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理工科学术英语摘要(完整版)


Text1 How do computer hackers “get inside”a computer
Abstract: Computer vulnerabilities are often utilized by hackers or crackers. The security of each computer is challenging. This paper firstly redefines the term “hacker”, “cracker” and “getting inside” the computers and describes the procedure in detail. The term “unauthorized user” (UU) will be a better choice for defining the insider group. The known and unknown vulnerabilities will be taken advantage of by UUs ranging from poor password protection to leaving a computer turned on and physically accessible to visitors in the office. The first step of employing technical exploits will be the determination of the specifications of the target system. There are two ways of attacking including being through capabilities inherent in hypertext transfer protocol (http) and being preprogrammed against specific vulnerabilities and launched without any specific target. The variability of hacking action including the weak system and the strong system warns the users to choose the right way to protect the computer and do not authorize the computer to others easily. Lastly, the solution of avoiding vulnerabilities has been given, including updating patches, making complex passwords, getting information only from the reliable websites or services, updating anti-virus software and backing up the data to protect the computer not being hacked. 摘要: 计算机漏洞经常被黑客破解使用。每台计算机的安全性都在承受挑战。本文 首先重新定义了术语“电脑狂人”、“黑客”和“进入计算机内部”,并详细描 述了该过程。而术语“未授权用户”(UU)能更好的定义“侵入者”。已知和未 知的漏洞会不经意的被人利用, 不管这些漏洞是低安全性密码保护,还是电脑持 续开机,亦或是在办公室与其他访客的直接接触。“未授权用户”利用技术漏洞 的第一步即是确定目标系统的明细规范是什么。有两种攻击方式,一种是针对超 文本传输协议(HTTP)固有的功能,另一种是预先设定好程序对特定易受攻击对 象进行攻击,没有任何具体目标。黑客行动的多变性,警告用户不管是薄弱的还 是强大的系统,都应当选择正确的方式来自我保护,不要轻易将授权给其他人。

最后,文章列出了避免安全漏洞的解决方案,包括更新补丁、使用复杂的密码、 只从可靠的网站或服务中获取信息、及时更新杀毒软件和备份,以保护计算机中 的数据不被黑客攻击。

Text 3

Advantages of Cloud computing

Abstract: Cloud of computing is allowing you to use services that include infrastructure applications ,and storage space for a nominal fee. It should be able to quickly allot and relieve resources whenever required by clients and cater to the needs of clients without having to involve clients into management of the service and have real- time backup to offer maximum up time clients. The type of cloud services includes software as a service ,platform as a service ,infrastructure as a service .The advantages of cloud computing under green computing include reducing the consumption of electricity while also reducing emissions that damage the environment ,saving the environment while also saving on the expenses incurred due to a demand for expansion ,and allowing you to let you employees telecommute. Then ,here is a summary about the advantages of cloud computing: remote accessibility , easy expansion ,security and environmentally friendly. Keys words : advantage 、cloud computing service、 green computing

摘要: 云计算是可以让你使用基础设施和应用程序,并且为象征性的收费提供存储 空间的服务。它可以很快分配和释放资源,无论客户何时请求,能够迎合客户的 需求,而不需要让客户参与服务的管理;而且它有实时的备份,为客户提供最大 的正常运行时间。云服务的类型包括软件即服务模型、平台即服务模型、基础构 架即服务模型。 绿色背景下云计算的好处是降低了电力消耗,同时也降低了有害 环境的排放量;挽救了环境,也节约了由于扩大的需求而带来的费用;允许你的 员工远程上班。然后,得出云计算有以下几项优点:远程利用、很容易扩展、安 全、环境友好。 关键字:优势、云计算、服务、绿色计算

Text5

Can You Compete with A.I. for the

Next Job?
Abstract: With the development of social and technology, Artificial intelligence may replace human jobs in the future. There are a lot of news that reported artificial intelligence has play a important role in our life. For decades. People wrote about how machines replace humans. It will be better or ill. But all expected did not come. Around the time of the Revolution. Most of Americans worked in the farm. They farmed to keep themselves alive. With the development of traffic. Farming increasingly became a cash business. But as the agricultural industry grew, there are fewer and fewer workers who worked at farming and ranching. Today agricultural provides fewer than two million jobs. Because of automation happened. It bring better plows, planting and sowing machines. Agricultural become more and more scientific. The farmers’ children found new kinds of jobs in the city, they do not like stay on the farm. The early water-and-steam-powered factories also displace millions of craftsmen, because machine-handing factory workers made the goods better than the goods made by craftsmen. So that the number of factory jobs growing rapidly at that time. The automation of farming, craft work and manufacturing made products. Among them, food become cheaper and cheaper, so people can save money from food, then spend money on other expensive goods. Will A.I. machines take over the best occupations? The author is optimist and may not agree that machines will replace human jobs. 摘要: 随着社会和科技的发展, 人工智能可能在未来取代人类工作。有很多的新闻 报道,人工智能已经在我们的生活中起重要的作用。几十年来。人们写了如何用 机器代替人工作。这将会带来好处还是坏处,但都没有实现。在美国独立战争时 期。大多数的美国人在农场工作。 他们靠耕种维持自己的生活。随着交通的发展。农业越来越走向市场。但是,随 着农业工厂化的崛起, 越来越少的人在农场牧场工作。今天的农业提供了少于二 百万的工作。由于农业自动化的发展。它带来更好的犁,种植、播种机。农业变 得越来越科学。但是农民们的孩子更愿意在城市找工作,他们不喜欢呆在农场。

早期的水和蒸汽动力工厂也取代成千上万的工匠, 因为机械制造厂工人制造的商 品比手工制作的商品更好。所以工厂的就业率迅速 增加。农业自动化,工艺和制造业生产的商品。其中,食物变得越来越便宜,所 以人们可以从买食物中节省金钱,然后有足够的钱去消费那些昂贵的物品。人工 智能机器将来会不会接管最好的职业?作者是乐观主义者, 可能不会同意机器将 代替人类的工作。

test6: Game theory
Abstract Game theory Game theory is the science of strategy and was pioneered by Princeton m a t h e m a t i c i a n J o h n V o n N e u m a n n . I n t h e e a r l y years the emphasis was on games of pure conflict. Other g a m e s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d i n a c o o p e r a t i v e f o r m . Games are different from decisions made in a neutral environment. The essence of a game is the interdependence of player strategies. There are two d i s t i n ct typesof strategic interdependence:sequential and s i m u l t aneous. The logical circle is squared using a concept of equilibrium developed by the Princeton mathemat cian John Nash. Nash’ s notion of equilibrium remains an incomplete solution to the problem of circular reasoning in simultaneous-move games. Some games have many such equilibrium while others have n o n e . And this notion has some flaws. In spite of it,the concept has proved extremely u s e f u l i n analyzing many strategic interactions. There are some e x a m p l e s o f strategic interaction illustrate some of the fundmentals of game the ry:the prisoners’dilemma,mixing moves and strategic moves. Recent advances in game theory have succeeded in describing and prescribing appropriate strategies in several situations of conflict and cooperation. But the theory is far away from complete,and in many ways the design of successful strategy remains an art. 博弈论是战略的科学性和首创了由普林斯顿数学家约翰冯诺伊曼。在最初几 年的重点是纯冲突的游戏。其他比赛被认为是一种合作形式。游戏不同于在一 个中立的环境中做出的决定。 游戏的本质是玩家策略的相互依存。 有两种不同类 型的战略相互依存的: 顺序和同步。逻辑循环是利用均衡的概念是由普林斯顿数 学家约 翰 纳 什 开 发 的 平 方 。 纳 什 均 衡 的 概 念 对 于 同 时 进 行 的 循 环 论 证 问 题 仍 然 是 一 个不完整的解决方案。有些游戏有很多这样的均衡,而另 一些则没有。 而且这个概念有一些缺陷。 尽管它的概念已被证明在分析许多战略 互动非常有用。 有战略互动的一些例子说明了一些博弈论的基本原理: 囚徒困境, 混合动作和战略举措。在 博 弈 论 的 最 新 进 展 已 经 成 功 地 描 述 和 规 定 适 当 的 策 略 在 冲 突 与 合 作 的 几 种 情 况。但理论是远未完成 的,而且在成功策略很多方面的设计仍然是一门艺术。

Text 8 How Nanotechnology Works
Abstract: At the begin of this article, it states that there are unprecedented multidisciplinary convergence scientists dedicated to the study of a world so small that we can’t see it—even with a light microscope and tells us the important of nanotechnology. Then in order to understand the unusual world of nanotechnology, we need to get an idea of the units of measure involved. The long of one nanometer is so small. When we measure the atomic scale, we can find that it’s still small compare to the nanometer. But in a lecture called “Small Wonders: The World of Nano science”, Nobel Prize winner Dr.Horst Stormer said that the nanoscale is more interesting than the atomic scale because the nanoscale is the first point where we can assemble something—it’s not until we start putting atoms together that we can make anything useful.Then the article states that some predictions of nanotechnology such as the use of the rule of quantum mechanics, nanorobot. It nanotechnology in future. 文章开头说明了不同领域在研究细小事物的科学家都在关注纳米世界—一个连 精致的显微镜都无法观察的世界,从而为后文讲述纳米技术做铺垫。第二段后讲 述了纳米作为长度单位的意义, 说明了纳米是非常细微的刻度,比如原子水平就 是以纳米为单位的。作者还引用了《小小的奇观:纳米科学世界》的讲座中诺贝 尔得主 Horst Starmor 所说,纳米水平比原子水平更有趣,从而使文章过度到纳 米技术的猜想,比如说量子力学、纳米机器人。这都表明了纳米技术在未来具有 极大的研究价值。

Test9:

Global Warming and Its Effects

Abstract:Global warming has been a global issue for many years now. However, the most prominent effect of global warming exists in the climate change over the past years. It causes the oceans warmer, the intensity of hurricanes amplifies in power and devastation. Another area

affected by global warming is the animal kingdom and nature.The number of animals has been decreasing and the various disease has spread to new regions across the globe. A third type of evidence of global warming can be found in plants. The leading cause of global warming is the ongoing burning of fossil fuels, which releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Although carbon dioxide largely harms the environment, the other greenhouse gases have a large impact in the atmosphere. Throughout the world, various nations have been joining to help prevent or slow the process of global warming. The issue of global warming affects nature, people, and the economy. Scientists directly link disease to global warming. When people are trying to get others involved in the cause, a common problem that arises is the lack of motivation. In conclusion, the world needs to put forth a stronger effort to prevent global warming. And the mitigation of global warming, we should do from ourselves, from the little things around. 全球变暖以及它的影响 摘要:现在全球变暖已经成为多年来的全球问题,然而,过去几年来全球变 暖最突出的影响体现在气候变化上,它导致海洋变得更暖、飓 风的强度和力量更强、冰川融化等等。全球变暖影响的另一个领域是动物王 国和自然,它导致动物的数量急剧减少、疾病的传播更加广。全球变暖的第三类 证据可以在植物中找到。 全球变暖的主要原因是不断地燃烧化石燃料,这种燃烧 会向大气中释放二氧化碳。 不仅仅是二氧化碳,其它的温室气体也对大气有很大 影响。在全世界,不同国家一直在努力防止或减缓全球变暖的过程。这个问题影 响到自然、人和经济。科学家们直接把疾病和全球变暖联系起来,当人们努力让 其他人参与到这项事业中,出现的一个共同问题是缺乏动力。总之,世界需要付 出更大的努力以防止全球变暖。减缓全球变暖,我们应该从自己做起,从身边的 小事做起。

Text 11

Risks of Nuclear Power

Abstract: The principal risks associated with nuclear power arise from health effects of radiation.The radiation mainly comes form the radioactive material.They can penetrate deep inside the human body where they can damage biological cells and thereby initiate a cancer. If they strike sex cells, they can cause genetic diseases in progeny.But the rate of the

latter is far less than the former. Reactor accidents is also one of the risk of nuclear power.But the nuclear power plant design strategy for preventing accidents ,back-up system and mitigating their potential effects is “defence in depth”, so they happen probability is exceedingly small. If they all fails,very high radiation doses can destroy body functions and lead to death within 60 days.The radioactive waste products from the nuclear industry must be isolated from contact with people for very long time periods. The bulk of the radioactivity is contained in the spent fuel, which is quite small in volume and therefore easily handled with great care. At other radiation problems , for example, exploitation of materials and transport of radioactive materials also produce radiation.The effects of routine releases of radioactivity from nuclear plants depend somewhat on how the spent fuel is handled. 摘要: 核电的风险主要来自辐射对健康的危害, 这些辐射主要来自于放 射性材料。 他们可以穿透人体深处,破坏生物细胞,从而引发癌症; 如 果他们破坏生殖细胞, 可能导致遗传疾病。但是后者发生的概率远小 于前者。核反应堆事故也是核电 的风险之一,由于具有纵深防御的策 略,它们发生的几率非常小。但是一旦发 生,非常高的辐射剂量可以 摧毁身体功能和在 60 天内导致死亡。核工业的放 射性废物必须与人 隔离很长时间,放射性的大部分包含在乏燃料,而且体积小, 因此非 常容易处理。 在其它辐射问题上,如在核材料的开采和放射性物质的 运 输处理时也会产生辐射。 但放射性物质从核电站释放的对人类健康 的影响在某 种程度上取决于它的处理方式。

Text15 转基因食物“能够养活世界吗”
Genetically modified food caused a fierce debate in the modern society, especially in long agrarian tradition and vocal green lobbies in the country。 In fact, genetically modified food has become very much a part of our lives, the transgenic biological technology can not only improve the total agricultural output increased by 25%, and help the losses prevent the crops after the harvest,but also can improve the nutritional value of the food, to alleviate malnutrition problem in the world, the use of biological technology can also improve farming productivity in places where food shortages are caused by crop damage attribution to pests, drought, poor soil and crop viruses, bacteria or fungi. Although it has so much potential, biological technology can not solve all the problems, biotech cannot overcome the challenge of distributing food in developing countries, many transgenic products may be too expensive not where it is most

needed. Now More and more biotech research is being carried out in developing countries.But to increase the impact of genetic research on the food production of those countries, there is a need for better collaboration between government agencies keywords : Genetically modified food 、 Agricultural 、 Biotechnology developing countries、food、 hunger.
转基因食品在现代社会引起了一场激烈的争论, 特别是在有悠久的农业生产传统和主张环保 的游说集团的国家里。 事实上, 转基因食品已经成为我们生活重要的一部分, 转基因利用生物技术不仅可以提高把 农业总产量提高 25%,帮助防止作物收割后遭受损失,而且可以提高食物的营养价值,缓 解世界的营养不良问题, 利用生物技术还可以帮助提高因虫害、 干旱、 土壤贫瘠和作物病毒、 细菌或真菌导致作物减产而出现食物匮乏的地区的农业生产率。 尽管具有这么多潜力, 生物技术还远远不能解决全部问题, 生物技术也无法克服在发展中国 家分配粮食的难题,许多的转基因产品,通常过于昂贵无法到达最需要的地方, 现在发展中国家正在进行越来越多的生物技术研究。 但是, 为扩大遗传学研究对这些国家的 粮食生产的影响,政府各部门(包括当地政府部门和发达国家的政府部门)与私营生物技术公 司之间需要更好的合作。

Text18

大麻

Marijuana is a drug of controversy in medical history. Whether its ul timate effects are harmful, harmless or beneficial to human functioning remains to be investigate d. [problem] This paper focuses on the study of the physical effects of Marijuana uses. [obje ctive] Based on previous research, the study divided the physical effects of marijuana use int o the short-term effects and long-term ones, according to its frequency, duration and intensity of physical symptoms. [method] The studies indicated that an increase of pulse rate and changes in b lood sugar pressures are two remarkable signs of short-term effects together with the symptoms of nausea, vomiting, headache and so on. It was also found that the chronic use of marijuana may we aken one’s immune system and interfere with DNA production in terms of long-term effects.


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