项权利是累加的,并不排除法律规定的其它权利、权力、特权或补救方法。 例9 Now Therefore, under the consideration of the mutual promises made by the Parties to this Agreement, the Parties hereto agree the contents herein as follows:

注释: (1) Now Therefore:据此 (2) the consideration:对价。对价是对一项允诺(promise)的回报。例如,甲方允诺 向乙方提供若干数量的货物, 乙方同意付给甲方一定数目的货款, 该货款便构成甲方允诺的 对价。在经过要约(offer)与承诺(acceptance)的基础上,只有那些拥有对价的允诺才 被认作合同,得到法律的保护和执行。 (3) the contents herein:本协议内容 herein:in this Agreement 参考译文: 据此,以本协议双方相互承诺为对价,就下述内容达成一致: 例 10 The Borrower shall, under this Agreement and the Note, fulfill the obligations of making all payments. All the reimbursements to the Bank shall be free and clear of any other charges and exempt from all taxes and such reimbursements as are received by the Bank will not be subject to taxes. The Borrower shall, under this Agreement, pay all taxes as provided for herein. 注释: (1) the obligations of making all payments:支付义务 (2) reimbursement:偿付 (3) be free and clear of any other charges:不附带其它费用 (4) exempt from all taxes:是免税的 (5) pay all taxes as provided for herein:承担全部本协议规定的税务 herein:in this Agreement 参考译文: 借款人应按照本协议和票据完成所有支付义务。 向银行的偿付应是不附带其它费用并且是免 税的, 而且银行所收到的偿付款项不含任何税务。 借款人应按本协议承担全部本协议规定的 税务。 五 hereinafter 英文释义:later in the same Contract 中文译词:以下,在下文 语法:一般与 referred to as, called 等词组连用, 以避免重复, 置于这些词组前面, 与之紧邻。 例 1: In accordance with the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Chinese-Foreign Equity Joint Ventures and the Contract signed by and between Co. (hereinafter referred to as Party A) and Co. (hereinafter referred to as Party B), the articles of association hereby is formulated and prepared. 注释: (1) in accordance with:under 根据 (2) Law of the People’s Republic of China on Chinese-Foreign Equity Joint Ventures: 中华人民共和国中外合资经营企业法 (3) Hereinafter:以下 (4) articles of association:合营公司章程(条款) (5) hereby:特此

(6) formulate:prepare 制订 参考译文: 根据《中华人民共和国中外合资经营企业法》以及由 公司(以下称甲方)与 下称乙方)所订的合资经营的合同,特制订本公司章程。

公司(以

例2 Financial institutions with foreign capital mentioned in these Regulations refer to the following financial institutions that are established and operate in China upon approval in accordance with the relevant laws and regulations of the People’s Republic of China: (1) subsidiary banks incorporated by foreign capital whose head offices are in China (hereinafter referred to as foreign banks); (2) branches of foreign bank in China (hereinafter referred to as foreign bank branches); (3) banks incorporated jointly by foreign and Chinese financial institutions (hereinafter referred to as equity joint-venture banks); (4) finance companies incorporated by foreign capital whose head offices are in China (hereinafter referred to as foreign finance companies); and (5) finance companies incorporated jointly by foreign and Chinese financial institutions (hereinafter referred to as equity joint-venture finance companies). 注释: (1) financial institution:金融机构 (2) subsidiary banks incorporated by foreign capital whose head offices are in China:总 行在中国境内的外国资本银行。在中译英时,这里的“外国资本银行”,应理解成“外资银行的 子银行”,英文为 subsidiary banks,而不能简单地译成 foreign banks,因为很少有一家外 国银行把自己的总部搬到国外,但在境外设立子银行、子公司是经常的。 (3) hereinafter referred to as foreign banks:以下简称外资银行。 (4) hereinafter referred to as foreign bank branches:以下简称外资银行分行。 (5) finance company:财务公司,这里应理解为金融公司,是指在商业银行以外的专门从事 抵押放款业务的金融企业。如果中文为会计事务所,则要译成:accounting firm (6) hereinafter referred to as foreign finance companies:以下简称外资财务公司 (7) hereinafter referred to as equity joint-venture finance companies:以下简称合资财务公 司 参考译文: 本条例所称外资金融机构,是指依照中华人民共和国有关法律、法规的规定,经批准在中国 境内设立和营业的下列金融机构: (一)总行在中国境内的外国资本银行(以下简称外资银行) (二)外国银行在中国境内的分行(以下简称外资银行分行) (三)外国的金融机构同中国的金融机构在中国境内合资经营的银行(以下简称合资银行) (四)总公司在中国境内的外国资本的财务公司(以下简称外资财务公司) (五) 外国的金融机构同中国的金融机构在中国境内合资经营的财务公司 (以下简称合资财 务公司) 例3 When existing Chinese-foreign equity joint ventures, Chinese-foreign cooperative joint ventures and wholly foreign-owned enterprises (hereinafter referred to as “enterprises

with foreign investment”) apply to reorganize themselves into a company, the enterprises with foreign investment shall have a record of making profits for the recent three consecutive years. 注释: (1) existing Chinese-foreign equity joint ventures:已设立的中外合资经营企业,即现有的 中外合资经营企业 (2) Chinese-foreign cooperative joint venture:中外合作经营企业 (3) wholly foreign-owned enterprises:外资企业 (4) hereinafter referred to as “enterprises with foreign investment”:以下简称外商投资企业 (5) shall have a record of making profits:应有盈利纪录 参考译文: 已设立的中外合资经营企业、中外合作经营企业,外资企业(以下称为外商投资企业) ,如 申请转变为公司的,应有最近连续 3 年的盈利纪录。 例4 To apply for the establishment of an investment company, the investor shall submit the following documents to the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation (hereinafter referred to as MOFTEC) for examination and approval after the examination and consent obtained from the foreign trade and economic cooperation authorities of the related province, autonomous region, municipalities directly under the Central Government or the municipalities specifically (separately) listed in the State Economic Plan in which the investment company is to be located. 注释: (1) the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation (hereinafter referred to as MOFTEC):对外贸易经济合作部(以下简称外经贸部) (2) the foreign trade and economic cooperation authorities:外经贸部门 (3) municipalities directly under the Central Government:直辖市 (4) the municipalities specifically (separately) listed in the State Economic Plan:计划 单列市 参考译文: 申请设立投资公司,投资者应将下列文件经拟设立投资公司所在地的省、自治区、直辖市、 计划单列市外经贸部门审核同意后, 报对外贸易经济合作部 (以下简称外经贸部) 审查批准。 例5 These Regulations are formulated and prepared in accordance with the Company Law of the People’s Republic of China (hereinafter referred to as the Company Law) in order to affirm the qualifications of enterprise legal persons of companies and standardize the registration activities of companies. 注释: (1) these Regulations are formulated and prepared:制定本条例 prepare:制定 (2) the Company Law of the People’s Republic of China: 《中华人民共和国公司法》 (3) hereinafter referred to as the Company Law:以下简称《公司法》 (4) to affirm the qualifications of enterprise legal persons of companies:确认公司的企 业法人资格

(5) standardize the registration activities of companies:规范公司登记行为 参考译文: 为了确认公司的企业法人资格,规范公司登记行为,依据《中华人民共和国公司法》 (以下 简称《公司法》,制定本条例。 ) 例6 In order to further expand international economic co-operation and technological exchange, to absorb foreign investment and to promote the development of socialist market economy, foreign companies, enterprises and other economic organizations or individuals (hereinafter referred to as foreign shareholders) and Chinese companies, enterprises and other economic organizations (hereinafter referred to as Chinese shareholders) may, within the territory of China, on the principle of equality and mutual benefit, incorporate themselves into a company limited by shares with foreign investment (hereinafter referred to as the Company). 注释: (1) to further expand international economic co-operation and technological exchange: 进一步扩大国际经济合作和技术交流 (2) to absorb foreign investment:引进外资 (3) to promote the development of socialist market economy:促进社会主义市场经济 的发展 (4) hereinafter referred to as foreign shareholders:以下简称外国股东 foreign shareholders:外国股东 (5) hereinafter referred to as Chinese shareholders:以下简称中国股东 (6) within the territory of China:在中国境内 (7) a company limited by shares with foreign investment:外商投资股份有限公司 参考译文: 为进一步扩大国际经济合作和技术交流,引进外资,促进社会主义市场经济的发展,外国的 公司、企业和其他经济组织或个人(以下简称外国股东) ,按照平等互利的原则,可与中国 的公司、企业或其他经济组织(以下简称中国股东)在中国境内共同举办外商投资股份有限 公司(以下简称公司) 。 例7 In order to promote foreign investment in China and to introduce foreign advanced technology and managerial expertise, foreign investors are permitted to establish investment companies (hereinafter referred to as “investment company”) in China in accordance with the Chinese laws and regulations governing foreign investment and these Regulations. 注释: (1) to introduce foreign advanced technology and managerial expertise:引进国外先进 技术和管理经验 (2) to establish investment company:设立投资公司 (3) hereinafter referred to as “investment company”:以下简称投资公司 (4) the Chinese laws and regulations governing foreign investment:中国有关外国投资 的法律、法规

参考译文: 为了促进外国投资者来华投资, 引进国外先进技术和管理经验, 允许外国投资者根据中国有 关外国投资的法律、法规及本规定,在中国设立投资公司(以下简称投资公司) 。 例8 These Detailed Rules shall apply to the resident representative offices set up within the territory of the People’s Republic of China by foreign traders, manufacturers, shipping agents, contractors, consultant companies, advertising agencies, investment companies, leasing companies and other economic entities (hereinafter called “foreign enterprises”). 注释: (1) these Detailed Rules:本实施细则 (2) apply (to) vi. 适用于 More Examples: : The rules of safe driving apply to everyone. /That applies to at least nine-tenths of the people we see about. /That argument does not apply in this case. /The comment applies equally here. (3) the resident representative offices:常驻代表机构 (4) shipping agents:货运代理商 (5) consultant company:咨询公司 (6) advertising agency:广告公司 (7) leasing company:租赁公司 (8) hereinafter called “foreign enterprises”:以下简称外国企业 参考译文: 本实施细则适用于外国贸易商、制造厂商、货运代理商、承包商、咨询公司、广告公司、投 资公司、租赁公司和其他经济贸易组织(以下简称外国企业)在中华人民共和国境内设立的 常驻代表机构。 例9 A foreign enterprise applying for the establishment of its resident representative office in the territory of the People’s Republic of China shall, upon approval and consent by the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation or its authorized Commissions for Foreign Trade and Economic Relations (hereinafter called the “Examination-Approval Authorities) of the provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government and the municipalities specifically (separately) listed in the State Economic Plan, register with the State Administration for Industry and Commerce or its authorized Administrations for Industry and Commerce (hereinafter called the “registration authorities) of the provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government and the municipalities specifically (separately) listed in the State Economic Plan. 注释: (1) its authorized Commissions for Foreign Trade and Economic Relations:其授权的 对外经济贸易委员会 (2) hereinafter called the “Examination-Approval Authorities:以下简称审批机关 Examination-Approval Authorities:审批机关 (3) register with:办理登记手续 (4) the State Administration for Industry and Commerce:国家工商行政管理局

(5) its authorized Administrations for Industry and Commerce:其授权的(各省、自治 区、直辖市及计划单列市)工商行政管理局 参考译文: 外国企业申请在中华人民共和国境内成立常设代表机构, 应经对外贸易经济合作部或其授权 的各省、自治区、直辖市及计划单列市对外经济贸易委员会(厅) (以下简称审批机关)批 准,并在中华人民共和国国家工商行政管理局或其授权的各省、自治区、直辖市及计划单列 市工商行政管理局(以下简称登记机关)办理登记手续。 六 therein 英文释义:in that; in that particular; in that respect 中文译词:在那里;在那点上,在那方面 用法:在表示上文已提及的“合同中的……,工程中的……”等时使用。例如表示“修补工程中 的缺陷”:“the remedying of any defects therein”,此处 therein 表示“in the Works”;表示“用 于工程中的材料或机械设备”:“materials or plant for incorporation therein”,这里的 therein 表示“in the Works”。 语法:置于所修饰词后,紧邻修饰词。 例1 “Temporary Works” means all temporary works of every kind (other than the Contractor’s Equipment) required in or about the execution and completion of the Works and the remedying of any defects therein. 注释: (1) Temporary Works:临时工程,是指为永久工程服务的工程,永久工程建成后应予以拆 除。建造临时工程的费用,按国际 FIDIC 合同条件规定,应由承包人负责。 (2) Defects:缺陷,表示工程施工出现的问题,即工程本身存在的问题,而不是因业主使用 不当造成的。 (3) the execution and completion of the Works and the remedying of any defects therein: 工程施工、竣工和修补工程中任何缺陷。建造一项工程一般分成两个阶段进行,工程设计、 施工、竣工为第一阶段,修补工程中任何缺陷为第二阶段,因此此句中的第一个 and 是对 的,表示建造工程的两个阶段。 参考译文: 临时工程是指在工程施工、 竣工和修补工程中任何缺陷时需要或与上述工程阶段有关的所有 各种临时工程,但承包人的设备除外。 例2 The contractor shall not, without the prior consent of the Employer, assign the Contract or any part thereof, or any benefit or interest therein or thereunder, otherwise than by: 注释: (1) the prior consent of the Employer: 业主的事先同意 注意: consent 只有单数形式, 表示同意 (2) assign:转让 (3) therein:in the contract;thereunder:under the contract (4) otherwise than by:但下列情况除外。也可写成:unless otherwise specified in the following circumstances:

参考译文: 没有业主的事先同意, 承包人不得将合同或合同的任何部分, 或合同中或合同名下的任何利 益或好处进行转让,但下列情况除外: 例3 This Note means the Note mentioned in the Loan Agreement and is entitled to all the benefits provided therein. This refers to the rights and obligations therein of advance payments, default and acceleration of the maturity in the event of default. 注释: (1) Note:期票,即借据,票据 (2) loan agreement:贷款协议 (3) be entitled to all the benefits:享有(贷款协议规定的)全部利益 (4) advance payment:预付 (5) default:违约 (6) in the event of default:因违约 参考译文: 本期票是贷款协议中所指的期票, 享有贷款协议规定的全部利益, 是指贷款协议中规定的预 付、违约及因违约提前到期的权利和义务。 例4 A certificate of the Borrower shall, substantially, comply with the form set forth in Appendix 4, and the attachments specified therein. 注释: (1)a certificate of the borrower:借款人说明书 (2)comply with:遵照 (3)the attachments specified therein:附录 4 规定的附件 therein:in Appendix 4 参考译文: 借款人证明书,其格式基本上应遵照附录 4 规定的格式及其规定的附件。 例5 If, at any time, an exemption shall be obtained from any such present or future taxes of any nature whatsoever imposed by local authorities or any political subdivision or taxing authorities thereof or therein as shall, under the Contract, be due in respect of any payment or payments, the Borrower shall promptly deliver to the Agent a copy of the certified documents evidencing the exemption in question. 注释: (1) exemption:免征税款 (2) local authorities:地方当局 (3) any political subdivision:任何下属政府分支机构 (4) taxing authorities thereof or therein: 地方当局的税收当局 therein: local authorities in (5) under the Contract:根据合同规定 (6) shall be due:应予以征收的 (7) the certified documents evidencing the exemption in question: 证明上述免税文件 in question:上述

参考译文: 任何时候, 如果由当地或其任何政府分支机构或税收当局, 对任何根据合同规定所支付费用 应予以征收的税款,不论什么性质,现在或将来,凡可以免征的,借款人应及时向代理行递 交一份证明上述免税文件的副本。 例6 Where enterprises with foreign investment were registered with the State Administration for Industry and Commerce before the promulgation of the Income Tax Law of the People’s Republic of China for Enterprises with Foreign Investment and Foreign Enterprises (hereinafter called the Tax Law), the enterprise in question shall pay income tax at the rates provided for therein. 注释: (1) the Income Tax Law of the People’s Republic of China for Enterprises with Foreign Investment and Foreign Enterprises:中华人民共和国外商投资企业和外国企业所得税法。 (2) at the rates provided for therein:按税法规定的税率 therein:in the Tax Law 参考译文: 在《中华人民共和国外商投资企业和外国企业所得税法》 (以下简称税法)公布前已经办理 工商登记的外商投资企业,该企业应按税法规定的税率缴纳所得税。 例7 Where the Borrower has full power and authority to enter into this Agreement, to make the borrowings, to execute and deliver the Note and to incur the obligations provided for in this Agreement and therein, all the actions in question shall, properly and necessarily, be authorized by legal persons. 注释: (1) the Borrower:借款人 (2) to make the borrowings:借贷资金 (3) to execute and deliver the Note:签署票据 (4) to incur the obligations provided for in this Agreement and therein:承担由此产生的 义务 therein:in the Note (5) all the actions in question:上述全部行为 (6) legal person:法人 参考译文: 借款人有充分的权力订立本协议,借贷资金、签署票据并承担由此而产生的义务,上述全部 行为均应经法人适当和必需的授权。 例8 The Leasee shall, at his own expense, keep the commodity in good condition. Provided that the Leasor shall be responsible for the breakdown of the commodity and the Leasee may have the right to lodge claims against the Leasor for any losses occurred therein. 注释: (1) leasee:承租人 (2) keep the commodity in good condition:维持商品的良好状况 (3) provided that:除非,表示进一步规定

(4) leasor:出租人 (5) to lodge claims against the Leasor:向出租人提出赔偿 (6) any losses occurred therein:因此所遭受的损失 therein:in the above-mentioned matters 指出租商品出现的故障 参考译文: 承租人必须自负费用维持商品的良好状况; 除非由出租人对商品的故障负责, 承租人则有权 向出租人提出赔偿因之所遭受的损失。 例9 When documents other than transport documents, insurance documents and commercial invoices are required, the credit shall provide for the following items, such as, the persons (drawers) by whom the documents in question are to be issued and the wording therein or data content thereof. If the credit fails to so stipulate, and the data content in the documents presented makes it possible to relate to the goods and/ or services referred to in the credit, banks will accept such documents as presented. 注释: (1) documents:shipping documents 货运单据 (2) transport documents:运输单据 (3) insurance documents:insurance policies 保险单据 (4) commercial invoice:商业发票 (5) the credit:the letter of credit 信用证 (6) drawer:出单人 (7) the wording therein:the wording in the documents 其措辞 (8) data content thereof:data content of the documents 项目内容 (9) referred to in the credit:信用证中所述的 参考译文: 当信用证要求运输单据、 保险单据和商业发票以外的单据时, 信用证应规定该单据的出单人 及其措辞或项目内容。 如信用证虽无此规定, 但提交的单据的项目内容可能证实与信用证中 所述的货物及/或服务有关联,则银行将予接受。 例 10 If any loss or damage happens to the Works, or any part thereof, or materials or Plant for incorporation therein, during the period for which the Contractor is responsible for the care thereof, from any cause whatsoever, other than the risks defined in Sub-Clause 20.4, the Contractor shall, at his own cost, rectify such loss or damage so that the Permanent Works conform in every respect with the provisions of the Contract to the satisfaction of the Engineer. 注释: (1) loss or damage:损失与损坏 注:loss 与 damage 同义,同义词连用是合同文件语 言特点之一。 (2) any part thereof:any part of the Works 工程中的任何一部分 thereof:of the Works (3) for incorporation therein: used in the Works 用于工程中的 for incorporation in: used in 应译成“用于(工程)中”,而不能译成“进入工程” therein:in the Works 工程中 (4) at one’s own cost:自费

(5) rectify:弥补,纠正 (6) Permanent Works:永久工程 (7) to the satisfaction of the Engineer:达到工程师满意的程度 参考译文: 在承包人负责照管工程期间, 如果工程或其任何部分或材料或用于工程中的设备, 除第 20.4 款所规定的风险外, 不管由于任何原因而遭受损失或损坏, 承包人应自费弥补此类损失或损 坏,以使永久工程在各方面均符合合同的规定,并达到工程师满意的程度。 七. thereof 英文释义: of that, of it 中文译词:由此,其 用法:在表示已提及的“人或事的……”时,为避免重复,可使用该词,比如表示“合同条件、 条款”时,可译为“the terms, conditions and provisions thereof”,此处的 thereof 表示“of the Contract”;表示“工程任何部分”,可译为“any parts thereof”,这里的 thereof 表示“of the Works”。 语法:置于所修饰词后,紧邻修饰词。 例 1: When the Buyer is entitled to determine the time within a specified period and /or the place of taking delivery, the Buyer in question shall give the Seller the notice thereof. 注释: (1) be entitled to determine:有权确定 (2) the time within a specified period and /or the place of taking delivery:提取货物的 时间和/或地点 (3) the notice thereof: 有关这方面的通知 thereof: the above-mentioned matters, that of is, the time and the place of taking delivery. 参考译文: 买方有权确定在规定期限内提取货物的时间和/或地点时,应给卖方有关这方面的通知。 例2 The collection of tax or the cessation thereof, the reduction, exemption and refund of tax as well as the payment of tax unpaid shall, in accordance with the provisions of the relevant law, be implemented. Provided that if the State Council is authorized by the law to formulate and prepare the relevant provisions of the regulations, the provisions in question shall be implemented and complied with. 注释: (1) the collection of tax:税收的开征 (2) the cessation thereof:税收的停征 thereof:of tax (3) the reduction, exemption and refund of tax as well as the payment of tax unpaid: 减税、免税、退税、补税 (4) the State Council:国务院 (5) to formulate and prepare the relevant provisions of the regulations:制定的行政法 规规定 prepare:制定 参考译文:

税收的开征、停征以及减税、免税、退税、补税,依照法律的规定执行;法律授权国务院规 定的,依照国务院制定的行政法规的规定执行。 例3 The Party applying for arbitration shall submit to an arbitration commission the arbitration agreement, the application for arbitration and the copies thereof. 注释: (1) the Party applying for arbitration:当事人申请仲裁(是指申请仲裁的当事人) (2) arbitration commission:仲裁委员会 (3) arbitration agreement:仲裁协议 (4) application for arbitration:仲裁申请书 (5) the copies thereof:the copies of the application for arbitration 仲裁申请书副本 参考译文: 当事人申请仲裁,应当向仲裁委员会递交仲裁协议、仲裁申请书及副本。 例4 “Tests on Completion” means such tests specified in the Contract or otherwise agreed by and between the Engineer and the Contractor as shall be made by the Contractor before the Employer takes over the Works or any section or part thereof. 注释: (1) Tests on Completion:竣工检验 (2) otherwise agreed:另行商定 (3) Employer takes over the Works:业主接收工程 (4) any section or part thereof:工程任何部分、区段 thereof:of the Works 参考译文: 竣工检验指合同规定的或由工程师与承包人另行商定的检验。 这些检验是由承包人在业主接 收工程或工程任何部分、区段之前进行的。 例5 The collection order shall give specific instructions regarding the protest (or shall take other legal process in lieu thereof), in the event of non-acceptance or non-payment. In the absence of such specific instructions, the banks concerned with the collection shall have no obligation to provide the protest (or to take other legal process in lieu thereof) when the banks in question experience non-acceptance and non-payment. Any charges and /or expenses incurred by the banks in connection with such protest or other legal process shall be borne by the principal. 注释: (1) the collection order:托收指示 (2) the protest:拒绝证书 (3) in lieu thereof:代替拒绝证书 thereof:of the protest (4) non-acceptance or non-payment:拒绝承兑或拒绝付款 (5) the banks concerned with the collection:与托收有关的各银行 (6) experience non-acceptance and non-payment:遭到拒绝承兑或拒绝付款 (7) the principal:委托人

参考译文: 托收指示应对于在遭到拒绝承兑或拒绝付款时, 是否需要作出拒绝证书 (或采取其它替代法 律手续)给予特别指示。 如无此项特别指示, 与托收有关的各银行在遭到拒绝付款或拒绝承兑时, 并无义务作出拒绝 证书(或采取其它替代法律手续) 。 银行由于作出拒绝证书或采取其它法律手续而发生的手续费或费用概由委托人负担。 例6 If the Seller makes the specification himself, he shall inform the Buyer of the details thereof and shall determine a reasonable time within which the Buyer may make a different specification. If, after receipt of the communication in question, the Buyer fails to do so within the time so determined, the specification made by the Seller shall be binding. 注释: (1) makes the specification:订明规格 (2) the details thereof:the details of the specification 规格的细节 (3) the communication in question:该通知 (4) shall be binding:应具有约束力 参考译文: 如果卖方自己制订规格, 他必须将所制订的规格的细节通知买方, 而且必须规定一段合理时 间, 让买方可以在该段时间内制订出不同的规格。 如果买方在收到该通知后没有在该段时间 内这样做,则卖方所订的规格应具有约束力。 例7 This Law shall apply to limited liability companies with foreign investment. Unless otherwise specified by the laws on Sino-foreign equity joint venture enterprises, Sino-foreign co-operative joint venture enterprises and wholly foreign-owned enterprises, the provisions thereof shall apply to them. 注释: (1) apply to (sb.):适用 (2) limited liability companies with foreign investment:外商投资的有限责任公司 (3) Sino-foreign equity joint venture enterprise:中外合资经营企业 (4) Sino-foreign co-operative joint venture enterprise:中外合作经营企业 (5) wholly foreign-owned enterprise:外资企业 参考译文: 外商投资的有限责任公司适用本法,有关中外合资经营企业、中外合作经营企业、外资企业 的法律另有规定的,适用其规定。 例8 “Time for Completion” means such time for completing the execution of the Works and passing the Tests on Completion of the Works or any Section or part thereof as is specified in the Contract from the Commencement Date. 注释: (1) time for completion:竣工时间 (2) the execution of the Works:施工

(3) any Section or part thereof:工程的任何部分或区段,thereof:of the Works 参考译文: 竣工时间是指合同规定从工程开工日期算起到工程或其任何部分或区段施工结束并且通过 竣工检验的时间。 例9 The Employer shall, prior to the submission by the Contractor of the Tender, have made available to the Contractor, such data on hydrological and subsurface conditions as have been obtained by the Employer or the Representative on behalf of the Employer from the investigations into the Works provided that the Contractor shall be responsible for his own interpretation thereof. 注释: (1) make available to the Contractor….:向承包人提供…… (2) data on hydrological and subsurface conditions:水文地质资料 (3) his own interpretation thereof:自己对上述资料的解释 thereof:of the data 参考译文: 在承包人提交投标书之前, 业主应向承包人提供由业主或业主代表根据对该项工程的勘察所 取得的水文地质资料,但是承包人应对他自己对上述资料的解释负责。 例 10 If this Agreement is terminated for any reason whatsoever, all such drawings, transparencies, specifications, and any other manufacturing or engineering information as are supplied by Party A, including all the copies thereof, shall be returned to Party A, and Party B shall cease to manufacture the said Licensed Products or Components, or parts of the Licensed Products. 注释: (1) this Agreement is terminated:本协议终止 (2) transparency:图片 (3) specifications:规格 (4) any other manufacturing or engineering information:其它全部生产和操作资料 (5) the said Licensed Products:上述许可证产品 参考译文: 如本协议因任何理由而终止,所有由甲方提供的图纸、图片、规格以及其它全部生产和操作 资料,包括全部复制品,均返还甲方,同时,乙方应停止生产上述许可证产品、或部件、或 零件。 英文合同翻译 (八) 八. thereafter, thereto, therewith, therefor, thereunder 1) thereafter: after that 此后;之后 2)thereto: to that 随附;附之 3)therewith: with that 与此;与之 4)therefor: for that 因之;为此

5)thereunder: under that 在其下;依照 用法: 本节提及的各词,其用法与上面七节谈及的一样,主要强调的是“that”。如果强调的 是“this”,则要用 hereafter, hereto, herewith 和 hereof 等。 语法:紧接所修饰词之后。 例 1: The decision and award of the arbitration tribunal shall be final, and the judgment on the decision and award in question may, under the request of either party to the Contract, be made by any court having jurisdiction. The parties thereto shall, in good faith, comply with the decision and award of the arbitration tribunal. 注释: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

decision and award of the arbitration tribunal:仲裁庭的仲裁决定或裁决 the judgment:司法判决 any court having jurisdiction:有管辖权的法院 jurisdiction:管辖权 the parties thereto:合同双方 thereto:to the Contract in good faith:以良好诚信的态度

参考译文: 仲裁庭的仲裁决定或裁决是终局的, 任何一方可以要求任何有管辖权的法院对此作出司法判 决。双方须以良好诚信的态度遵守仲裁庭的决定。 例 2: "Patented Technology” means such letters patent, and application therefore as are presently owned or acquired in the future by Party B and /or as Party B has or may have the right to control or grant license thereof during the effective period of this Contract in any or all countries of the world, and as are applicable to or may be used in the manufacture of this Contract Products. 注释: (1) patented technology:专利技术 (2) letters patent:专利证,专利 (3) application therefore:专利申请 (4) grant license thereof:许可转让 (5) during the effective period of this Contract:本合同有效期间 (6) are applicable to or may be used in the manufacture of this Contract Products: 适用于或可能适用于制造本合同产品 参考译文: “专利技术”, 系指乙方目前拥有的或未来获得的和/或有权或可能有权控制的, 或在本合同有 效期间在世界任何国家许可转让的,适用于或可能适用于制造本合同产品的专利和专利申 请。

例 3: “Contract Products” means the products specified in Appendix 2 to this Contract, together with all improvements and modifications thereof or developments with respect thereto. 注释: (1) Contract Products:合同产品 (2) Appendix 2 to this Contract:本合同附件 2 (3) together with all improvements and modifications thereof or developments with respect thereto:及其改进发展的产品 thereof:of the Contract Products;thereto:to the Contract Products 参考译文: “合同产品”,系指本合同附件 2 中规定的产品及其改进发展的产品。 例 4: “Specifications” means the specifications of the Works included in the Contract and such any modification thereof or addition thereto as are made under Clause 95 or as are submitted by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer. 注释: (1) specifications:规范 (2) any modification thereof or addition thereto:对规范的任何修改或增补 thereof: of the Specifications;thereto:to the Specifications (3) under Clause 95:根据第 95 条规定 参考译文: 规范是指合同中包括的工程规范,以及根据第 95 条规定的或由承包商提出并经工程师批准 的对规范的任何修改或增补。 例 5: The Defects Liability Certificate for the Works shall, within 28 days after the expiration of the Defects Liability Period, be issued by the Engineer, or, if different defects liability periods become applicable to different Section or parts of the Permanent Works, the expiration of the latest such period, or if, pursuant to Clause 82, any works instructed are completed to the satisfaction of the Engineer, the Defects Liability Certificate therefor shall be issued by the Engineer as soon as possible. 注释: (1) the Defects Liability Certificate:缺陷责任证书 (2) the expiration of the Defects Liability Period: 缺陷责任期终止 (3) different defects liability periods become applicable to different Section or parts of the Permanent Works:不同的缺陷责任期适用永久工程的不同区段或部分 (4) any works instructed:任何按指示进行的工程

参考译文:工程的缺陷责任证书应由工程师在缺陷责任期终止后 28 天内颁发,或者,如果 不同的缺陷责任期适用永久工程的不同区段或部分时, 则在最后一个缺陷责任期终止或根据 第 82 条,在任何按指示进行的工程已完成并达到工程师满意之后尽快签发。 例 6: The Borrower shall pay for the account of the Banks a commitment fee of one half of one percent (0.5%) per annum on the Total Loan Commitment. The commitment fee shall be paid from the date of the conclusion of the Contract (inclusive) to the earlier day of the Disbursement Date and the Termination Date (but excluding the day in question). The commitment fee shall quarterly be paid from the date in the third month thereafter to the earlier day of the Disbursement Date and the Termination Date. 注释: (1) commitment fee:承诺费,承担费。贷款协议签定生效后,如借款人没有按期使 用贷款, 需向贷款人支付一定金额的补偿费用——承诺费或承担费。 通常在贷款协议中确定 一个承诺期。承诺期分为前后两期,前期不收承诺费,后期计收承诺费。如果在前段承诺期 已使用全部承诺期金额,则不收承诺费。如果在前段承诺期未使用全部承诺期金额,其余额 在后段承诺期使用,则计收承诺费。 (2) the Disbursement Date:贷款发放日 (3) the Termination Date:贷款终止日 (4) from the date in the third month thereafter:从其后第 3 个月的该日 thereafter: after the Termination Date 参考译文: 借款人每年应支付银行贷款承诺总额 0.5%的承诺费。支付时间从签订合同之日起(包括该 日在内) ,到贷款发放日和终止日中较早之日(但不包括该日在内)为止,从其后第 3 个月 的该日起开始按季支付至发放日与终止日中较早之日。 例 7: If one or more of the following events of default (hereinafter called “Event of Default") occurs or occur or continues or continue, the Agent and the Bank shall be entitled to the remedies specified in Sub-Clause 11.2 of the Agreement. (a) The Borrower fails to pay any amount payable thereunder as and when such amount shall become payable. 注释: (1) events of default:违约事件 (2) continues or continue:正在继续 (3) the remedies:补救方法 (4) fail to pay any amount payable thereunder:未能支付根据该协议规定应付的款项 thereunder:under the Contract 参考译文: 如果发生下列一种或一种以上违约事件(以下称违约事件) ,或该违约事件正在继续,代理

行以及各行应行使第 11.2 款规定的救济方法。 (1)借款人未能支付根据该协议规定到期应付的款项。 英文合同翻译 (九) 九. whereas 释义: considering that, 鉴于,就......而论(法律用语) 用法: 常用于合同协议书的开头段落中,以引出合同双方要订立合同的理由或依据。 语法:紧接于要修饰词之前,常位于句首。 例 1: Whereas Party B has the right and agrees to grant Party A the rights to use, manufacture and sell the Contract Products of Patented Technology; Whereas Party A desires to use the Patented Technology of Party B to manufacture and sell the Contract Products; The Representatives authorized by the Parties to this Contract have, through friendly negotiation, agreed to enter into this Contract under the terms, conditions and provisions specified as follows: 注释: (1) whereas:鉴于 (2) to grant Party A the rights to use, manufacture and sell the Contract Products of Patented Technology:将专利技术的合同产品的使用权、制造权和销售权授予甲方 (3) the Representatives authorized by the Parties to this Contract:双方授权代表 (4) under the terms, conditions and provisions specified as follows:就以下条款 参考译文: 鉴于乙方有权并同意将专利技术的合同产品的使用权、制造权和销售权授予甲方; 鉴于甲方希望利用乙方的专利技术制造并销售合同的产品; 双方授权代表经友好协商, 同意 就以下条款签订本合同: 例 2: Whereas Party A possesses proprietary technical information including designs, techniques, workmanship, formulas, skills and other data useful in the manufacture and marketing of certain products; and Whereas Party B desires to acquire the right and licence to use the above-mentioned technical assistance for the purpose of manufacturing, using and selling such products; and Whereas Party B desires to use the following trademarks owned by Party A. Now Therefore, the parties hereto do hereby agree on the contents of the agreement as follows: 注释:

(1) proprietary technical information:专有技术信息 (2) designs, techniques, workmanship, formulas, skills and other data:设计、技术、 工艺、配方、技能和其他资料 (3) the right and licence:许可权利 (4) technical assistance:技术协助 (5) trademarks:商标 参考译文: 鉴于甲方拥有合同产品的生产及销售所涉及的技术信息,包括设计、技术、工艺、配方、技 能和其他资料的专有权; 鉴于乙方以生产、使用和销售合同产品为目的,希望获得使用上述协助的许可权利; 鉴于乙方希望使用甲方所有的下述商标; 双方兹就下列内容达成一致: 例 3: Whereas the Borrower proposes to borrow from the Banks, and the Banks, severally but not jointly, propose to lend to the Borrower, an aggregate amount of $50,000,000, the Parties hereto have hereby made and concluded this Agreement as follows: 注释: (1) whereas:鉴于 (2) severally but not jointly:分别但不连带地 (3) an aggregate amount:总额 (4) the Parties hereto have hereby made and concluded this Agreement as follows: 当事人协议如下 参考译文: 鉴于借款人提出从银行借款,各银行分别但不连带地向借款人贷款,总额为$50,000,000 (5000 万美元) ,当事人协议如下: 例 4: Whereas the Borrower has requested the Bank to extend to the Borrower a term loan in the principal amount of One Million US Dollars (US $1,000,000) under the terms, conditions and provisions of this Agreement; and Whereas the Bank is prepared to make such a loan available to the Borrower under the terms, conditions and provisions of this Agreement; Now Therefore, in consideration of the mutual promises contained herein, the Parties hereto do hereby agree on the contents of the agreement as follows: 注释: (1) whereas:鉴于 (2) a term loan:定期贷款 (3) the principal amount:本金 (4) under the terms, conditions and provisions of this Agreement:根据本协议规定的

条件和款项 (5) in consideration of the mutual promises:以双方相互承诺为对价 consideration: 对价 参考译文: 鉴于借款人根据本协议规定的条件和款项,已向银行要求向借款人提供一笔本金为 100 万 美元(US$ 1,000,000)的定期贷款; 鉴于银行根据本协议规定的条件和款项,已准备向借款人提供此项定期贷款; 据此,以双方相互承诺为对价,就下述内容达成一致。 例 5: Whereas Party A and Party B, adhering to the principle of equality and mutual benefit and through friendly consultation, agree to jointly invest to establish a new joint venture company in China (hereinafter referred as “Joint Venture”). The Contract hereunder is made and concluded. 注释: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

whereas:鉴于 adhering to the principle of equality and mutual benefit:按照平等互利的原则 through friendly consultation:通过友好协商 joint venture company:合资经营公司 hereinafter referred as:以下称

参考译文: 鉴于甲方与乙方按照平等互利的原则, 经过友好协商, 决定共同投资在中国建立合资经营公 司(以下称“合资企业”) ,为此达成如下合同。 十. whereby 释义: by the agreement; by the following terms and conditions, etc. 凭此协议, 凭此条款等 用法: 常用于合同协议书中,以引出合同当事人应承担的主要合同义务。 语法: 紧接于要修饰词之后。 例 1: For the purposes of these articles, the expressions “Documentary Letter(s) of Credit” and “Standby Letter(s) of Credit” used herein (hereinafter referred to as Credit(s), mean an arrangement or an agreement, whatever named or described, whereby a bank (the issuing bank), acting at the request and on the instructions of a customer (the applicant for the credit), (i) will make payments to or to the order of a third party (the beneficiary), or will pay or accept bills of exchange (drafts) drawn by the beneficiary, or (ii) will authorize another bank to effect such payment, or will pay, accept or negotiate such bill of exchange (drafts), against stipulated documents.

注释: (1) Documentary Letter(s) of Credit” and “Standby Letter(s) of Credit”:“跟单信用证” 和“备用信用证” (2) mean an arrangement or an agreement:意指一项约定 (3) whereby:根据此约定,凭此协议 (4) the issuing bank:开证行 (5) the applicant for the credit:信用证申请人 (6) the order of a third party (the beneficiary):第三方指定人(受益人) (7) accept bills of exchange (drafts):承兑汇票 (8) negotiate such bill of exchange (drafts):议付该汇票 参考译文: 就本条文而言,文中使用的“跟单信用证”和“备用信用证”(以下称“信用证”) ,不论如何命名 或描述,意指一项约定,根据此约定,银行(开证行)依照客户(信用证申请人)的要求和 指示,根据规定的单据, (i)向第三方(受益人)或其指定人进行付款,或支付或承兑受益人开立的汇票,或 (ii)授权另一家银行进行该项付款,或支付承兑或议付该汇票。 例 2: A sales contract refers to a contract whereby the seller transfers the ownership of an object to the buyer and the buyer pays the price for the object. 注释: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

sales contract:买卖合同 whereby:凭此协议 the seller:出卖人 object:标的物,即买卖合同中出售的货物 the buyer:买受人

参考译文: 买卖合同是出卖人转让标的物的所有权于买受人,买受人支付价款的合同。 例 3: A contract for supply and use of electricity refers to a contract whereby the supplier of electricity supplies electricity to the user of electricity, and the user of electricity pays the electric fee. 注释: (1) (2) (3)

whereby:by the Contract for supply and use of electricity 凭此供用电合同 the supplier of electricity:供电人 the user of electricity:用电人

参考译文: 供用电合同是供电人向用电人供电,用电人支付电费的合同。

例 4: A donation contract refers to a contract whereby the donator donates gratis its property to the donee, and the donee expresses the acception of the donation. 注释: (1)donator:赠与人 (2)donee:受赠人 参考译文: 赠与合同是赠与人将自己的财产无偿给予受赠人,受赠人表示接受赠与的合同。 十一. notwithstanding 释义: in spite of (prep.)尽管;nevertheless (adv.)仍然 用法: 法律文件常用词,比 although 正式。 语法: 作介词用时,放在要引导的让步状语前 例 1: Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 91 of these Regulations, when a business establishment in charge of consolidated tax filing fails to compute the taxable income of different business establishments appropriately on a separate basis, the local tax authorities may make reasonable apportionment of the taxable income among these business establishments, under their respective proportion of business income, costs and expenses, assets, the number of staff and workers, or the amount of wages. 注释: (1)Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 91 of these Regulations:虽有本细则第九十 一条的规定 (2)a business establishment in charge of consolidated tax filing:负责合并申报缴纳所 得税的营业机构 (3)fail to compute the taxable income of different business establishments appropriately on a separate basis:不能合理地分别计算各营业机构的应纳税所得额 (4)the local tax authorities may make reasonable apportionment of the taxable income among these business establishments: 当地税务机关可以对应税所得在各营业机构之间合 理分配 (5)under their respective proportion of business income, costs and expenses, assets, the number of staff and workers, or the amount of wages:按照营业收入比例、成本和费用 比例、资产比例、职工人数或者工资数额的比例 参考译文: 虽有本细则第九十一条的规定, 负责合并申报缴纳所得税的营业机构不能合理地分别计算各 营业机构的应纳税所得额时,当地税务机关可以对应税所得总额,按照营业收入比例、成本 和费用比例、资产比例、职工人数或者工资数额的比例,在各营业机构之间合理分配。

例 2: If, notwithstanding Sub-Clause 65.1, any damage occurs to any bridge or road communicating with or on the routes to the site due to the transport of materials or plant, the Contractor shall notify the Engineer of the matter in question, with a copy to the Employer, as soon as he becomes aware of such damage or as soon as he receives any claim from the authority entitled to make such claim. 注释: (1) notwithstanding Sub-Clause 65.1:尽管有 65.1 款的规定 (2)any damage occurs to any bridge or road communicating with or on the routes to the site:对通往现场或位于通往现场路线上任何桥梁或道路造成任何损害 (3)due to the transport of materials or plant:因运输材料或设备 (4)the authority entitled to make such claim:有权提出此类索赔的机构 参考译文: 尽管有 65.1 款的规定,但如果发生因运输材料或设备而对通往现场或位于通往现场路线上 任何桥梁或道路造成任何损害时, 承包人在得知此类损害之后, 或者收到有权提出此类索赔 的机构的任何索赔要求之后,应立即通知工程师,并将一份副本呈交给业主。 例 3: The Engineer shall, from time to time, have authority to issue instructions on the following matters that: 1) any works shall, in the opinion of the Engineer, be removed and re-executed, notwithstanding any previous test thereof or interim payment therefor, because the following items fail to meet the requirements and provisions of the Contract: (i) the materials, Plant or workmanship, or (ii) the design by the Contractor or for which he is responsible. 注释: (1)have authority to issue instructions on the following matters:有权对下列事项发出指 示 (2)in the opinion of the Engineer:工程师认为 (3)any works shall be removed and re-executed:任何工程均应拆除并重新施工 (4)notwithstanding any previous test thereof or interim payment therefor:尽管事先已对 其进行过任何检验或临时付款 (5)fail to meet the requirements and provisions of the Contract:不符合合同规定 参考译文:工程师有权随时对下列事项发出指示:1)尽管事先已对其进行过任何检验或临 时付款, 但对工程师认为任何工程因以下各项不符合合同规定的, 均应拆除并重新施工: (1) 材料、工程设备或工艺;或(2)由承包人设计或承包人对其负有责任的设计。 例 4: Notwithstanding any other provision of the Contract, if the Contractor intends to claim any additional payment pursuant to any Clause of these Conditions or other provisions, the

Contractor in question shall, within 28 days after the event giving rise to the claim has first arisen, notify the Engineer of his intention, with a copy to the Employer. 注释: (1)notwithstanding any other provision of the Contract:尽管本合同有其它规定 (2)intend to claim any additional payment:打算索取任何追加付款 (3)within 28 days after the event giving rise to the claim has first arisen:在引起索赔的 事件第一次发生后 28 天内 (4)notify the Engineer of his intention:将其索赔意向通知工程师 参考译文: 尽管本合同有其它规定, 如果承包人根据本合同的任何条款或其他有关规定打算索取任何追 加付款的话,他都应在引起索赔的事件第一次发生后 28 天内,将其索赔意向通知工程师, 并将一份副本呈交业主。 例 5: The Works shall be measured net, notwithstanding any general or local custom, except where otherwise provided for in the contract. 注释: (1)the Works shall be measured net:工程计量应该计量净值 (2)notwithstanding any general or local custom:无论通常的和当地的习惯如何 any general or local custom:通常的和当地的习惯 参考译文: 无论通常的和当地的习惯如何,工程计量应该计量净值,但合同另有规定的除外。 例 6: Notwithstanding the provisions of this Clause or any other Clause of the Contract, no payment certificates shall be issued by the Engineer until the performance security is submitted by the Contractor under the Contract and approved by the Employer. 注释: (1)notwithstanding the provisions of this Clause or any other Clause of the Contract: 尽管有本条款或任何其它合同条款的规定 (2)payment certificate:支付款证书 (3)the performance security:履约保证 参考译文: 尽管有本条款或任何其它合同条款的规定, 在承包人提交履约保证并经业主批准之前, 工程 师不对任何支付款额开具证书。 例 7: Notwithstanding the issue of the Defects Liability Certificate, the Contractor and the

Employer shall remain liable for the fulfillment of any outstanding obligation incurred under the provisions of the Contract when the Defects Liability Certificate is issued. To determine the nature and extent of the obligations in question, the Contract shall be deemed to remain in force and be binding upon the parties thereto. 注释: (1)notwithstanding the issue of the Defects Liability Certificate:尽管颁发了缺陷责任证 书 the defects liability certificate:缺陷责任证书 (2)any outstanding obligation:尚未履行的义务 (3)to determine the nature and extent of the obligations in question:为了确定任何此类 义务的性质和范围 参考译文: 尽管颁发了缺陷责任证书, 但承包人和业主仍应对在缺陷责任证书颁发时尚未履行的义务承 担责任。为了确定任何此类义务的性质和范围,合同应被认为对合同双方仍然有效。 例 8: Notwithstanding IB 6.2, the Owner reserves the right to accept or reject any Bid, and to annul the bidding process and to reject all Bids, at any time prior to the award of the Contract, without thereby incurring any liability to the affected Bidder or Bidders or any obligation to inform the affected Bidder or Bidders of grounds for its action. 注释: (1)notwithstanding IB 6.2:尽管有 IB6.2 款的规定 IB:Instructions to Bidders 投标者 须知。注:IB 不能译成“对投标者的指示”,因为在投标阶段,业主与投标人之间没有合同关 系,即上下级关系。合同成立后,投标人成为承包人,那么可以就“对承包人的指示”,这里 只能译成“投标者须知”。 (2)Bid:投标(书) (3)to annul:put an end to 废除,废止 (4)award of Contract:授予合同 (5)thereby:by that means;by doing or saying that 由此,因此,是以 (6)affected Bidder:受影响的投标人 (7)grounds for its action:行为的根据(或原因) 参考译文: 尽管有 IB6.2 款的规定,业主在授予合同前,有保留授受或拒绝任何投标、废除投标程序、 拒绝所有投标的权利, 而且不承担由此而对投标人造成的不利条件的责任, 同是也不承担通 知受影响的投标人有关业主作出这一决定的原因的义务。 十二. shall 释义: 应该,必须 用法: 在合同等法律文件中, 表示强制性承担法律或合同义务。 有时可用 will, 但力度比 shall 弱。这时决不能用“must”或“should”。should 在法律文件里往往用作“if”,只表示“如果”之意。

例1 The board meeting shall be called and presided over by the Chairman. Should the Chairman be absent, the vice-Chairman shall, in principle, call and preside over the board meeting. 注释: (1)The board meeting shall be called and presided over by the Chairman.:董事会会议 应由董事长召集并主持 the board meeting:董事会会议 preside over:主持 (2)the vice-Chairman:副董事长 参考译文: 董事会会议应由董事长召集并主持;如董事长缺席时,原则上,应由副董事长召集主持。 例2 The Chinese-Foreign Cooperative Joint Ventures Company shall terminate upon the expiration of the joint venture term. 注释: (1)the Chinese-Foreign Cooperative Joint Ventures Company:中外合作经营公司 (2)the expiration of the joint venture term:合作期满时 参考译文: 中外合作经营公司应于合作期满时终止。 例3 The term of the Company shall be 5 years commencing from the date of issuance of the Company’s business license. 注释: (1)the term of the Company:公司的期限 (2)the date of issuance of the Company’s business license:公司营业执照签发之日 参考译文:公司的期限为 5 年,自公司营业执照签发之日计算。 例4 This Contract and the appendices hereto shall come into force from the date of approval by the examination and approval authorities. 注释: (1)the appendices hereto:the appendices to this Contract 本合同附件 (2)shall come into force:应生效 参考译文:本合同及其附件须经审批机构批准,应自批准之日生效。

例5 Any amendment to this Contract or to its appendices shall come into force after the written agreement is concluded and signed by the Parties hereto and approved by the original examination and approval authorities. 注释: (1)any amendment to this Contract or to its appendices:本合同及其附件的任何修改 (2)the original examination and approval authorities:审批机构 参考译文: 本合同及其附件的任何修改, 必须经双方签署书面合同文件, 并报原审批机构批准后才能生 效。 例6 This Company shall be a Chinese legal person. All activities hereof shall be governed and protected by the Laws and relevant rules and regulations of People’s Republic of China. 注释: (1)a Chinese legal person:中国法人 (2)shall be governed and protected by the Laws and relevant rules and regulations of People’s Republic of China:应受中华人民共和国法律和法规的管辖和保护 参考译文: 本公司应为中国法人。公司的一切活动应受中华人民共和国法律和法规的管辖和保护。 例7 The production and business scope of the Company shall be as follows: to manufacture, sell and develop cooperatively produced products and other relevant products. 注释: (1)the production and business scope of the Company:公司的生产及经营范围 (2)to manufacture, sell and develop cooperatively produced products:制造、销售和开 发合作产品 (3)relevant products:相关产品,配套产品 参考译文: 公司的生产及经营范围是制造、销售和开发合作产品及其相关或配套产品。 例8 The first Board meeting shall be convened within one month after the issuance of the Company’s business license. 注释: (1)be convened within one month:一个月内召开

(2)the issuance of the Company’s business license:公司营业执照的签发 参考译文: 第一次董事会应在公司营业执照的签发后一个月内召开。 例9 The date of issuance of the business license of the Company shall be the date of the establishment of the Board of Directors of the Company. 注释: (1)the date of the establishment of the Board of Directors of the Company:公司董事会 成立之日 参考译文: 公司营业执照签发之日应为公司董事会成立之日。 例 10 The documents on the major issues of the Company, including but not limited to, the management plan, the monthly report, quarterly report and annual report, shall be signed jointly by the General Manager and the Deputy General Manager, then the documents shall come into effect. 注释: (1)the documents on the major issues of the Company:公司的重要文件 (2)the management plan:管理计划 (3)the monthly report:月度报告 (4)quarterly report:季度报告 (5)annual report:年度报告 (6)shall be signed jointly by the General Manager and the Deputy General Manager: 应由总经理和副总经理会签 参考译文: 公司的重要文件,包括,但不限于管理计划、月度、季度及年度报告,须经总经理和副总经 理会签方为有效。 十三 unless otherwise 释义: 除非 用法: 比“if not”和“otherwise”表达正式,由两个同义词“unless”和“otherwise”组成。 语法: 一般后面紧跟动词, 表示“除非另……”, 比如表示“除非合同另有规定”, 可以说“unless otherwise specified in the Contract”;又如表示“除非信用证另有规定”,可以说“unless otherwise specified in the Letter of Credit”。 例1

These articles shall apply to all documentary credits, including standby letters of credit, to the extent to which the credits in question shall be applicable, and shall be binding on the Parties to the Contract, unless otherwise expressly agreed by the Parties thereto. 注释: (1)these articles:本条文 (2)apply to:适用 (3)the extent to which the credits in question shall be applicable:其适用范围内(指该 信用证适用范围内) (4)shall be binding on the Parties to the Contract:对合同各有关方面均具有约束力 参考译文: 本条文适用于一切跟单信用证,并包括在其适用范围内的备用信用证,除非另有约定,对合 同各有关方面均具有约束力。 例2 Unless otherwise specified in the credit, banks will accept a document bearing a date of issuance prior to that of the credit, subject to such document being presented within the time limits specified in the credit and in these articles. 注释: (1)unless otherwise specified in the credit:除非信用证另有规定 (2)a document bearing a date of issuance prior to that of the credit:出单日期早于信用 证开证日期的单据 (3)within the time limits specified in the credit and in these articles:在信用证和本条文 规定的时限之内 参考译文: 除非信用证另有规定, 银行将授受出单日期早于信用证开证日期的单据, 但该单据须在信用 证和本条文规定的时限之内提交。 例3 Unless otherwise specified in the credit, banks will reject a transport document issued by a forwarding agent. Provided that unless such transport document is the FIATA combined Transport Bill of Lading approved by the International Chamber of Commerce or otherwise the transport document indicates that it is issued by a forwarding agent acting as a carrier or an agent of a named carrier. 注释: (1)unless otherwise:除非……(另有规定) (2)transport document:运输单据 (3)forwarding agent:运输行 (4)the FIATA:国际运输商协会联合会 (5)combined Transport Bill of Lading:联合运输提单

(6)the International Chamber of Commerce:国际商会 (7)carrier:承运人 参考译文: 除非信用证另有规定,银行将拒受运输行出具的运输单据,但是有“国际运输商协会联合会” 的联合运输提单或注明运输行作为承运人或某承运人的代理人出具的运输单据除外。 例4 In the case of carriage by sea or by more than one mode of transport including carriage by sea, banks will refuse a transport document stating that the goods are or will be loaded on deck, unless otherwise specifically specified and authorized in the credit. 注释: (1)carriage by sea or by more than one mode of transport:海运或多种类型运输 (2)be loaded on deck:装舱面 (3)unless otherwise specifically specified and authorized in the credit:除非信用证特别 授权 参考译文: 如属海运或多种类型运输中包括海运, 除非信用证特别授权, 银行将拒受注明货装舱面或要 装舱面的运输单据。 例5 Unless otherwise specified in the credit, banks will accept transport documents indicating the third party other than the beneficiary of the credit as the consignor of the goods. 注释: (1)unless otherwise specified in the credit:除非信用证另有规定 (2)the third party other than the beneficiary of the credit:信用证受益人以外的第三者 (3)the consignor of the goods:发货人 参考译文: 除非信用证另有规定,银行将授受表明以信用证受益人以外的第三者作为发货人的运输单 据。 例6 Unless otherwise specified in the credit, commercial invoices shall be made out in the name of the applicant for the credit. Unless otherwise specified in the credit, banks may refuse commercial invoices issued with amounts exceeding that specified and permitted by the credit. 注释: (1)commercial invoice:商业发票 (2)in the name of the applicant for the credit:信用申请人为抬头

(3)may refuse commercial invoices issued with amounts exceeding that specified and permitted by the credit:可拒受其金额超过信用证允许金额的商业发票;that specified and permitted by the credit:the amount specified and permitted by the credit 信用证允许金额 参考译文: 除非信用证另有规定,商业发票必须做到以信用证申请人为抬头。 除非信用证另有规定,银行可拒收其金额超过信用证允许金额的商业发票。 例7 Wherever, in the provisions of this Contract, any such notice, consent, approval, certificate or determination as are made and issued by any person are mentioned, unless otherwise specified in this Contract, such notice, consent, approval, certificate or determination shall be in writing, and the words “notify”, “certify” or “determine” shall be construed accordingly. Provided that any such consent, approval, certificate or determination shall not unreasonably be withheld or delayed. 注释: (1)in the provisions of this Contract:本合同条款中 (2)notice, consent, approval, certificate or determination:通知、同意、批准、证明或决 定 (3)shall be construed accordingly:据此解释 (4)shall not unreasonably be withheld or delayed:都不应被无故扣压或拖延 参考译文: 本合同条款中,无论何处提及由任何人发出或颁发的任何通知、同意、批准、证明或决定, 除合同另有说明者外,均指书面的通知、同意、批准、证明或决定,而通知、证明或决定字 样均应据此解释。对于任何此类通知、同意、批准、证明或决定都不应被无故扣压或拖延。 例8 Unless otherwise expressly specified in the Contract, the Engineer shall have no authority to relieve the Contractor of any of his obligations under the Contract. 注释: (1)have no authority to relieve the Contractor of any of his obligations under the Contract:无权解除合同规定的承包人的任何义务 relieve sb. of sth.:解除某人的……(权 利、义务) 参考译文: 除在合同中明确规定外,工程师无权解除合同规定的承包人的任何义务。 例9 Unless otherwise agreed by the Parties to the Contract, all expenses and disbursements, such as cabling, traveling and other expenses incurred in connection with the sale of products, shall be borne by the Agent. Provided that the Agent shall also bear the

expenses for maintaining offices and other expenses for the performance of the obligations of the Salesmen and for the implementation of the instructions given by the Seller. 注释: (1)all expenses and disbursements:所有的费用和支出 (2)cabling, traveling:电讯费,差旅费 (3)provided that:in addition 除此以外(这里表示进一步规定之意) (4)expenses for maintaining offices:维持其办公处的费用 (5)the performance of the obligations of the Salesmen:履行销售人员义务 参考译文: 除另有约定外,所有的费用和支出,如电讯费,差旅费以及其他有关商品销售的费用,都应 由代理商承担。除此以外,代理商还应承担维持其办公处的费用,及其它履行销售人员义务 和执行卖方指示而发生的费用。 例 10 Unless otherwise expressly provided for in this Contract, the Agent shall have no obligations to account to any Bank for any amount received in respect of any loan maintained by the Agent or any of its affiliates or for the profits related to the loan. The Agent and its affiliates may make loans to, accept deposits from, and generally engage in any kind of business with, the Borrower as though the Agent in question were not as an Agent. 注释: (1)unless otherwise expressly provided for in this Contract:除本合同另有明确规定外 (2)generally engage in any kind of business with, the Borrower as though the Agent in question were not as an Agent:并一般地与借款人进行各种经营活动,如同不是代理行一 样 参考译文: 除本合同另有明确规定外, 代理行没有义务向任何银行说明由于它或它的附属机构贷款而收 到的金额或其利润。代理行及其附属机构可以向借款人贷款,接受借款人存款,并一般地与 借款人进行各种经营活动,如同不是代理行一样。 十四 in accordance with; under; pursuant to 释义: 根据,按照 用法: 法律文件常用语,比 according to 正式 例1 On the FOB basis, the Buyer shall book shipping space in accordance with the date of shipment specified in the Contract.

注释: (1)FOB = Free on board:船上交货。按照 1999 年 9 月国际商会公布的《2000 年国际 贸易术语解释通则》 的规定, 采用该术语, 卖方将货物在合同指定的装运港装到买方的船上, 即完成交货。 卖方承担货物越过船舷以前的风险和费用。 买方则承担其后的一切风险和费用。 采用这个术语,在 FOB 后面要注明装运港名称,如 FOB Shanghai。 (2)book shipping space:洽定舱位 in accordance with: 根据 (3)the date of shipment:装运日期 参考译文: 按照 FOB 条件,由买方负责根据合同规定的装运日期洽定舱位。 例2 Foreign trade dealers shall, in accordance with laws, enjoy full autonomy in their business operation and be responsible for their own profits and losses. 注释: (1)foreign trade dealers:对外贸易经营者 (2)full autonomy in their business operation:自主经营 (3)be responsible for their own profits and losses:自负盈亏 参考译文: 对外贸易经营者依法自主经营、自负盈亏。 例3 The staff and workers of a company may, in accordance with laws, organize a trade union to carry out union activities and protect the lawful rights and interests of the staff and workers. The company shall provide the necessary conditions for activities of the trade union of the company. 注释: (1)the staff and workers of a company:公司职工 (2)organize a trade union to carry out union activities:组织工会,开展工会活动 (3)protect the lawful rights and interests of the staff and workers:维护职工的合法权益 (4)conditions for activities:活动条件 参考译文: 公司职工依法组织工会,开展工会活动,维护职工的合法权益。公司应当为本公司工会提供 必要的活动条件。 例4 If, in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph, a shareholder fails to pay its subscribed Capital Contribution, the shareholder in question shall bear the responsibility of default to the other shareholders who have fully paid their capital

contributions. 注释: (1)subscribed Capital Contribution:所认缴的出资 (2)shall bear the responsibility of default:承担违约责任 (3)the other shareholders who have fully paid their capital contributions:已足额缴纳出 资的股东 参考译文: 股东不按照前款规定缴纳所认缴的出资,应当向已足额缴纳出资的股东承担违约责任。 例5 If, in accordance with laws or administrative regulations, the examination and approval from relevant departments are required, the approval documents shall, when applying to register the establishment of the company, be submitted. 注释: (1)laws or administrative regulations:法律、行政法规 (2)the examination and approval:审批 (3)to register the establishment of the company:设立公司登记 (4)the approval documents shall be submitted:提交批准文件 参考译文: 法律、行政法规规定需要经有关部门审批的,应当在申请设立公司登记时提交批准文件。 例6 A wholly state-owned company shall establish a board of directors. The board shall, in accordance with the provisions of Article 46 and Article 66 of this Law, exercise and perform its duties. The term of office of the board of directors shall be three years. 注释: (1)a wholly state-owned company:国有独资公司 (2)a board of directors:董事会 (3)exercise and perform its duties:行使职权,履行职责 (4)The term of office of the board of directors shall be three years:董事会每届任期为 三年。 参考译文: 国有独资公司设立的董事会,依照本法第四十六条,第六十六条规定履行职责。董事会每届 任期为三年。 例7 When, under the laws and approval from the relevant authorities, a limited liability company is converted into a company limited by shares, the total amount which shares

are converted into shall be equivalent to the amount of the company’s net assets. 注释: (1)a limited liability company is converted into a company limited by shares:有限责任 公司变更为股份有限公司 (2)be equivalent to:相等 (3)the amount of the company’s net assets:公司净资产额 参考译文: 有限责任公司经批准变更为股份有限公司时,折合的股份总额应当相等于公司净资产额。 例8 A company limited by shares shall have a shareholders’ general meeting made up of all shareholders. The shareholders’ general meeting shall be the company’s authoritative organization and shall, in accordance with this Law, exercise its powers. 注释: (1)a company limited by shares:股份有限公司 (2)shareholders’ general meeting:股东大会 (3)the company’s authoritative organization:公司的权力机构 (4)exercise one’s powers:行使职权 参考译文: 股份有限公司由股东组成股东大会。股东大会是公司的权力机构,依照本法行使职权。 例9 The State shall, in accordance with the industrial policies, guide the orientation of foreign investment and encourage the establishment of such enterprises with foreign investment as adopt advanced technology and equipment and as export all or most of their products. 注释: (1)the industrial policies:产业政策 (2)guide the orientation of foreign investment:引导外商投资方向 (3)encourage the establishment of such enterprises:鼓励举办企业 (4)export all or most of their products:出口全部或者大部分产品 参考译文: 国家按照产业政策,引导外商投资方向,鼓励举办采用先进技术、设备、产品全部或者大部 分出口的外商投资企业。 例 10 If any enterprise with foreign investment goes into liquidation, and if the balance of its net assets or the balance of its remaining property after deduction of the enterprise’s undistributed profit, various funds and liquidation expenses, exceeds the enterprise’s

paid-in capital, the excess portion shall be liquidation income on which income tax shall, in accordance with the provisions of this Law, be paid. 注释: (1)go into liquidation:进行清算 (2)net assets:资产净额 (3)remaining property:剩余财产 (4)the enterprise’s undistributed profit:企业未分配利润 (5)the enterprise’s paid-in capital:企业实缴资本 (6)the excess portion:超过部分 参考译文: 外商投资企业进行清算时, 其资产净额或者剩余财产减除企业未分配利润、 各项基金和清算 费用后的余额,超过实缴资本的部分为清算所得,应当依照本法规定缴纳所得税。 十五 in respect of; in respect thereof in respect of 释义: 关于 用法: 法律文件常用语,比 about, concerning, as regards 正式 in respect thereof 释义: 关于(上文已提及的事项) 用法: 例如表示“承包人已在其最终报表中,包括了对此事的索赔”,可以说“the contractor has included a claim in respect thereof in his Final Statement”,这里“in respect thereof”表 示“in respect of the matters”。 语法:以上两个词组一般紧邻要修饰词之后 例1 Bank charges in respect of transfers are payable by the first beneficiary unless otherwise specified by the bank. The transferring bank shall have no obligations to effect the transfer until such charges are paid. 注释: (1)bank charges:银行费用 (2)the first beneficiary:第一受益人 (3)the transferring bank:转拨银行,转让行 (4)shall have no obligations to effect the transfer:无办理转让的义务 (5)until such charges are paid:在该费用付清之前 参考译文: 除非银行另有规定,有关转让的银行费用应由第一受益人支付。在该费用付清之前,转让行 无办理转让的义务。

例2 The notice in question shall state the discrepancies in respect of which the issuing bank refuses the documents and shall also state whether the bank will hold the documents waiting for the disposal of, or it will return them to, the holder of bill of exchange (remitting bank or the beneficiary, as the case may be). 注释: (1)the notice in question:该通知 (2)the discrepancies:不符点,指受益人提示的汇票及货运单据与信用证规定不符合。 (3)the issuing bank:开证行 (4)waiting for the disposal of the holder of bill of exchange:听候交单者(持票人)处理 (5)the beneficiary:受益人 (6)as the case may be:视情况而定 参考译文: 该通知必须说明关于开证行拒受单据的不符点, 并说明单据是否代为保存听候处理或退还交 单者(寄单行或受益人,视情况而定) 。 例3 If the remitting bank draws the attention of the issuing bank to any discrepancies in the documents, or advises the issuing bank that the remitting bank has already made payments, and bears the responsibility for deferred payments, acceptance or negotiation with recourse or under the guarantee in respect of the discrepancies in question, the issuing bank shall not be thereby relieved from any of its obligations under any provisions of this Article. 注释: (1)bear the responsibility for deferred payments:承担迟期付款责任 (2)with recourse or under the guarantee:以保留追索权或根据保函 (3)in respect of the discrepancies in question:关于该不符点 (4)thereby:因此 参考译文: 如寄单行提请开证行注意单据中任何不符点或通知开证行: 关于该不符点, 它已以保留追索 权或根据保函进行了付款,承担迟期付款责任、承兑或议付时,开证行不能因此而解除其根 据本条文的任何义务。 例4 The Engineer shall, after due consultation with the Employer and the Contractor, determine such amount of the costs in respect of the above-mentioned additional Works as shall be added to the Contract Price, and shall notify the Contractor of the matter in question accordingly, with a copy to the Employer.

注释: (1)after due consultation:适当协商后 (2)such amount of the costs in respect of the above-mentioned additional Works:上述 额外工程费用的数额 (3)the Contract Price:合同总价 (4)shall notify the Contractor of the matter in question accordingly:同时通知承包人 (5)with a copy to the Employer:并将一份副本呈交业主 参考译文: 工程师应在与业主和承包人适当协商后, 确定上述额外工程费用的数额, 并加到合同总价中 去,同时通知承包人,并将一份副本呈交业主。 例5 In respect of incomes obtained by enterprises in the form of non-monetary assets or rights and interests, the incomes in question shall be computed or appraised at prevailing market prices. 注释: (1)in respect of incomes obtained by enterprises:企业取得的收入 (2)non-monetary assets or rights and interests:非货币资产或者权益 (3)shall be computed or appraised at prevailing market prices:应当参照当时的市场价 格计算或者估定 参考译文: 企业取得的收入为非货币资产或者权益的, 其收入额应当参照当时的市场价格计算或者估定 例6 In respect of income obtained by enterprises in foreign currencies, when, in accordance with the provisions of Article 15 of the Tax Law, the payment of income tax in quarterly installments is made, the taxable income shall be computed by converting the income into Renminbi at the exchange rate quotation of the State Administration of Exchange Control on the last day of the quarter. When, at the end of the year, the final settlement is made, no re-computation and re-conversion shall be made in respect of income in foreign currencies for which tax has already been paid on a quarterly basis. Provided that if the portion of the foreign currency income of the entire year has not been taxed, the taxable income in question shall be computed and converted into Renminbi at the exchange rate quotation on the last day of the tax year. 注释: (1)the payment of income tax:缴所得税 (2)in quarterly installments:分季度付款 (3)the taxable income:应纳税所得额 (4)shall be computed by converting the income into Renminbi at the exchange rate quotation of the State Administration of Exchange Control on the last day of the quarter:

应当按照季度最后一日的外汇牌价折合成人民币计算应纳税所得额 (5)the final settlement:年终汇算 (6)no re-computation and re-conversion shall be made:不再重新折合计算 参考译文: 企业所得为外国货币的, 在依照税法第十五条规定分季缴纳所得税时, 应当按照季度最后一 日的外汇牌价折合成人民币计算应纳税所得额。 年终汇算清缴时, 对已按季度预缴税款的外 国货币所得,不再重新折合计算。对全年未纳税的外国货币所得部分,按照年度最后一日的 外汇牌价,折合成人民币计算应纳税所得额。 例7 Where there are reasonable interest payments incurred from loans in connection with production and business operation, the enterprises shall submit the proof documents in respect of the loans and interest payments. The interest payments in question shall, after the examination and verification and approval by the local tax authorities, be permitted to be itemized. 注释: (1)reasonable interest payments incurred from loans:合理的借款利息 (2)in connection with production and business operation:与生产、经营有关的 (3)the proof documents:证明文件 (4)after the examination and verification and approval by the local tax authorities:经当 地税务机关审核同意后 (5)shall be permitted to be itemized:准予列支,指详细列明 参考译文: 企业发生与生产、经营有关的合理的借款利息,应当提供借款付息的证明文件。经当地税务 机关审核同意后,准予列支。 例8 In respect of the computation of depreciation of fixed assets, the salvage value shall first be estimated and deducted from the original cost of the assets. The salvage value shall not be less than 10% of the original value. Provided that if any retaining a lower salvage value or no salvage value is requested, the matter in question shall be approved by the local tax authorities. 注释: (1)the computation of depreciation of fixed assets:固定资产的折旧计算 (2)the salvage value:残值 (3)the original cost of the assets:固定资产原价 (4)if any retaining a lower salvage value or no salvage value is requested:需要少留或 者不留残值的 参考译文:

对于固定资产的折旧计算,应当估价残值,从固定资产原价中减除。残值应当不低于原价的 百分之十;需要少留或者不留残值的,须经当地税务机关批准。 例9 The minimum useful life in respect of the depreciation of fixed assets shall be as follows: (1)20 years for houses and buildings, and (2)10 years for railway rolling stock, boats and ships, machinery and other production equipment. 注释: (1)the minimum useful life:最短使用年限 (2)in respect of the depreciation of fixed assets:关于固定资产折旧 (3)railway rolling stock:铁路的全部车辆 参考译文: 固定资产折旧的最短使用年限如下: (一)房屋、建筑物,为二十年; (二)火车、轮船、机器、机械和其他生产设备,为十年。 十六 in the event that; in the event of 释义: 如果,如果……发生 用法: 法律用语,比 when 正式,in the event that 后接从句,in the event of 后接名词性短 语。 例1 In the event that either party hereto fails to comply with the terms or conditions of this Agreement, and, within 90 days after the written notice is issued by the other Party hereto, fails to remedy such failure, the Party giving notice may, forthwith, notify the other Party of the matter in question and terminate this Agreement. 注释: (1)in the event that either party hereto fails to comply with the terms or conditions of this Agreement:如任何一方未能履行本协议规定的条款或条件 (2)within 90 days after the written notice is issued by the other Party hereto, fails to remedy such failure:在收到另一方书面通知之后 90 天内,未对其不履行进行补救 (3)the Party giving notice:发出通知的一方 (4)terminate this Agreement:终止本协议 参考译文: 如任何一方未能履行本协议规定的条款或条件,并在收到另一方书面通知之后 90 天内,未 对其不履行进行补救,发出通知的一方可立即通知另一方终止本协议。 例2

Either Party hereto may terminate this Agreement in the event of the bankruptcy or insolvency of the other party. 注释: (1)either Party hereto:本协议任何一方 (2)in the event of the bankruptcy or insolvency of the other party:在对方破产或资不抵 债的情况下 参考译文: 本协议任何一方可以在对方破产或资不抵债的情况下终止本协议。 例3 A taxpayer shall not prevent a withholding agent from fulfilling its obligations of withholding or collecting tax in accordance with the Law. In the event that the taxpayer prevents a withholding agent from fulfilling its obligations, the withholding agent shall promptly report the case in question to the tax authorities. 注释: (1)taxpayer:纳税人 (2)withholding agent:扣缴义务人 (3)in the event that the taxpayer prevents a withholding agent from fulfilling its obligations:纳税人拒绝扣缴义务人员履行代扣、代收税款义务 (4)tax authorities:税务机关 参考译文: 扣缴义务人员依法履行代扣、代收税款义务时,纳税人不得拒绝。纳税人拒绝的,扣缴义务 人应当及时报告税务机关处理。 例4 The tax authorities shall have the right to assess the amount of tax payable by the taxpayer, in the event that the taxpayer has one of the following circumstances that: (1) accounting books are not kept in accordance with this Law; and (2) accounting books are required to be kept under this Law but have not been kept. 注释: (1)tax authorities:税务机关 (2)have the right to assess:有权核定 (3)in the event that the taxpayer has one of the following circumstances that:纳税人有 下列情形之一的 (4)accounting books:账簿 参考译文: 纳税人有下列情形之一的,税务机关有权核定其应纳税额。 (一)依照本法规定可以不设置帐簿的;

(二)依照本法规定应当设置但未设置帐簿的。 例5 In the event that the taxpayer makes the tax payment within the time limit specified in the preceding Paragraph, the tax authorities shall immediately lift the conditions for retaining tax revenue. 注释: (1)in the event that the taxpayer makes the tax payment within the time limit specified in the preceding Paragraph:纳税人在前款规定的限期内缴纳税款的 within the time limit specified in the preceding Paragraph:在前款规定的限期内 (2)lift the conditions for retaining tax revenue:解除税收保全措施 参考译文: 纳税人在前款规定的限期内缴纳税款的,税务机关必须立即解除税收保全措施。 例6 In the event that, within the time limit prescribed by the Tax Law, an enterprise fails to submit the income tax returns and the final accounting statement due to special reasons, an application for extension shall, within the filing time limit, be made by the enterprise to the local tax authorities, and the filing time limit may, after the consent and approval by the local tax authorities, be extended appropriately. 注释: (1)in the event that, within the time limit prescribed by the Tax Law:如果按照税法规定 期限 (2)income tax returns:所得税申报表 returns:申报表 (3)final accounting statement:会计决算报表 (4)due to special reasons:因特殊原因 (5)within the filing time limit:在报送期限内 filing:报送,申报 (6)the consent and approval by the local tax authorities:当地税务机关批准 (7)be extended appropriately:适当延长 参考译文: 企业遇特殊原因, 不能按照税法规定期限报送所得税申报表和会计决算报表的, 应当在报送 期限内提出申请,经当地税务机关批准,可以适当延长。 例7 In the event that any taxpayer or withholding agent fails to accept the examination of the tax authorities in accordance with the relevant provisions, or fails to pay the late-payment penalty within the time limit specified by the tax authorities, the local tax authorities may, under the seriousness of the case, impose a penalty of not more than RMB 5000 yuan. 注释:

(1)In the event that any taxpayer or withholding agent fails to accept the examination of the tax authorities in accordance with the relevant provisions:纳税义务人或者扣缴义务人 未按照规定接受税务机关检查的 accept the examination of the tax authorities:接受税务 机关检查 (2)pay the late-payment penalty:缴纳滞纳金 (3)under the seriousness of the case:根据情节轻重 (4)impose a penalty of not more than RMB 5000 yuan:处以五千元以下的罚款 参考译文: 纳税义务人或者扣缴义务人未按照规定接受税务机关检查的, 或者未按照税务机关规定的期 限缴纳滞纳金的,当地税务机关可以根据情节轻重,处以五千元以下的罚款。 例8 In the event that any enterprise violates the provisions of Article 87, Article 90 Paragraph 2, Article 95, Article 96, Article 97, Article 99, Article 100 and Article 101 of these Regulations, the tax authorities may, in accordance with the seriousness of the case, impose a penalty of not more than RMB 5000 yuan. 注释: (1)in the event that any enterprise violates the provisions of these Regulations: (如果) 违反本细则 (2)tax authorities:税务机关 参考译文: 企业违反本细则第八十七条、第九十条第二款,第九十五条、第九十六条、第九十七条、第 九十九条、第一百条、第一百零一条规定的,税务机关可以根据情节轻重,处以五千元以下 的罚款。 例9 In the event of disagreement between the Parties to the Contract, the Engineer shall, in his opinion, determine such rate or price as is appropriate, and shall notify the Contractor accordingly, with a copy to the Employer. Before the rate or price in question is approved and determined officially, the Engineer shall determine provisional rates or prices which will be included in payment certificates issued by the Engineer in accordance with Clause 92. 注释: (1)in the event of disagreement between the Parties to the Contract: (如果)双方意见 不一致时 (2)shall, in his opinion, determine such rate or price as is appropriate:确定他认为合适 的此类单价或价格 (3)provisional rates or prices:暂行单价或价格 (4)payment certificate:支付证书

参考译文: 当双方意见不一致时,工程师应确定他认为合适的此类单价或价格,并相应地通知承包人, 同时将一份副本呈交业主。 在单价或价格经同意或决定之前, 工程师应确定暂行单价或价格, 以便根据第 92 条按暂付款将其包含在发出的支付证书中。 例 10 In the event that, pursuant to Sub-Clause 88.5, the Employer enters into any agreement on leasing the Contractor’s Equipment, all sums properly paid by the Employer under the provisions of this Agreement and all costs incurred by him (including stamp duties) in the conclusion of this Agreement, shall, under Clause 95, be deemed to be part of the cost of the execution and the completion of the Works and the remedying of any defects therein. 注释: (1)in the event that, pursuant to Sub-Clause 88.5:如果(业主)按第 88.5 款 (2)leasing the Contractor’s Equipment:租用承包人设备 (3)stamp duty:印花税 (4)the conclusion of this Agreement:签订该协议 (5)the execution and the completion of the Works and the remedying of any defects therein:实施和完成工程以及修补其任何缺陷 参考译文: 如果业主按第 88.5 款签订了租用承包人设备的任何协议,业主根据该协议正当支付的所有 款项及所有由于签订该协议所发生的费用(包括印花税) ,均应视为根据第 95 条实施和完 成工程以及修补其任何缺陷的费用的一部分。 十七 provided that 释义: 但规定,规定;但是 用法: 常用于在合同的某一条款中需要作进一步规定时,或在作规定时语气上表示转折时。 在中译英时,要注意该词组的使用。有时从中文上看,尽管没有“但规定”,“进一步规定”的 词语,但英文写作时,应加上“provided that”。参见例 4,在中译英时,尽管中文中没有“但 规定如果”,但根据上下文可看出在同一条款中包含了两个规定,后一句为对前一句的进一 步规定,因此英文应加上“provided that if”。 例1 An irrevocable credit shall be deemed to constitute a definite undertaking of the issuing bank. Provided that if the stipulated documents are presented and are complied with the terms, conditions and provisions of the credit, and if the credit provides for sight payment, the payment shall be made or shall be guaranteed to be made. 注释: (1)an irrevocable credit:不可撤销信用证 (2)shall be deemed to constitute a definite undertaking of the issuing bank:应被认为构 成开证行的确定承诺

(3)provided that if the stipulated documents are presented and are complied with the terms, conditions and provisions of the credit: (但规定, )在提交了规定的单据并符合了信 用证条款时 (4)the credit provides for sight payment:即期付款信用证 (5)the payment shall be made or shall be guaranteed to be made:则进行付款或保证 该款的照付 参考译文: 不可撤销信用证, 应被认为构成开证行的确定承诺。 在提交了规定的单据并符合了信用证条 款时,如系即期付款信用证,则进行付款或保证该款的照付。 例2 When an issuing bank authorizes or requests another bank to confirm its irrevocable credit and the latter has added its confirmation, such confirmation constitutes a definite undertaking of such bank (the confirming bank), in addition to that of the issuing bank. Provided that if the stipulated documents are presented and comply with the terms, conditions and provisions of the credit, and if the credit provides for sight payment, the payment will be made or shall be guaranteed to be made. 注释: (1)issuing bank:开证行 (2)the latter has added its confirmation:后者已照加保兑 (3)the confirming bank:保兑行 (4)provided that if the stipulated documents are presented and comply with the terms, conditions and provisions of the credit: (但规定, )在提交了规定的单据并符合了信用证条 款时 参考译文: 当开证行授权或要求另一银行保兑其不可撤销信用证, 而后者已照加保兑时, 该保兑构成该 银行 (保兑行) 在开证行承诺以外的确定承诺。 在提交了规定的单据并符合了信用证条款时, 如系即期付款信用证,则进行付款或保证该款的照付。 例3 A wholly state-owned company has no shareholders’ meetings. The company’s board of directors shall be authorized by the state-authorized investment institution or the state-authorized department to exercise part of the powers of the shareholders’ meetings, and to decide on the major issues of the company. Provided that if the decisions on merger, division, dissolution of the company, increase or decrease in capital and issue of corporate bonds shall be made and decided, the decisions in question shall be made by the state-authorized investment institution or the state-authorized department. 注释: (1)wholly state-owned company:国有独资公司 (2)has no shareholders’ meetings:不设股东会

(3)company’s board of directors:公司董事会 (4)major issues of the company:公司的重大事项 (5)provided that if the decisions on merger, division, dissolution of the company, increase or decrease in capital and issue of corporate bonds:但关于公司的合并、分立、 解散、增减资本和发行公司债券的决定 (6)the state-authorized investment institution or the state-authorized department:国家 授权投资的机构或者国家授权的部门 参考译文: 国有独资公司不设股东会, 由国家授权投资的机构或者国家授权的部门, 授权公司董事会行 使股东会的部分职权,决定公司的重大事项,但公司的合并、分立、解散、增减资本和发行 公司债券,必须由国家授权投资的机构或者国家授权的部门决定。 例4 The collection of tax or the cessation thereof, the reduction, exemption and refund of tax as well as the payment of tax unpaid shall be implemented in accordance with the law. Provided that if, under the law, the State Council is authorized to formulate and prepare the relevant provisions, the provisions in question shall be implemented and complied with. 注释: (1)the collection of tax or the cessation thereof:税收的开征、停征 (2)the reduction, exemption and refund of tax:减税、免税、退税 (3)the payment of tax unpaid:补税 (4)provided that if, under the law, the State Council is authorized to formulate and prepare the relevant provisions: (但规定如果)法律授权国务院规定的,注:在中译英时, 尽管中文中没有“但规定如果”,但根据上下文可看出在同一条款中包含了两个规定,后一句 为对前一句的进一步规定,因此英文应加上“provided that if”。 参考译文: 税收的开征、停征以及减税、免税、退税、补税,依照法律的规定执行;法律授权国务院规 定的,依照国务院制定的行政法规的规定执行。 例5 The Engineer may exercise such authority as is specified or necessarily implied in the Contract. Provided that if, under the terms and conditions of the appointment by the Employer, the Engineer shall be required to obtain the specific approval of the Employer before exercising any such authority, the details of the requirements in question shall be specified in the Contract. 注释: (1)such authority as is specified or necessarily implied in the Contract:合同中规定的或 者合同中必然隐含的权力 (2)provided that if, under the terms and conditions of the appointment by the Employer: 但是,如果根据业主任命工程师的条件

(3)the Engineer shall be required to obtain the specific approval of the Employer:要求 工程师应得业主的具体批准 参考译文: 工程师可行使合同中规定的或者合同中必然隐含的权力。 但是, 如果根据业主任命工程师的 条件,要求工程师在行使上述权力之前,应得业主的具体批准,则此类要求的细节应在本合 同予以表明。 例6 Instructions given by the Engineer shall be in writing. Provided that if, for any reason, the Engineer considers it necessary to give any such instruction orally, the Contractor shall comply with such instruction. 注释: (1)Instructions given by the Engineer shall be in writing:工程师应以书面发出指示 (2)provided that if, for any reason, the Engineer considers it necessary to give any such instruction orally: (但规定)若工程师认为由于某种原因有必要以口头形式发出任何此类指 示 参考译文: 工程师应以书面发出指示。若工程师认为由于某种原因有必要以口头形式发出任何此类指 示,承包人应遵守该指示。 例7 Provided also that the Employer shall notify the Contractor when a settlement is to be negotiated, the Employer shall consult with the Contractor before such settlement is agreed. 注释: (1)provided also that the Employer shall notify the Contractor:但是,业主应通知承包 人 (2)when a settlement is to be negotiated:何时协商解决办法 (3)consult with the Contractor:与承包人进行协商 参考译文: 但是, 业主应通知承包人何时协商解决办法, 业主应在此类解决办法达成协议之前与承包人 进行协商。 例8 Upon the issue of any Taking-Over Certificate, the Contractor shall clear away and remove from the site all Contractors’s Equipment, surplus materials, rubbish and Temporary Works of every kind, and leave the site and Works clean, to the satisfaction of the engineer. Provided that the Contractor shall be entitled to retain on site such materials, Contractor’s Equipment and Temporary Works as are required for remedying any defects

in the Works until the end of the Defects Liability Period. 注释: (1)upon the issue of any Taking-Over Certificate:颁发任何移交证书时 (2)the Contractor shall clear away and remove from the site all Contractor’s Equipment, surplus materials, rubbish and Temporary Works of every kind:承包人应从现场清除并运 出承包人的全部设备、多余材料、垃圾和各种临时工程 (3)leave the site and Works clean:保持现场和工程清洁整齐 (4)to the satisfaction of the engineer:达到工程师满意 (5)provided that the Contractor shall be entitled to retain on site…:但承包人应有权在 现场保留..... (6)the Defects Liability Period:缺陷责任期 参考译文: 在颁发任何移交证书时,承包人应从现场清除并运出承包人的全部设备、多余材料、垃圾和 各种临时工程,并保持现场和工程清洁整齐,达到工程师满意。但承包人应有权在现场保留 为完成在缺陷责任期内的修补工程中缺陷所需的那些材料, 承包人的设备和临时工程, 直至 缺陷责任期结束。 例9 No such variation shall, in any way, vitiate or invalidate the Contract, and all such variations shall be valued in accordance with Clause 84. Provided that the Engineer shall issue an instruction to vary the Works due to the default or breach of Contract by the Contractor, the additional cost attributable to the default in question shall be borne by the Contractor. 注释: (1)vitiate or invalidate the contract:使合同作废或失效 (2)shall be valued in accordance with Clause 84:应按第 84 条估价 (3)provided that the Engineer shall issue an instruction to vary the Works: (但规定)工 程师有必要发出指示变更工程 (4)due to the default or breach of Contract by the Contractor:由于承包人的违约或毁约 (5)the additional cost attributable to the default in question:任何由此类违约造成的附加 费 参考译文: 上述变更不应以任何方式使合同作废或失效,所有上述变更应按第 84 条估价。由于承包人 的违约或毁约, 工程师有必要发出指示变更工程, 则任何由此类违约造成的附加费用应由承 包人承担。 例 10 The Owner may, at any time, terminate this Contract by giving written notice to the Supplier, without compensation to the Supplier, if the Supplier becomes bankrupt or otherwise insolvent, provided that such termination will not prejudice or affect any right of

action or remedy which has accrued or will accrue thereafter to the Owner. 注释: (1)terminate this Contract:终止本合同 (2)written notice:书面通知 (3)the Supplier:供应人 (4)without compensation to the Supplier:对供应人无任何补偿 (5)bankrupt:破产 (6)or otherwise insolvent:或无清偿能力 insolvent:unable to pay one’s debts,无力偿 还债务 (7)provided that:但规定 (8)prejudice:损害,伤害 (9)thereafter:此后,以后 参考译文: 当供应人破产或无清偿能力时, 业主可在任何时候以书面形式通知供应人终止本合同并对供 应人无任何补偿, 但规定终止合同不应损害或影响业主已采取或将采取的补救措施的任何权 利。 例 11 The administrative authorities for industry and commerce in the people’s governments above the county level shall monitor and investigate acts of unfair competition. Provided that if, in accordance with the provisions of laws and administrative regulations, those acts of unfair competition shall be monitored and investigated by other departments, the provisions in question shall be complied with. 注释: (1)the administrative authorities for industry and commerce:工商行政管理部门 (2)the people’s governments above the county level:县级以上人民政府 (3)monitor and investigate acts of unfair competition:对不正当竞争行为进行监督检查 (4)the provisions of laws and administrative regulations:法律、行政法规的规定 参考译文: 县级以上人民政府工商行政管理部门应对不正当竞争行为进行监督检查; 法律、 行政法规规 定由其他部门监督检查的,依照其规定。 十八 be deemed 释义: 被认为 用法: 法律文件中的正式用语,比“be believed, be considered”正式 例1 In the absence of such indication, the Credit shall be deemed to be revocable.

注释: (1)in the absence of such indication:如无该项表示 (2)the Credit shall be deemed to be revocable:信用证应视作是可撤销的 参考译文: 如无该项表示,信用证应视作是可撤销的。 例2 If an issuing bank states that the credit is to be available “for one month”, “for six months” or the like, and if the issuing bank fails to specify the initial day, the date of issuance of the credit by the issuing bank shall be deemed to be the initial date. Banks shall discourage such practice of indicating the expiry date of the credit. 注释: (1)the credit is to be available “for one month”, “for six months” or the like:信用证有效 期为“一个月”,“六个月”或类似情况 (2)the date of issuance of the credit by the issuing bank shall be deemed to be the initial date:开证行的开证日期将被认为是起算日 (3)Banks shall discourage such practice of indicating the expiry date of the credit.:银 行应劝阻此种表明信用证到期日的做法。 参考译文: 如果开证行规定信用证有效期为“一个月”,“六个月”或类似情况,如未列明自何时起算时, 开证行的开证日期将被认为是起算日。银行应劝阻此种表明信用证到期日的做法。 例3 For the purpose of these articles, the date of issuance of a transport document (s) shall be deemed to be the later date between such date of issuance and such date of the reception stamp as is indicated on the transport document. 注释: (1)for the purpose of these articles:就本条文而言 (2)shall be deemed to be the later date between:将被认为是两者中之较迟者 (3)date of the reception stamp:收到戳记日期 参考译文: 就本条文而言, 运输单据的出单日期将被认为是运输单据上表明的出单日期和收到戳记日期 两者中之较迟者。 例4 The Engineer may, whether before or after the carrying out of his oral instruction, confirm in writing the oral instruction given by the Engineer. In such case, the instruction in question shall be deemed to be an instruction within the meaning of this Sub-Clause.

注释: (1)whether before or after the carrying out of his oral instruction:在其口头指示执行之 前或之后 (2)the instruction in question shall be deemed to be an instruction within the meaning of this Sub-Clause:应认为此类指示是符合本款规定的指示 within the meaning of this Sub-Clause:符合本款规定的指示 参考译文: 工程师可在其口头指示执行之前或之后, 用书面形式对其口头指示加以确认, 在这种情况下, 应认为此类指示是符合本款规定的指示。 例5 If, within 7 days, the Contractor confirms in writing to the Engineer any oral instruction of the Engineer, and such confirmation is not contradicted in writing within 7 days by the Engineer, the oral instruction in question shall be deemed to be an instruction of the Engineer. 注释: (1)the Contractor confirms in writing to the Engineer any oral instruction of the Engineer:承包人用书面形式确认工程师的口头指示 (2)such confirmation is not contradicted in writing within 7 days by the Engineer:工程 师在 7 天之内没有以书面形式对该确认加以否认 (3)the oral instruction in question shall be deemed to be an instruction of the Engineer: 则此项指示应视为是工程师的指示 参考译文: 若承包人在 7 天之内,用书面形式确认工程师的口头指示,并且工程师在 7 天之内没有以 书面形式对该确认加以否认,则此项指示应视为是工程师的指示。 例6 The execution of this Clause shall not be deemed to imply any approval by the Engineer of the materials or other matters for incorporation in the Works nor shall it prevent the rejection of any such materials at any time by the Engineer. 注释: (1)the execution of this Clause:本条款的执行 (2)not be deemed to imply any approval by the Engineer of the materials or other matters for incorporation in the Works:并不意味着工程师对用于工程中的材料或其它事项 的任何批准 (3)it:the execution of this Clause (4)prevent the rejection of any such materials at any time by the Engineer:也不应阻止 工程师在任何时候对任何上述材料的拒绝 参考译文:

本条款的执行并不意味着工程师对用于工程中的材料或其它事项的任何批准, 也不应阻止工 程师在任何时候对任何上述材料的拒绝。 例7 The Contractor shall not be required by the Employer or the Engineer, or be deemed to have any obligation, to employ any nominated Subcontractor. Provided that the Contractor shall have the right and reason to reject the employment of any such nominated Subcontractor who declines to enter into a Subcontract with the Contractor under the following provisions of the Contract. 注释: (1)the Contractor shall not be required by the Employer or the Engineer, or be deemed to have any obligation:业主或工程师不应要求承包人或认为承包人有任何义务 (2)nominated Subcontractor:指定分包人 (3)to reject the employment of any such nominated Subcontractor:反对雇用指定分包 人 (4) declines to enter into a Subcontract with the Contractor under the following provisions of the Contract:拒绝按下述规定与承包人签订分包合同 参考译文: 业主或工程师不应要求承包人或认为承包人有任何义务去雇用指定分包人。 承包人有理由反 对雇用任何拒绝按下述规定与承包人签订分包合同的指定分包人。 例8 The relationship between the Agent and each Bank is that of the agent and the principal only. Provided that the relationship in question shall not be deemed to constitute the Agent a trustee for any Bank or impose on the Agent any obligations other than the obligations specified in the provisions of this Contract. 注释: (1)the agent and the principal:代理人和本人 (2)to constitute the Agent a trustee for any Bank:将代理行视为任何银行的信托受托人 参考译文: 代理行和各行之间的关系仅为代理人和本人的关系, 该种关系并非将代理行视为任何银行的 信托受托人,或对代理人附加本合同明示条款规定以外的任何义务。 例9 The headings and marginal notes in these Conditions shall not be deemed part thereof or be taken into consideration in the interpretation or construction thereof or of the Contract. 注释: (1)the headings and marginal notes:标题和旁注 (2)shall not be deemed part thereof: (thereof:part of the Conditions)不应视为合同条

件的一部分 (3)the interpretation or construction thereof = the interpretation or construction of these conditions:合同条件的解释或含义 construction:meaning, sense 参考译文: 本合同条件中的标题和旁注不应视为合同条件的一部分, 对合同条件或合同本身进行解释或 理解时,也不应考虑这些标题和旁注。 例 10 Destruction, damage, injury or loss of life caused by the explosion or impact, whenever and wherever occurring, of any mine, bomb, shell, grenade, or other projectile, missile, munitions or explosive of war, shall be deemed to be consequences of the said special risks. 注释: (1)shall be deemed to be consequences of the said special risks:应视为上述特殊风险 的后果 consequences of the said special risks:上述特殊风险的后果 参考译文: 不论何时何地发生任何因地雷、炸弹、爆破筒、手榴弹或其它炮弹、导弹、弹药或战争用爆 炸物的爆炸或冲击引起的破坏、损害、人身伤亡,均应视为上述特殊风险的后果。 例 11 Only the Defects Liability Certificate referred to in Clause 62, shall be deemed to constitute approval of the Works. 注释: (1)the Defects Liability Certificate:缺陷责任书 (2)shall be deemed to constitute approval of the Works:视为构成对工程的批准 参考译文: 只有第 62 条规定的缺陷责任书才能视为构成对工程的批准。 十九 in question 释义: under consideration; being talked about, 这, 该 用法: 表示强调,常常表示“在考虑中的或在议论中的”某一事或某个问题,比如表示“该事 项”,可说“the matters in question”。 例1 Party A agrees to acquire from Party B and Party B agrees to transfer to Party A the Patented Technology for Contract Products. The Patented Technology in question shall be the same technology as the technology of Party B’s latest products.

注释: (1)the Patented Technology:专利技术 (2)Contract Products:合同产品 (3)the Patented Technology in question:这种技术 (4)the same…as:和……一样 (5)the technology of latest products:最新产品的技术 参考译文: 甲方同意从乙方获得, 乙方同意向甲方转让合同产品的专利技术。 这种技术应与乙方最新产 品的技术完全一致。 例2 The arbitration shall be take place in Stockholm, Sweden, and shall be conducted by the arbitration tribunal of the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce in accordance with the statutes of the tribunal in question. 注释: (1)arbitration:仲裁 (2)the arbitration tribunal of the Stockholm Chamber of Commerce:斯德哥尔摩商会仲 裁院 (3)the statutes of the tribunal in question:该院的章程 参考译文: 仲裁将在瑞典斯德哥尔摩进行,由斯德哥尔摩商会仲裁院根据该院的章程进行仲裁。 例3 Where the import and export of goods, articles such as cultural relics, wildlife animals and plants and the products thereof are prohibited or restricted by other laws or administrative regulations, the provisions of the laws and regulations in question shall be observed. 注释: (1)cultural relics:文物 (2)wildlife animals and plants:野生动植物 (3)the products thereof:其产品 (4)laws or administrative regulations:法律、行政法规 (5)the provisions of the laws and regulations in question shall be observed:依照有关 法律、行政法规的规定办理 参考译文: 对于文物、野生动植物及其产品等货物、物品,其它法律、行政法规有禁止进出口或者限制 进出口规定的,依照有关法律、行政法规的规定办理。 例4 Public offers of shares shall, in accordance with the conditions provided for in the

Company Law, be reported to the securities regulatory authorities under the State Council for verification. The issuer shall submit to the authorities in question the application documents specified in the Company Law and the relevant documents specified by the authorities in question. 注释: (1)public offers of shares:公开发行股票 (2)the Company Law: 《公司法》 (3)the securities regulatory authorities under the State Council:国务院证券监督管理机 构 (4)for verification:核准 (5)the authorities in question:the securities regulatory authorities under the State Council,国务院证券监督管理机构 (6)the application documents:申请文件 参考译文: 公开发行股票,必须依照公司法规定的条件,报经国务院证券监督管理机构核准。发行人必 须向国务院证券监督管理机构提交公司法规的申请文件和国务院证券监督管理机构规定的 有关文件。 例5 To underwrite securities, a securities company shall examine the truthfulness, accuracy and completeness of the public offer documents. Provided that if the securities company finds any falsehoods, misleading statements or major omissions in documents in question, it shall not carry out the sales activities. Provided also that if the securities company has already begun to sell such securities, it shall immediately discontinue the sales activities and adopt remedial measures. 注释: (1)to underwrite securities:承销证券 (2)examine the truthfulness, accuracy and completeness of the public offer documents: 对公开发行募集文件的真实性、准确性、完整性进行核查 (3)finds any falsehoods, misleading statements or major omissions in documents in question:发现有关文件含有虚假记载、误导性陈述或者重大遗漏的 (4)the sales activities:销售活动 (5)adopt remedial measures:采取纠正措施 参考译文: 证券公司承销证券,应当对公开发行募集文件的真实性、准确性、完整性进行核查;发现含 有虚假记载、误导性陈述或者重大遗漏的,不得进行销售活动;已经销售,必须立即停止销 售活动,并采取纠正措施。 例6 Professional institutions and individuals that produce documents such as audit reports,

asset appraisal reports and legal opinions for share issuance may not purchase or sell the shares in question during the underwriting period for shares in question and within six months after the expiration thereof. 注释: (1)professional institutions and individuals:专业机构和人员 (2)audit reports:审计报告 (3)asset appraisal reports:资产评估报告 (4)legal opinions:法律意见书 (5)during the underwriting period for shares in question:在该股票承销期内 (6)within six months after the expiration thereof:期满后六个月内 参考译文: 为股票发行出具审计报告、 资产评估报告或者法律意见书等文件的专业机构和人员, 在该股 票承销期内和期满后六个月内,不得买卖该种股票。 例7 After an application for share listing is verified by the securities regulatory authorities under the State Council, the issuer shall submit to the stock exchange the verification document and the relevant documents specified in the preceding paragraph. The stock exchange shall make arrangements for the listing and trading of the shares in question within six months from the date of receiving such documents submitted by the issuer of the shares as is specified in the preceding paragraph. 注释: (1)share listing:股票上市 (2)the verification document:核准文件 (3)make arrangements for the listing and trading of the shares in question:安排该股票 上市交易 (4)within six months from the date of receiving such documents submitted by the issuer of the shares as is specified in the preceding paragraph:自接到该股票发行人提交的前款 规定的文件之日起六个月内 the issuer of the shares:股票发行人 the preceding paragraph:前款 参考译文: 股票上市交易申请经国务院证券监督管理机构核准后, 其发行人应向证券交易所提交核准文 件和前款规定的有关文件。 证券交易所应当自接到该股票发行人提交的前款规定的文件之日起六个月内, 安排该股票上 市交易。 例8 After an application for share listing obtains consent from the stock exchange, the listed company shall, five days prior to the listing, announce the verified documents relating to the said share listing and make documents in question available at designated places for

the public to consult. 注释: (1)the listed company:上市公司 (2)make documents in question available at designated places for the public to consult: 将该文件置备于指定场所供公众查阅 参考译文: 股票上市交易申请经证券交易所同意后, 上市公司应当在上市交易的五日前公告经核准的股 票上市的有关文件,并将该文件置备于指定场所供公众查阅。 例9 In case there is any breach of the provisions under this agreement by either Party during the effective period of this Agreement, the Parties hereto shall first of all try to settle to mutual satisfaction the matter in question as soon as possible. 注释: (1)any breach of the provisions:对协议条款的违反 (2)during the effective period of this Agreement:在本协议有效期间 (3)the Parties hereto:the Parties to this Agreement 本协议的缔约双方 (4)to mutual satisfaction:使双方满意 (5)the matter in question:该问题或有关问题 参考译文: 在本协议有效期间, 任何一方对本协议的条款有违背时, 缔约双方应首先尽可能迅速友好地 解决有关问题,使双方都满意。 二十 in case, in (the) case of 释义: 如果 用法: 该词组含有“一旦,万一”之意,与 if 有些区别。 例1 In case the quality, quantity, weight of the goods are not in conformity with the provisions of the Contract after arrival of the goods at the port of destination, the Buyer may, under survey report issued by an inspection organization agreed by the parties thereto, lodge claim with the Seller, with the exception, however, of those claims for which the insurance company and/or the shipping company shall be responsible. 注释: (1)in case the quality, quantity, weight of the goods are not in conformity with the provisions of the Contract:一旦发现货物质量、数量或重量与合同规定的不符 (2)under survey report issued by an inspection organization agreed by the parties thereto:根据双方同意的检验组织所出具的检验证书

(3)lodge claim with the Seller:向卖方索赔 (4)the shipping company:航运公司 参考译文: 在货物运抵目的港后,一旦发现货物质量、数量或重量与合同规定的不符,买方可以根据双 方同意的检验组织所出具的检验证书,向卖方索赔。但是,应由保险公司或航运公司负责的 损失除外。 例2 In the case of carriage by sea or by more than one mode of transport including carriage by sea, banks will refuse a transport document stating that the goods are or will be loaded on deck, unless specifically authorized in the credit. 注释: (1)in the case of carriage by sea or by more than one mode of transport including carriage by sea:如属海运或多种类型运输中包括海运 carriage by sea:海运 more than one mode of transport:多种类型运输 (2)will be loaded on deck:货装舱面 (3)unless specifically authorized in the credit:除非信用证特别授权 参考译文: 如属海运或多种类型运输中包括海运, 除非信用证特别授权, 银行将拒受注明货装舱面或将 装舱面的运输单据。 例3 For the purpose of these articles, the date of issuance of a transport document (s) will be deemed to be: i) the date of issuance indicated on the transport document in case a transport document evidences carriage by air or, the actual flight date as indicated on the transport document if the credit stipulates that the transport document shall indicate an actual flight date. 注释: (1)for the purpose of these articles:就本条文而言 (2)in case a transport document evidences carriage by air:如系证明为航空运输单据 (3)the actual flight date:实际飞行日期 参考译文: 就本条文而言,运输单据的出单日期将被认为是: i) 如系证明为航空运输单据——运输单据上表明的出单日期,或者,如信用证规定运输单 据必须表明实际飞行日期时,则为运输单据上表明的实际飞行日期。 例4 In case any part (s) or all of the above-mentioned technical information have been made public by Party B or any third Party, Party A shall not be borne for the obligation of keeping

secret the part (s) or all of the technology already published. 注释: (1)in case any part (s) or all of the above-mentioned technical information:如上述部分 或全部技术资料 (2)the obligation of keeping secret:保密义务 参考译文: 如上述部分或全部技术资料由乙方或任何第三方部分或全部公开, 则甲方对已公开的技术不 再承担保密义务。 例5 In case the money to be paid by Party B is not enough to cover the value of the long-term L/C opened by Party A, the margin payments shall be made by Party B with the down payment before the long-term L/C expires, in order to enable Party A to pay the long-term L/C on time. 注释: (1) money to be paid by Party B is not enough to cover the value of the long-term L/C the opened by Party A:乙方支付的货款不能相抵甲方所开的远期信用证之金额 (2)the margin payments:其差额 (3)the down payment:预付款方式 参考译文: 如乙方支付的货款不能相抵甲方所开的远期信用证之金额,其差额部分由乙方用预付款方 式,在甲方所开的远期信用证到期前汇付甲方,以使甲方能按时议付远期信用证。 例6 In case the products fail to meet the standards of Party A, Party A may refuse the delivery. Provided that Party A may accept the delivery of the products at the discount price to be agreed between Party A and Party B on a cause-by-case basis. 注释: (1)fail to meet the standards of Party A:不符合甲方标准的情况 (2)refuse the delivery:拒绝收货 (3)at the discount price:折扣议价 (4)on a cause-by-case basis:视每次具体情况 参考译文: 如果出现产品不符合甲方标准的情况, 甲方可拒绝收货。 但甲方可根据甲乙双方视每次具体 情况的折扣议价予以接受。 例7 All disputes arising from the execution of or in connection with the Contract shall, through

friendly consultations, be settled by the Parties to this Contract. In case, through consultations, the Parties hereto fail to reach the agreement on the disputes, the disputes in question shall be submitted for arbitration. 注释: (1)all disputes arising from the execution of or in connection with the Contract:因执行 本合同所发生的或与本合同有关而发生的一切争议 (2)in case, through consultations:如经协商 (3)shall be submitted for arbitration:则应提交仲裁解决 参考译文: 因执行本合同所发生的或与本合同有关而发生的一切争议, 双方应通过友好协商解决。 如经 协商仍达不成协议时,则应提交仲裁解决。 例8 In case, within a reasonable time, the Contractor fails to carry out such instruction, the Employer shall be entitled to employ and pay other persons to carry out the same. Provided that if, in the opinion of the Engineer, the Contractor is liable to do such work at his own cost under the Contract, all the costs in question consequent thereon or incidental thereto shall, after due consultation with the Employer and the Contractor, be determined by the Engineer, and shall be recoverable from the Contractor by the Employer, and may be deducted by the Employer from any monies due or to become due to the Contractor. The Engineer shall notify the Contractor accordingly, with a copy to the Employer. 注释: (1)in case, within a reasonable time:如在合理的时间内 (2)the same:such instruction (3)in the opinion of the Engineer:工程师认为 (4)all the costs in question consequent thereon or incidental thereto:所有由此造成或 随之产生的费用 (5)may be deducted by the Employer from any monies due or to become due to the Contractor:可由业主从其应付或将支付给承包人的款项中扣除 参考译文: 当承包人未能在合理的时间内执行这些指示, 业主有权雇用他人从事该项工作, 并给付报酬。 如果工程师认为该项工作按合同规定应由承包人自费进行,则在与业主和承包人协商之后, 工程师应确定所有由此造成或随之产生的费用, 此费用应由业主向承包人索取, 并可由业主 从其应付或将支付给承包人的款项中扣除, 工程师应相应地通知承包商, 并将一份副本呈交 业主。 例9 In case no settlement can be reached through consultations, the disputes shall be submitted to the China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission for arbitration in accordance with its rules of procedure.

注释: (1)in case no settlement can be reached through consultations:如果协商不能解决 (2)the China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission:中国国际经济 贸易仲裁委员会 (3)its rules of procedure:该会的仲裁程序 参考译文: 如果协商不能解决, 争执事项则应提交给中国国际经济贸易仲裁委员会, 根据该会的仲裁程 序进行仲裁。 例 10 In case Party B considers it necessary to employ a foreign auditor registered in another country to undertake annual financial verification and examination, Party A shall give its consent. All the expenses thereof shall be borne by Party B. 注释: (1)in case Party B considers it necessary to employ a foreign auditor registered in another country:如果乙方认为需要聘请另一国注册审计师 (2)undertake annual financial verification and examination:审查年度财务 参考译文: 如果乙方认为需要聘请另一国注册审计师对年度财务进行审查, 甲方应予以同意, 其所需的 一切费用应由乙方负担。 廿一 be liable for; be liable to 释义: 对……应负有责任, be responsible in accordance with law 用法: be liable for sth.; be liable to sb. 例1 Should the carrying vessel has arrived at the port of shipment as advised and the Seller fails to have the quantity of the goods ready for loading in time as specified, the Seller shall be liable for any dead freight or demurrage. 注释: (1)the carrying vessel:买方船只,即承运船只 (2)fails to have the quantity of the goods ready for loading in time as specified:不能按 规定的时间备妥货物以待装船 (3)the Seller shall be liable for any dead freight or demurrage:则(由此而产生的)空 舱费及滞期费应由卖方负担 dead freight:空舱费;demurrage:滞期费 参考译文: 如果买方船只按照到达装运港, 而卖方不能按规定的时间备妥货物以待装船, 则由此而产生

的空舱费及滞期费应由卖方负担。 例2 Party A shall not, under this guarantee, be liable for any direct or indirect loss whatsoever arising out of any defect in the parts or components thereof. 注释: (1)under this guarantee:根据本担保 (2)be liable for any direct or indirect loss:承担任何直接或间接损失的赔偿责任 参考译文: 根据本担保,甲方不应承担因零部件缺陷而引起的任何直接或间接损失的赔偿责任。 例3 A company may invest in other limited liability companies or companies limited by shares and be liable to the companies which it has invested in to the extent of the amount of capital invested in such companies. 注释: (1)invest in other limited liability companies or companies limited by shares:向其他有 限责任公司、股份有限公司投资 (2)to the extent of the amount of capital invested in such companies:以该出资额为限 参考译文: 公司可以向其他有限责任公司、 股份有限公司投资, 并以该出资额为限对所投资公司承担责 任。 例4 If the share prospectus, measures for offer of corporate bonds, financial or accounting report, listing report document, annual report, interim report or ad hoc report announced by an issuer or securities underwriting company contain or contains any falsehood, misleading statement or major omission, thus causing losses to investors in the course of securities trading, the issuer or the company shall be liable for the losses and the responsible director (s), supervisor (s) and /or the manager of the issuer or the company shall be jointly and severally liable for such losses. 注释: (1)share prospectus:招股说明书 (2)measures for offer of corporate bonds:公司债券募集办法 (3)financial or accounting report:财务会计报告 (4)listing report document:上市报告文件 (5)annual report:年度报告 (6)interim report:临时报告,亦称中期报告 (7)ad hoc report:临时报告

(8)an issuer or securities underwriting company:发行人、承销的证券公司 (9)shall be jointly and severally liable for such losses:应当承担各自的连带赔偿责任 参考译文: 发行人、承销的证券公司公告招股说明书、公司债券募集办法、财务会计报告、上市报告文 件、年度报告、中期报告、临时报告,存在虚假记载、误导性陈述或者有重大遗漏,致使投 资者在证券交易中遭受损失的,发行人、随销的证券公司应当承担赔偿责任,发行人、承销 的证券公司负有责任的董事、监事、经理应当承担各自的连带赔偿责任。 例5 After arrival at the destination port of Party A, the machinery shall be assembled by Party A itself. When Party A believes it is necessary to get the technical assistance from Party B, Party B shall send its technicians to provide technical guidance on the site and other required technical assistance during the assembling of key parts of the machinery. Party B shall be liable for the losses incurred in the course of assembling due to the technical default. 注释: (1)the destination port of Party A:甲方口岸(目的港) (2)the machinery shall be assembled by Party A itself:设备由甲方自行安装 (3)the technical assistance from Party B:乙方的技术服务 (4)to provide technical guidance on the site:进行现场指导 (5)during the assembling of key parts of the machinery:在主要设备安装过程中 (6)Party B shall be liable for the losses incurred in the course of assembling due to the technical default:在安装过程中由于技术上的问题所造成的损失由乙方负责 参考译文: 设备到达甲方口岸后,由甲方自行安装。但在主要设备安装过程中,甲方认为需要时,乙方 必须派出技术人员进行现场指导, 提供必要的技术服务; 在此过程中由于技术上的问题所造 成的损失由乙方负责。 例6 If, in accordance with the Contract, Party B fails to make purchase of the products of compensation trade and Party A fails to deliver the products in question, either Party shall, in accordance with the provisions of the Contract, be liable for a breach of Contract, and shall indemnify for all the economic losses. 注释: (1)Party B fails to make purchase of the products of compensation trade:乙方未能按 合同规定购买补偿贸易商品 (2)Party A fails to deliver the products in question:甲方未能按合同提供商品时 (3)be liable for a breach of Contract:承担违约责任 (4)indemnify for all the economic losses:赔偿由此造成的经济损失

参考译文: 如乙方未能按合同规定购买补偿贸易商品或甲方未能按合同提供商品时, 均应按合同条款承 担违约责任,赔偿由此造成的经济损失。 例7 The Contractor shall, under the provisions of Clause 82 on the obligations of the Contractor, be liable for any loss or damage to the Works during the execution and operation of the Works. 注释: (1)under the provisions of Clause 82 on the obligations of the Contractor:按照第 82 条 对承包人责任的规定 (2)any loss or damage to the Works:对工程的任何损失或损坏 (3)during the execution and operation of the Works:在施工及作业过程中 参考译文: 按照第 82 条对承包人责任的规定,承包人亦应对其在施工及作业过程中造成的对工程的任 何损失或损坏承担责任。 例8 Unless such defect, shrinkage or other fault is the one for which the Contractor is liable under the Contract, the Engineer shall, after due consultation with the Employer and the Contractor, determine the amount in respect of the costs of such search incurred by the Contractor. The amount in question shall be added to the Contract Price and the Engineer shall notify the Contractor accordingly, with a copy to the Employer. 注释: (1)such defect, shrinkage or other fault:缺陷、收缩或其它不合格之处 (2)for which the Contractor is liable under the Contract:按合同规定,……属承包商的 责任 (3)after due consultation with the Employer and the Contractor:与业主和承包人充分协 商之后 (4)determine the amount in respect of the costs of such search incurred by the Contractor:确定承包人由于上述调查所支出的费用总额 (5)the amount in question shall be added to the Contract Price:应将其增加到合同总价 中 (6)the Engineer shall notify the Contractor accordingly, with a copy to the Employer:工 程师应相应通知承包人,并将一份副本呈交业主 参考译文: 除非按合同规定,上述缺陷、收缩或其它不合格之处应属承包商的责任,否则工程师应在与 业主和承包人充分协商之后, 确定承包人由于上述调查所支出的费用总额, 并应将其增加到 合同总价中,工程师应相应通知承包人,并将一份副本呈交业主。

例9 If such defect, shrinkage or other fault is the one for which the Contractor is liable, the cost of the Work carried out in searching as aforesaid shall be borne by the Contractor. Provided that, in such case, the Contractor shall, in accordance with the provisions of Clause 82, remedy such defect, shrinkage or other fault at his own cost. 注释: (1)for which the Contractor is liable:……是承包人的责任 (2)remedy such defect, shrinkage or other fault at his own cost:自费修补上述缺陷、收 缩或其它不合格之处 参考译文: 如上述缺陷、 收缩或其它不合格之处是承包人的责任, 则上述有关调查工作的费用应由承包 人承担。在此种情况下,承包人应按第 82 条规定自费修补上述缺陷、收缩或其它不合格之 处。 例 10 The Employer shall not be liable to the Contractor for the matter or thing arising out of or in connection with the Contract or execution of the Works, unless the Contractor has included a claim in respect thereof in his Final Statement and in the statement at completion referred to in Sub-Clause 92.5. 注释: (1)the Employer shall not be liable to the Contractor for…:业主不应对承包人(就……) 负有责任 (2)unless the Contractor has included a claim in respect thereof in his Final Statement and in the statement at completion referred to in Sub-Clause 92.5:除非承包人在其最终报 表中以及在第 92.5 款提及的竣工报表中已经包括索赔事宜 参考译文: 除非承包人在其最终报表中以及在第 92.5 款提及的竣工报表中已经包括索赔事宜,对由合 同及工程实施引起的或与之有关的任何问题和事件,业主不应对承包人负有责任。 廿二 in Testimony Whereof 释义:in Witness Whereof 以此为证,特立此证。 用法:作为正式性的体现,这个短语常常在合同结尾条款中使用,以郑重其事,重申合同的 严肃性、重要性;在句子结构上也起到承启的作用,以引出结语,往往成为合同结束的语言 标志,可译成“特此立(证)据”,“以此立(证)据”等 例1 In Testimony Whereof, this Contract shall come into effect after the Contract in question is made and signed by the Parties hereto in duplicate, and either Party will hold one copy.

注释 (1)In Testimony Whereof:特此立据 (2)in duplicate:一式两份 (3)either Party will hold one copy:双方各执一份。 参考译文: 本合同由双方代表签字后生效,一式两份,双方各执一份。特此立据。 例2 In Testimony Whereof, the Parties hereto have respectively caused this document to be made and executed in duplicate, as of the day and year first written above. 注释: (1)In Testimony Whereof:特此为证 (2)be made and executed:订立 (3)the day and year first written above;上面所订日期 参考译文: 本文件一式两份,由本合同双方分别于上面所订日期订立,特此为证。 例3 In Testimony Whereof, the Parties hereto have caused this Agreement to be duly made and executed and delivered in New York City as of the day and year first written above. 注释: (1)In Testimony Whereof:以资证明 (2)be duly made and executed:正式签署 (3)delivered in New York City:在纽约交付 参考译文: 本合同双方于上面所订日期在纽约正式签署和交付本合同,以资证明。 例4 In Testimony Whereof, the Parties hereto have caused this agreement to be duly made and executed as of the day and year first written above. 注释: (1)In Testimony Whereof:特此为证 (2)the day and year first written above:文首所订日期 参考译文: 双方于协议文首所订日期,正式签署本合同,特此为证。 廿三 Know All Men by these presents; undersigned; Now Therefore

释义: Know All Men by these presents:根据本文件,特此宣布; undersigned:法律文件末尾的签名者,前面加定冠词 the,是指文件签署者的自称; Now Therefore:特此,因此等。 用法:这个短语一般接 whereas 之后,为引出具体协议事项的常用开头词,并与其后的 hereby 连用,可译成“兹”,“特此”。 例1 Know All Men by these presents that we (bank’s name) having our registered office at ______ (hereinafter called “the Bank”) will be bound unto (the Owner’s name) (hereinafter called “the Owner”) in the sum of ________ for payment well and truly to be made to the said Owner, and the Bank will bind itself, its successors and assigns by these presents. 注释: (1)Know All Men by these presents:根据本文件,特此宣布 (2)registered office:注册办公地点 (3)be bound unto:对……有义务 (4)the Owner:业主 (5)well and truly:确实地 (6)assigns:受让人 (7)by these presents:根据本文件 参考译文: 根据本文件,兹宣布,我行(银行名称) ,其注册地点在(注册地名) (以下称银行) ,向(业 主名称) (以下称业主)立约担保支付(金额数)的保证金。本保证书对银行及其继承人和 受让人均具有约束力。 例2 The undersigned Seller and Buyer have agreed to close the following transaction in accordance with the terms and conditions stipulated as follows: 注释: (1)the undersigned Seller and Buyer:签约的买卖双方 (2)to close the following transaction:达成下列交易 参考译文: 兹经签约的买卖双方同意,按下列条款,达成这笔交易。 例3 And Whereas we have agreed to give the Contractor such Bank Guarantee; Now Therefore we hereby affirm that we are the Guarantor and responsible to you, on behalf of the Contractor, up to a total of (amount of guarantee) (in words), such sum being payable in types and proportions of currencies in which the Contract is payable, and we undertake

to pay you, upon your first written demand and without cavil or argument, any sum or sums within the limits of (amount of guarantee) as aforesaid without your needing to prove or to show grounds or reasons for your demand for the sum specified therein. 注释: (1)Now Therefore we hereby affirm:我们特此同意 (2)Guarantor:保证人,担保人 (3)amount of guarantee:保证金 (4)in words:用文字书写金额 (5)types and proportions of currencies:货币的种类和比例 (6)written demand:书面要求 (7)without cavil or argument:不挑剔,不争辩 (8)aforesaid:上述的 (9)grounds or reasons:理由,根据(两词为同义词) 参考译文: 本银行(或金融机构)已同意为承包人出具保证函,我们因此同意作为保证人,并代表承包 人以支付合同价款所规定的货币种类和比例,向你方担保总额为(大写)的保证金。银行在 收到业主第一次书面付款要求后,不挑剔,不争辩地,在上述担保金范围内,即向你方支付 (保证金额) ,你方无须出具证明或陈述提款理由。 例4 Know All Men by these presents that we, the Bank of China having our registered office at Fu Chenmen (hereinafter called the Bank) will be bound unto the Employer, in the Sum of _____for which payment well and truly to be made to the Employer, the Bank binds will bind himself, his successor and assignee by these presents. 注释: (1)Know All Men by these present that:根据合同文件,兹宣布 (2)The bank binds will bind himself, his successor and assigns by these presents:对 银行继承人和受让人均有约束力 参考译文: 根据合同文件,兹宣布,中国银行(注册地点:北京阜成门) (以下简称:“银行”)向业主 立约担保支付金额数的担保证金。本保证书对银行继承人和受让人均有约束力。 例5 Now therefore, the conditions of this obligation are such that, if the contractor will promptly and faithfully perform the said contractor (including any amendments thereto) then this obligation shall be null and void, otherwise it shall remain in full force and effect. 注释: (1)now therefore:为此 (2)faithfully perform the said contractor:忠实地履行上述合同

(3)including any amendments thereto:包括修改书 thereto: to the contract 参考译文: 为此,本担保的义务条件是,如果承包人迅速地,忠实地履行上述合同(包括修改书) ,本 担保书规定的义务无效,否则将生效实施。 廿四 句子中状语的位置 句子结构 国际经济合同文件及其他法律文件中的英文句子具有结构严谨、 句式较长的特点。 为了做到 准确、严密、清楚、易解,这类英文句子的结构有其自己的一定规则,较典型的特点是状语 的位置,主句的状语和从句的状语都有自己一定的位置。只有掌握了这些规则,我们写出的 句子才能符合上述要求,否则,写出的句子很可能不准确、不严密、不清楚、不易解,容易 引发合同双方的争议。 经贸文件及其他法律文件中的句子具有结构严谨、句式较长的特点。为了做到准确、严密、 清楚、易解,句子(简单句)中状语的用法有其自己的一定规则,其位置与基础英语中的频 度副词(如:often, sometimes, always, never, seldom)的位置相同,一般应放在 shall, may 等情态助动词之后,行为动词之前。 如果英语句子为复合句,主句的状语位置与从句的状语位置不同。主句的状语位置应放在 shall 之后,动词之前。 例1 The securities regulatory authorities under the State Council shall, in accordance with law, implement centralized and unified regulation and supervision of the securities market nationwide. The securities regulatory authorities under the State Council may, where necessary, establish agencies that shall perform the regulatory functions as authorized. 注释: (1)the securities regulatory authorities under the State Council:国务院证券监督管理机 构 (2) implement centralized and unified regulation and supervision of the securities market nationwide:对全国证券市场实行集中统一监督管理 (3)establish agencies that shall perform the regulatory functions as authorized:设立派 出机构,按照授权履行监督管理职责 参考译文: 国务院证券监督管理机构依法对全国证券市场实行集中统一监督管理。 国务院证券监督管理 机构根据需要可以设立派出机构,按照授权履行监

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