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名词性从句
复合句包括两个或两个以上的主谓结构,其中一个是主句,另一个是从句(即在整个句 子中作句子的一个成分,不能独立) 。按照从句在句中的功能,可分为名词性从句、定语从 句和状语从句。名词性从句包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。因为这四种 从句在整个句子中所起的作用相当于一个名词, 因此统称为名词性从句。 名词性从句需由连 接词引导,连接词主要有三类:从属连词、连接代词和连接副词。从属连词只起连接作用; 连接代词和连接副词既起连接作用,又在从句中充当某一个成分。另外,名词性从句要用陈 述语序。

考点一、主语从句
常引导主语从句的连接词有从属连词:that,whether/if;连接代词:what, who, whom, which, whose, whatever, whoever, whomever, whichever; 连接副词: when, where, why, how 等。 1.that 引导的主语从句 that 只起连接作用,无词义,在从句中不作成分,一般不能省略。

2. whether/if 引导的主语从句 whether 引导的主语从句既可放在句首也可放在句尾,但 if 引导的主语从句只能放在句 尾,前面需用 it 作形式主语。whether/if 只起连接作用,译成“是否” ,在从句中不作成分。

3. wh-类连接词引导的主语从句 wh-类连接词除起连接作用外,还在从句中作成分。连接代词主要作主语、宾语、表语、 定语等;连接副词在从句中作状语。

4. It + 谓语+ 主语从句 有时主语从句放在句首,句子显得笨重,常把主语从句移到句末,用 it 作形式主语。 常用的句型有以下四种: (1)It+系动词+形容词+that/wh-从句 常用于这种句型的形容词有:good, important, likely, unlikely, possible, clear, necessary, true, wrong, natural, strange。

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(2)It +系动词+名词+that/wh-从句 常用于这种句型的名词有:a fact, a good idea, an honor, a mystery, a question, a pity, a shame, a pleasure, no wonder, common knowledge。

(3)It +系动词+过去分词+that/wh-从句 常用于这种句型的分词有:known, proved, said, reported, decided, suggested, advised, ordered, remembered, thought, considered, well known, hoped, turned out, pointed out。

(4)It+不及物动词+that/wh-从句 常用于这种句型的动词有:appear(似乎;好像), happen, occur,(发生;想起来) seem(看 起来似乎;好像) 。

注意:以上四种句型中前三种在表示建议、要求、命令、愿望、责任、义务时,从句
谓语动词常用“should+动词原形” ,should 可以省略,翻译成“应该” ,如表示的是过去的 动作,要用“should+have+过去分词”形式。如果表示对现在事物的惊奇、遗憾、惋惜时也 常用“should+动词原形” ,should 可以省略,翻译成“竟然;居然” 。

5. 主语从句应注意的几个问题 (1)that 引导的主语从句既可放在句首,也可放在句尾,但在下列情况下 that 从句不 可提前。 ①在 It is said/reported/believed/hoped that…的结构中。

③含主语从句的复合句是疑问句时。

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②在 It+不及物动词+that 的结构中。

(2)下面这种情况常用 it 作形式主语。 在 It doesn’t matter+what/whether/if/how…结构中。

(3)由 what 引导的主语从句谓语动词单复数问题 what 引导的主语从句一般按单数对待,但是,在实际使用中究竟按单数还是按复数对待取 决于其成分的含义。

主语从句分段练习题 1. ____ fashion differs from country to country may reflect the cultural differences from one aspect. A. What B. That C. This D. Which th 2. ____ the 29 Olympic Games were held in Beijing is known. A. / B. Whenever C. What D. That 3. This painting is splendid, but ____ we actually need it is a different matter. A. that B. what C. whether D. how 4. ____ his dream of going to college will come true is uncertain. A. That B. Whether C. If D. Even if 5. ____ was most important to her, she told me, was her family. A. It B. This C. What D. As 6. ____ matters most in learning English is enough practice. A. What B. Why C. Where D. Which 7. ____ wants to stay in a hotel has to pay their own way. A. Anyone B. The one C. Whoever D. Who 8. It is none of your business ____ other people think about you. Believe yourself. A. how B. what C. which D. when 9. ____ seemed obvious to everyone present at the meeting ____ Tom was worried. A. That; that B. It; that C. That; what D. It; what
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10. It is a shame ____ we lost that expensive car. A. that B. when C. as D. if 11. The Foreign Ministry said, “____ our hope that the two sides will work towards peace.” A. This is B. There is C. That is D. It is 12. It is your own fault ____ you are so tired. You oughtn’t to have stayed up so late. A. when B. how C. where D. why 13. It is known ____ one and one makes two is correct. A. that that B. that what C. that why D. that all 14. ____ in the regulations that you should not tell other people the password of your e-mail account. A. What is required B. What requires C. It is required D. It requires 15. It suddenly ____ to me that we can ask our neighbors to help us. A. thought B. considered C. came D. occurred 16. It is a pity that he ____ so careless. A. was B. will be C. should be D. can be 17. It is necessary that he ____ the college entrance examination. A. should attend B. will attend C. must attend D. had to attend 18. ____ has been announced that we shall have our final exam next month. A. As B. It C. What D. That 19. Does ____ remain to be seen ____ it will do us harm or good? A. that; that B. this; whether C. it; whether D. it; that 20. I read about it in some book or other, does it matter ____ it was? A. where B. what C. how D. which 21. What we need ____ good textbooks. A. is B. are C. have D. has 22. What you said ____ the matter we are discussing. A. have something to do at B. has something to do with C. had something to do with D. has been something to do with

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考点二、宾语从句
在句子中起宾语作用的从句称作宾语从句。 引导宾语从句的连接词与引导主语从句的接 接词大体一样,用法也一样,宾语从句可分为四类:动词的宾语从句,介词的宾语从句,非 谓语动词的宾语从句和形容词的宾语从句。 1. 动词的宾语从句 (1)that 引导的宾语从句 ①that 常用来引导宾语从句,在口语和非正式文体中 that 常省去。 Richard hopes (that) the teacher won’t ask him a question. I believe (that) you are telling the truth. ②在 ask, suggest, demand, desire, insist, order, command, propose, recommend, require 等表 示要求、愿望、命令、建议等意义的动词之后,that 从句中常用“ (should)+动词原形”这 种虚拟语气形式来表达。

③当主句谓语动词为 feel, see, believe, expect, imagine, suppose, think 等表示 “认为” 、 “猜 想” 、 “估计”的意思时,其后的宾语从句如果带否定意义,通常应将否定词“not”前置于 主句谓语上。

补充:在一些否定句中,表面上看是否定了一个句子成分,但实际上却否定了另外的成分, 即所谓的“否定的转移”现象。 ④如果宾语从句后跟有补语,常用 it 作形式宾语,而将从句放到补语之后。

⑤在口语和非正式文体中, 引导宾语从句的 that 常省去, 但是如果有两个 that 引导的从 句作宾语,第二个 that 通常不能省略,以免引起歧义。

⑥在由 doubt, doubtful 引导的宾语从句中,如果主句为肯定句,宾语从句的连接词常用 whether 或 if;如果主句为否定句或疑问句,宾语从句的连接词常用 that。

(2)whether/if 引导的宾语从句(直接引语与间接引语的转化) whether/if 引导的宾语从句,虽然是由一般疑问句转化而来,但要用陈述语序。

whether/if 引导动词的宾语从句时,两者一般能互换,但在下列几种情况中,一般多用
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whether。 ①whether 引导的宾语从句置于句首时。如: Whether he is an expert, I don’t mind. ②whether 后紧跟 or not,不能用 if; whether 与 or not 分开,可用 if。如: They doubt whether or not Jack is a good student. I am wondering whether/if it is appropriate or not. ③discuss 后的宾语从句。如: We are now discussing whether we should go swimming. ④后接动词不定式时。如: Can you tell me whether to go or to stay? (3)wh-类连接词引导的宾语从句(直接引语与间接引语的转化) wh-类连接词引导的宾语从句是由特殊疑问句转化而来,但要用陈述语序。

2. 作介词的宾语从句 (1)介词后面可以跟 whether 和 wh-类连接词引导的从句。

(2)that 从句通常不能跟在介词后面作宾语,但可跟在带有形式宾语 it 之后作介词的 真正宾语。这类词有 see to, depend on, rely on, count on 等。

此外, 在介词 in, expect, besides 和 but 之后可以跟 that 从句, 但多被看作固定用法: in that (因为??);expect that (除了??);but that (要不是??)。如: I know nothing about his career except that he is a graduate of Tsinghua University. He would have helped us but that he was short of money at that time. (3) if 和 whether 在引导宾语从句时可以互换。但介词后的宾语从句只能用 whether,不 能用 if。如: It is a question of whether we should go. It depends on whether he will agree with us. 3.作非谓语动词(不定式、动名词、分词)的宾语从句 (1)从句作不定式的宾语。如: It is hard to say how long the operation will last. (2)从句作动名词的宾语。如: On learning (that) Mr. Wang was seriously ill, the doctor went to see him at once. (3)从句作分词的宾语。如: Knowing (that) the patient was very weak, the nurse saw him home. 4.作形容词的宾语从句
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某些表示感情色彩或表示动态的形容词或分词(如:afraid, amazed, annoyed, anxious, aware, certain, confident, conscious, disappointed, doubtful, glad, pleased, sure, surprised 等)作 表语时,后面可跟一个意义上相当于宾语的名词性从句。如: She was afraid that she would lose face. I am not certain whether he will go with us. Our football team feels proud that it has won every match this year. 5. 宾语从句的时态 主句与从句时态一致的问题 ①如果主句是现在时态(包括一般现在时、现在进行时、现在完成时) ,从句的时态可 根据实际情况而定。如: I know he lived in a city four years ago. He says he is going to swim with his friend tomorrow. ②如果主句是过去范畴内的时态(包括一般过去时、过去进行时) ,那么从句中一定要 用过去范畴内的某种时态(包括一般过去时、过去进行时、过去将来时、过去完成时) 。如: He said that he had seen the film. She said that she would come. We discussed whether we should let him off. ③如果宾语从句表示的是客观事实或真理时, 即使主句是过去时, 从句也用一般现在时。 如: My father told me (that) Canada is on the north of America. He said Yao Ming is much taller than him.

宾语从句分段练习题 1. We were warned ____ the journey would be dangerous. A. if B. whether C. how D. that 2. It was several years ____ I finally realized ____ David had lied to me. A. when; that B. that; when C. before; that D. until; why 3. The leaders of the battle ordered ____ all of us ____ the work on time. A. if; finished B. that; finish C. whether; finished D. what; finished 4. The guard of the meeting insisted that everybody ____ the rules. A. obeys B. obey C. will obey D. would obey 5. Mrs. Black doesn’t believe her son is able to design a digital camera, ____? A. is he B. isn’t he C. doesn’t she D. does she 6. The worker consider ____ important ____ the boss would agree to give them a rise.
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A. that; how B. it; whether C. this; if D. it; how 7. Why don’t you bring ____ to his attention that you are too busy to do it? A. what B. it C. this D. that 8. He told me he had got used to the life there and ____ she was making progress. A. what B. / C. that D. if 9. Can you doubt ____ he will win? A. that B. whether C. if D. what 10. We don’t doubt ____ he’ll give us much help. ____ we doubt is ____ he’ll come on time. A. whether; That; when B. that; What; whether C. whether; What; whether D. that; Why; whether 11. Elephants have their own way to tell the shape of an object and ____ it is rough or smooth. A. / B. whether C. how D. what 12. When asked ____ they needed most, the kids said they wanted to feel important and loved. A. what B. why C. whom D. which 13. We cannot figure out ____ quite a number of insects, birds, and animals are dying out. A. that B. as C. why D. when 14. — Would you tell me ____ you want your tea, with sugar or milk? — Sugar, please. A. whether B. when C. what D. how 15. As his best friend, I can make accurate guesses about ____ he will do or think. A. what B. which C. whom D. that 16. Choosing the right dictionary depends on ____ you want to use it for, A. what B. why C. how D. whether 17. Will you see to ____ that my children are taken good care of while I am away? A. them B. yourself C. me D. it 18. Human beings are different from animals ____ they can use language as a tool to communicate. A. in that B. for that C. in which D. for which 19. He spoke proudly of his part in the game, without mentioning ____ his teammates had done. A. what B. which C. why D. while 20. Most of the university students are confident ____ they can get a good job with higher pay. A. whether B. that C. where D. when 21. I think father would like to know ____ I’ve been up to so far, so I decide to send him a quick note. A. which B. why C. what D. how 22. I can’t make sure ____ the key to the lab. A. where Alice had put B. where had Alice put C. where has Alice put D. where Alice has put
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考点三、表语从句
在句中作表语的从句叫表语从句。表语从句位于主句中的联系动词之后,常用的连接 词与主语从句和宾语从句的连接词相同, 用法也一样。 此外, 表语从句还可用 as if/as though, because 来引导。 1. that 和 whether 引导的表语从句 that 和 whether 只起连接作用;在从句中不作成分;that 无词义,一般不省略;whether 翻译成“是否” ,whether 在表语从句中不能换成 if。如:

2. wh-类连接词引导的表语从句 wh-类连接词引导的从句作表语时,它们通常不含有疑问意义,而是分别表现具体的内 容、地点、时间、原因和方式等。如:

例 1 The question he asked was ____ the electrical equipment. A. what B. which C. where D. because 例 2 Action, not talk was ____ she graded her students on. A. that B. how C. what D. which 3. as if/as though,because 引导的表语从句 (1)as if/as though 引导的表语从句可以用陈述语气(从句所表示的内容为事实或可能 成为事实) ,也可用虚拟语气。如:

(2)because 引导表语从句时,主句主语不能用 reason。如果主句主语是 reason,表语 从句连接词用 that。如: — You look tired. — It/This/That may be because I didn’t have a good sleep yesterday evening.

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4. 表语从句中的虚拟语气 如果主句主语是 advice, agreement, command, decision, demand, determination, indication, insistence, order, preference, suggestion, requirement, request, proposal, plan 等时, 表语从句要 用虚拟语气,结构是“(should)+动词原形” 。如

表语从句分段练习题 1. Perhaps ____ most separates the successful people from others is ____ they live on purpose. A. what; that B. that; what C. that; that D. what; what 2. What we are not sure about is ____ he will accept the invitation. A. if B. whether C. that D. which 3. Why not try your luck downtown, Bob? That’s ____ the best jobs are. A. where B. what C. when D. why 4. ____ she couldn’t understand was ____ fewer and fewer students showed interest in her lessons. A. What; why B. That; what C. What; because D. Why; that 5. — I rang you at about ten, but there was no reply. — Oh, it was probably ____ I was watching a play in the theatre. A. what B. why C. when D. that 6. — Are you still thinking about yesterday’s game? — Oh, that’s ____. A. what makes me feel excited B. whatever I feel excited about C. how I feel about it D. when I feel excited 7. Perseverance is a kind of quality and that’s ____ it takes to do anything well. A. that B. what C. which D. why 8. Why doesn’t she buy us a drink? It isn’t ____ she had no money! A. unless B. even if C. as if D. though 9. The reason ____ he didn’t come was ____ he had to take care of his sick mother. A. why; that B. why; which C. which; why D. that; for 10. He didn’t see the film last night. That is ____ he had to help his little sister with her homework. A. why B. because C. that D. how 11. My suggestion is that the sports meeting ____ put off because of the fine weather. A. will not be B. be C. should be D. not be

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考点四、同位语从句
1. 什么是同位语? 一个名词对另一个名词或代词进行修饰、限定或说明,这个名词就是同位语。除了名 词形式,其他形式也可以充当同位语,如:短语、直接引语、句子。 (1)名词作同位语 Mr. Wang, my child’s teacher, will be visiting us on Tuesday. (2)短语作同位语 I, the oldest girl in the family, always had to care for the other children. (3)直接引语作同位语 But now the question comes to his mind, “Had I chosen a right major?” 2. 什么是同位语从句? 在一个句子中有些名词的词义比较抽象,如:belief, doubt, fact, hope, idea, thought 等, 它们往往要求用另一个从句来具体说明这一名词的实际内容或对该名词作进一步解释。 这种 从句称为同位语从句。 3. 可以跟同位语从句搭配的名词通常有: news, idea, fact, promise, question, doubt, thought, hope, message, suggestion, words, possibility, answer, belief, conclusion, evidence, excuse, opinion, problem, remark, saying 4. 英语中引导同位语从句的词通常有连词 that, whether, 连接代词 what, who 以及连接 副词 how, when, where, why 等。 (注意:if, which 不能引导同位语从句) (1)连词 that 引导同位语从句(注意:引导同位语从句的 that 通常不能省略,但在非 正式文体中也可以省去。 )

(2)连词 whether 引导同位语从句(注意:if 不能引导同位语从句)

(3)由连接代词 what, who 引导的同位语从句

(4)由连接副词 when, where, how, why 引导的同位语从句

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例 Do you have any idea ____ is actually going on in the classroom. A. that B. what C. as D. which

5. 同位语从句中的虚拟语气 advice, agreement, command, decision, demand, insistence, order, preference, suggestion, requirement, request, proposal, plan 等名词后的同位语从句要用虚拟语气,结构是 “(should)+动 词原形” 。

同位语从句分段练习题 1. Some researchers believe that there is no doubt ____ a cure for AIDS will be found. A. which B. that C. what D. whether 2. Danby left word with my secretary ____ he would call again in the afternoon. A. who B. that C. as D. which 3. Tomorrow is Tom’s birthday. Have you got any idea ____ the party is to be held? A. what B. which C. that D. where 4. The question came up at the meeting ____ we had enough money for our research. A. that B. what C. which D. whether 5. Along with the letter was his promise ____ he would visit me this coming Christmas. A. which B. that C. what D. whether

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