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裕兴新概念英语第二册笔记 第28课


Lesson 28 No parking 禁止停车 What is Jasper White's problem? Jasper White is one of those rare people who believes in ancient myths. he has just bought a new house in the city, but ever since he moved in, he has had trouble with cars and their owners. When he returns home at night, he always finds that someone has parked a car outside his gate. Because of this, he has not been able to get his own car into his garage even once. Jasper has put up 'No Parking' signs outside his gate, but these have not had any effect. Now he has put an ugly stone head over the gate. It is one of the ugliest faces I have ever seen. I asked him what it was and he told me that it was Medusa, the Gorgon. jasper hopes that she will turn cars and their owners to stone. But none of them has been turned to stone yet! 参考译文 贾斯珀.怀特是少有的相信古代神话的人之一。他刚在城里买下一所新房子,但自从搬进去后,就和汽车及车 主们发生了磨擦。当他夜里回到家时,总是发现有人把车停在他家大门外。为此,他甚至一次也没能把自己的车开 进车库。贾斯珀曾把几块“禁止停车”的牌子挂在大门外边,但没有任何效果。现在他把一个丑陋的石雕头像放在 了大门上边,这是我见过的最丑陋的头像之一。我问他那是什么?他告诉我那是蛇发女怪美杜莎。贾斯珀希望她把 汽车和车主们都变成石头。但到目前为止还没有一个变成石头呢! 【New words and expressions】 (7) 1 rare[re?] a.罕见的 2 ancient ['ein??nt] a.古代的,古老的 3 myth [miθ] n.神话故事 4 trouble ['tr?b?l] n.麻烦 5 effect [i'fekt] n.结果,效果 6 Medusa [mi'dju:z?] n.美杜莎(古希腊神话中3位蛇发女怪之一) 7 Gorgon ['g?:g?n] n.(古希腊神话中的)3位蛇发女怪之一 一.单词讲解: rare 1) adj. 稀有的,罕见的,不寻常的(rarer, rarest) not often happening or seen, unusual eg. He is a rare person. 他是个少见的人。 a rare book 珍本 a rare plant 珍稀植物 a rare butterfly 一只罕见的蝴蝶 a rare visitor 稀客 a rare edition 珍藏本 It is rare + for (sb) + to do sth 某人很少做某事 eg. It is rare for him to be absent. 他很少缺席。 2) adj. (气体等)稀薄的,稀疏的 thin the rare air of the mountains 山里的稀薄空气 3)adj. 半熟的,煮得嫩的

I?d like my steak rare, please. 我要的牛排要三、四分熟。 half-done 半熟 well-done 全熟 rarity ['re?r?ti:] n. [c] 珍品,奇事 [u] 稀有 rareness n. [u] (空气等)稀薄,稀有 rarely adv. 不常(否定含义) not often, seldom I rarely eat in restaurants. I often cook myself. 我很少到饭店里吃。我一般都是自己做。 ancient adj. 古代的,古老的 old adj. 老的,旧的,先前的 an old lady 一个老太太 an old church 一个古老的教堂 an old friend 老朋友 my old job 我以前的工作 senior ['si:nj?] adj. 较年长的,资深的 junior ['d?u:nj?] adj.年少的, 较年幼的;资历较浅的, 地位较低的 senior citizen 老人,退休的人 the senior partner 大股东 aged adj. (正式)年老的,体衰的(人) an aged gentleman 一位老人 ancient adj. (仅物)远古的,古代的 an ancient civilization 古代文明 an ancient history 古代历史 antique [?n'ti:k] adj. (仅物)古旧的,珍贵的 antique furniture 古董家具 an antique coin 古钱币 myth n. 神话 尤指与某一民族早期历史或信仰有关,或解释自然现象的故事。 the Greek myths 希腊神话 the Roman myths 罗马神话 legend ['led??nd] n. 传奇,传说 Legend in the Fall 《秋天的传说》 story n. 故事 / tale novel 小说 folk-tale [?f?ukteil] 民间传说 fable n. 寓言 Aesop?s ['i:s?p] Fables 伊索寓言 mystery ['mist?ri] n. 神秘的事物,谜,秘密 the mysteries of nature 神秘感 an air of mystery 神秘的气氛 mythical ['m?θ?k?l] adj. 神话的,神话式的,虚构的 mythical heroes 神话中的英雄 trouble

1) n. 麻烦 have trouble with sb / sth 与…有摩擦 eg. Yesterday I had some trouble with a traffic policeman. 昨天我和一个交警有点摩擦。 eg. Jasper White had trouble with cars and their owners. 贾斯伯怀特和一些车以及车主有点摩擦。 eg. Thank you for your trouble. 谢谢你费神。 eg. No trouble at all. 哪儿的话,不麻烦。 2) n. 困难,苦恼,苦恼的原因,麻烦的人 eg. What?s the trouble? 怎么了? family troubles 家庭纠纷 political troubles 政治纠纷 eg. Her heart was full of troubles. 她非常苦恼。 have trouble in doing sth 做某事有困难,有麻烦 have some trouble in doing sth 做某事有一定的难度 have great trouble in doing sth 做某事有很大的难度 have a little trouble in doing sth 做某事有一点困难 (原讲课内容为:have little trouble in doing sth 有误,现已改正) have no trouble in doing sth 做某事没有困难 have difficulty in doing sth eg. With my help, you won?t have trouble in driving. 有我帮忙,你开车不会有困难的。 ask for trouble 自讨苦吃 look for trouble be in trouble 有麻烦 make trouble 惹麻烦 The trouble is … 糟糕的是,问题在于…… 3) v. 使某人苦恼,麻烦,烦劳 eg. That student sometimes troubles the teacher with hard questions. 那个学生有时会用一些很难的问题麻烦老师。 eg. She was troubled by the news of her mother?s illness. 她对妈妈生病的事感到很苦恼。 eg. Sorry to trouble you. 不好意思,打扰你了。 trouble about 为某人担心 trouble over eg. Don?t trouble about that. 别为那件事担心。 trouble to do sth 特意做某事 eg. Don?t trouble to see me off at the station. 你不用特意去车站送我了。 troubled adj. 混乱的 eg. Fish in troubled water 趁火打劫,浑水摸鱼 绕口令:Don?t trouble troubles until trouble troubles you. 直到麻烦来惹你之前,不要去惹麻烦。 effect [i'fekt] 1) n. 效果,效应,影响 have effect on sb / sth 对某人/某事产生影响

eg. Did the medicine have any effect on patients? 这药对病人有效果吗? eg. The teacher?s words had a great effect on him. 老师的话对他产生巨大的影响。 2) n. 结果 cause 原因 cause and effect 因果 eg. His stomachache is an effect of overeating. 他胃疼是吃多了的结果。 stomachache [?st?m?k,e?k] 胃痛;腹痛 personal effects 私人财产,随身携带的物品 put sth into effect 使某物产生效果 bring sth into effect in effect 实际上 eg. The vice-president is, in effect, the leader of the company. 实际上,副总裁是公司的领导。 affect [?'fekt] v. 对…影响,发生作用 affect sb 影响某人 affect sth 影响某事 eg. Their opinion will not affect my decision. 他们的观点不会影响我的决定。 eg. The ?No Parking? sign didn?t affect those drivers. 禁止停车的标志并没有影响到那些司机。 eg. The possible gossip of the others couldn?t affect her. 别人的流言蜚语不会影响到她。 eg. Smoking affects health. 吸烟影响健康。 affect v. 假装 affect sickness 假装生病 affect indifference 假装不关心 eg. She affects not to hear me. 她假装没听到我。 Medusa, Gorgon Gorgon 是希腊神话传说中的蛇发女怪,其中之一的 Medusa 原本是一位有着一头美丽头发的美少女,深得天神宙 斯的兄弟海神的宠爱,但却因此遭到海神正妃的嫉妒,被变成一位有着一头蛇发、猪牙般的牙齿、青铜色的手臂以 及可飞行的黄金翅膀的丑陋少女,所有的人只要看她一眼就会吓得立刻变成石头。 古希腊人将 Medusa 的头像绘制在盘子上, 以达到趋吉避凶的效果。 国际著名的意大利时装设计大师范思哲以他自 己的名字命名了他的服装品牌,而他的品牌标志就是 Medusa,代表着致命的吸引力。 二、Key structures 现在完成时 1.现在完成时 have/has+过去分词,表示过去某时的动作对现在存在影响。 仔细阅读下列句子,注意与现在完成时连用的表示时间的词或词组: I have just received a letter from my brother, Tim. 我刚收到我弟弟蒂姆的来信。 just 刚刚 I have not seen Tim since last January. 自从去年一月我就没再见过蒂姆。 since+某一时间点 I have not seen Tim for three years. 我已经三年没有见过蒂姆了。 for+一段时间 Up till now he has won five prizes. 到现在为止他已经赢得五项大奖了。

up till now 到现在为止 I have been to New York three times so far. 迄今为止我已经去过纽约三次了。 so far 到现在为止 Have you seen this film? 你看过这部电影吗? 通常搭配的 adv.及短语有: just; already; ever; never; recently; lately; yet; so far; for six months 2.现在完成时是一个现在时态,所以它可以和包括“现在时刻”在内的时间状语连用。如: now; today; this week; this month; this year The rain has stopped now. 雨终于停了。 now 相当于 at last I have lived here for five years now. 到现在为止我住在这儿已经五年了。 now 相当于 so far Have you seen John today? 今天你见过约翰吗? today 相当于到现在为止 It has rained every day this week. 这星期每天都下雨。 3.have been 与 have gone 含义不同。 I have been to the library. 我去过图书馆。 He has gone to the library. 他去图书馆了。 4.非延续性动词可用于完成时中,但不能加一段时间。但是,在否定句中,非延续性动词可用于现在完成时并加一 段时间。因为“否定”本身是可以延续的。 I have bought a car. 我买了一辆车。 I have had the car for 3 weeks. 我买这辆车已经 3 周了。 I haven?t bought anything for three months. 我已经三个月没有买任何东西了。 I haven?t touched beer for a whole week. 我已经一周没沾过啤酒了。 5.现在完成时有时带有感情色彩。 What have you done ! 你干了些什么! Now you have done! 这下你可闯祸了! 定语从句 一、在主从复合句中,充当主句某一成分(主语,宾语,表语,状语)的定语的主谓结构叫定语从句。 二、定语从句一般是由关系代词(who, that, which, whose, whom)或关系副词(when, where, why)引导 的。 Do you know the man who came to see Xiao Yang this morning? 你认识那个今早来找小杨的人吗? At the time when I saw him, he was well. 我看见他的时候,他很好。 三、定语从句分为限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句。 1. 限定性定语从句修饰的词代表一个或一类特定的人或东西,如果拿掉了定语从句,剩下的部分就会失去意义, 不能成立或意思不清或不能说明问题。 Those who want to go please sign their names here. 那些想去的人请在这里签名。 The letter that I received from him yesterday is very important. 昨天我收到的那封他寄来的信非常重要。 The students who went to see the film were very disappointed. 那些去看了电影的学生非常失望。

2.非限定性定语从句,只对所修饰的词作进一步说明,拿掉之后其他部分仍可成立。 She was very fond of speaking French, which indeed she spoke well. 她非常喜欢说法语,而且她说得非常好。 I have many friends, some of whom are painters. 我有许多朋友,其中一些是画家。 非限定性定语从句通常用逗号隔开。 3.限定性定语从句 1)如果修饰人,一般用关系代词 who 或用 that,作主语时用 who 较多,且不可省略,如果这个关系代词在从句 中作宾语,用宾格 whom 或 that,在口语中可用 who 代替,但在大多数情况下都可以省略。 The people _____ you were talking to were Swedes. (who/that/whom/空)宾语 He is a man _____ you can safely depend on. (who/that/whom/空)宾语 Here is the man _____ you?ve been looking for. (who/that/whom/空)宾语 2)在表示“…的”这个所有关系的时候,可以用它的所有格 whose。 Is there anyone in your class whose family is in the northeast? 你们班有家在东北的人吗? 3)限定性定语从句如果修饰“物”,用关系代词 that 或 which(但在从句中做主语时不可省略)。 The parcel that/which came just now was for Tom. 刚刚到的包裹是给汤姆的。 The train that/which has just left is for Xi?an. 刚开走的火车是去西安的。 当这个代词在从句中做宾语时,大多数情况下可省略,尤其在口语中。 Is there anything you need? 有你需要的东西吗? Anything I can do for you? 我能为你做些什么? 4)在介词后只能用 which。 The tool with which he is working is called a wrench. /the tool that he is working with is called a wrench. 他用来工作的工具叫做扳手。 5)当限定性定语从句修饰一个时间的时候,常用关系副词 when 来引导定语从句,在很多情况下还可以不用或用 that 来表达。 There are moments when I forget all about it. 总有一天我会忘了的。 Come any time that you like. 你喜欢的话随时都可以来。 She made me feel at home the moment I arrived. 我一到她就让我感觉好像到了自己家一样。 6)限定性定语从句在修饰表示地点的名词前,用关系副词 where,在从句中充当状语成分。 I know a place where we can swim. 我知道一个可以游泳的地方。 Is there a shop around where we can get fruit? 附近有没有能买水果的商店? 7)在 reason 后的的定语从句可由 why 来引导,也可常省略。 This is the reason (why) I did it. 这就是我为什么做这件事的原因。 8)在 way 后也可跟定语从句,不需要关系代词或副词。 That?s the way I look at it. 那就是我看它的方式。 That was the way she looked after us. 那就是她照顾我们的方式。 Exercise 1: 用正确的动词填空 1. Up till now we _____ (plant) over 24,000 fruit trees. (have planted) 到目前为出我们己经种了 24000 棵果树了。

2. I ___ just ___ (receive) an invitation to the party. (have, received) 我刚刚收到一份去晚会的邀请。 3. So far we _____ (discuss) the first five chapters. (have discussed) 到现在为止我们已经讨论了前五章。 4. I _____ (not hear) much of him recently. (haven?t heard) 我最近没听到多少关于他的消息。 5. _____ you ever _____ (see) each other before? (Have, seen) 你们两个以前见过面吗? Exercise 2: 在需要的地方填上 who,which,whose,that,when,where 或 why。 1. The only games _____ I play are football and tennis. (that/which) 2. That?s the way _____ I look at it. (that/in which) 3. He is the only student _____ understands English well. (that/who) 4. He is a writer _____ books are seldom read. (whose) 5. This is the hotel at _____ we are staying. (which) 6. This is the hour _____ the place is full of children. (when) 7. Let?s think of a situation _____ this idiom can be used. (where) 8. That?s the horse _____ won the race. (that/which) 9. This is the reason _____ I did it. (why) 10. Is she the girl _____ sells flowers? (that/who) 三、课文讲解 Text Jasper White is one of those rare people who believes in ancient myths. 定语从句修饰 Jasper White believe in 信仰,信奉 She believes in ancient myths. 她相信古代神话。 I believe in God. 我信奉上帝。 I believe in Jesus ['d?i:z?s]. 我信耶稣。 /I believe in Jesus Christ [kraist]. believe 相信 I believe you forever. 我永远相信你。 I don?t believe this story. 我不相信这个故事 One of+ n. 复数 One of my friends 我的一个朋友 He has just bought a new house in the city, but ever since he moved in, he has had trouble with cars and their owners. 现在完成时强调过去的动作对现在的影响。 have trouble with sb/sth 与…产生摩擦 When he returns home at night, he always finds that someone has parked a car outside his gate. Because of this, he has not been able to get his own car into his garage even once. because of +n. / pron. /doing 由于

because+ 从句 Because it was raining, I had to stay at home. /Because of the rain, I had to stay at home. even once 甚至一次(否定句中) Jasper has put up 'No Parking' signs outside his gate, but these have not had any effect. put up 张贴;搭起 put up a notice 张贴通知 put up a tent 搭起帐篷 have not had any effect/have had no effect 没有任何效果(现在完成时) Now he has put an ugly stone head over the gate. It is one of the ugliest faces I have ever seen. This is the best film I have ever seen. 这是我所看过的最好看的电影。 He is the noisiest person I have ever met. 他是我所见过的最吵闹的人。 It is the most expensive car I have ever driven. 这是我所开过的最贵的车。 This is the worst photo I have ever taken. 这是我所拍过的最难看的照片。 What a pretty girl! I have never met such a pretty girl before! 多漂亮的女孩啊!我以前从没见过这么漂亮的女孩 What a good meal! I have never had such a good meal before! 多好吃的一顿饭啊!我从来没吃过这么好吃的饭。 What a silly story! I have never read such a silly story before! 多傻的故事啊!我从来没有听过这么傻的故事。 What bad luck! I have never had such bad luck before! 多糟糕的运气啊!我从来都没有这么坏的运气。 It is one of the ugliest faces I have ever seen. I asked him what it was and he told me that it was Medusa, the Gorgon. I asked him what it was 宾语从句 He told me that 宾语从句 Jasper hopes that she will turn cars and their owners to stone. turn sth into/to sth 把…变成… The witch turned the prince into a fog. 女巫把王子变成了青蛙。 turn to 翻到 Please turn to page 20. turn to sb 向某人求助,依赖 I turned to him for advice. 我向他求助意见。 But none of them has been turned to stone yet! none of 没有 none of 之后的名词前一定要接 the,this,my,your,等修饰限定成分。 None of the students could answer the question. 没有学生能够回答这个问题。

He did none of his task. 他没有完成任务。 接名词复数时,谓语动词通常视为复数来使用,但作较正式的表达时,则视为单数。 None of us have/has ever been abroad. 我们中没有人出过国。 若名词为不可数,谓语动词则视为单数形式来使用。 None of the money was paid to me. 一分钱都没有付给我。 所接名词若为复数形式时,指三者中间没有任何一个。 neither of 指两者中没有一个 none other than 不外是,就是 none the less 然而,尽管如此 四、练习 Exercises 1. There is always a car outside his gate. _____ he can?t get his own car into his garage. A. For this 分析: C. 那就是为什么,表示原因或理由,表示前面提到的事情是原因,而后面是结果: A. 这个搭配是错误的,通常说 for this reason; B. 引导一个原因状语从句,而题干前面是原因后面是结果: D. Because of 也引导一个原因状语,后面加名词或名词短语做宾语。 A. an ugly one 分析: A. B 和 C. 都与前面句子矛盾。D 用比较级表达了最高级的概念。 3._____ of them has been turned to stone. A. no one 分析: B. 最符合语法;A. 独立作主语,后面不跟 of 短语: C. 不符合语法,应该是 none of them; D. 不符合题意。 答案:B 4. Once out of the earth?s gravity, the astronaut is _____ by the problem of weightlessness. A. affected 分析: A. 影响;B. 多用做名词,have an effect on 表示“对??影响”:作动词时,意为“引起,产生” C. 倾斜,弯腰,点头;D. 与…相关。 答案:A 六、补充内容 谚语: 1. A rose by any name would smell as sweet. 人或物不在乎其叫什么,而在于其实质;玫瑰花换一个名字仍然一样香。 2. A stitch in time saves nine. 一出差错就采取行动可省却以后很多工作;小洞不补,大洞吃苦;即时一针省九针。 B. effected C. inclined D. related 一旦脱离了地球的引力,宇航员就会受失重问题的影响。 B. not one C. no D. even one 没有一个人被变成石头。 B. an ugliest one C. the ugliest one 答案:C 2. It is one of the ugliest faces I have ever seen. I?ve never seen _____ . D. an uglier one B. Because C. That?s why D. Because of


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