1. 一般功能词汇 表示逻辑关系 导致，产生 give rise to, lead to, result in, be responsible for 产生于 result from, originate in(from) 归因于 attribute … to, blame..on 事物
数量 几个 a number of, a couple of 很多个 可数 a large (significant) number of, numerous 很多，大量 不可数 a significant deal (amount) of 很多 可数&不可数 plenty of 充足 sufficient, adequate, ample 事物的重要性 重要 essential, vital, key, integral, indispensable 不重要 minor, secondary 普遍的 widespread 事物的大小和程度 较大 considerable, significant 巨大 tremendous, enormous 过度 excessive, excessively 极度 extreme, extremely 合理适度 reasonable, reasonably, moderate, moderately 相似性 相同的 similar 不同的 different, distinct 变化 增加 不及物 increase, grow, rise 使…增加 及物 increase, boost 变少 及物 decrease, dwindle 使…减少 不及物 decrease, reduce, cut, trim, slash 越来越 increasingly, progressively
时间 开始 from the onset 及时 up-to-date 过时 out-of-date, obsolete 短期的 temporary, short term 长期的 lasting, long term 代替 supplant 意愿 强制 mandatory 选择 optional 可能性 可能 possible, likely, probably, chances are that 不可能 impossible, unlikely, improbably 可行的 practical, viable 不可行的 impractical 利弊分析 好事/坏事 blessing, curse 有益 bring benefits to, benefit from 有害 cause damage/harm to 改善，提高 及物 improve, enhance 削弱 及物 weaken, undermine 提供 provide, offer, afford 获得 gain, acquire 学会 pick up 帮助 be helpful to, go a long way towards 培养 develop, foster 促成 contribute to 使……；令…… enable, allow, make it possbile 安全和危险 保护 protect, safeguard
危害 endanger, put..in danger, be at risk 动作 做 参与 take part in, participate in 全力做 throw one’s heart and soul in 不做 fail to, abstain from 证明和举例 证明 back up, 举例…is a case in point. Take... for example. 比较
练习 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Acid rains _______ human activities, which cause severe damages to the environment. What’s secret of being successful? Does it ________ taking part in various things or concentrating on one area? Acid rains _______ human activities, which cause severe damages to the environment. What’s secret of being successful? Does it ________ taking part in various things or concentrating on one area? What’s the secret of being successful? Some draw their success from careful planning. Others _____ their success __ taking risk. 6. 7. Many parents ____ their children’s aggressive behavior ____ the increasingly violent content of television programs Children today are increasingly violent than they were in the past. Many parents believe that the increasingly violent content of television programs is ______ 8. 9. _______reasons can be provided. Every year______________ outstanding Chinese students are taking courses at the New Oriental School.
10. For ____________ illustrious scientists, the most important aspect of their work is not to increase personal wealth, but to advance science. Take Marie Curie, two-time Nobel laureate, for example. 11. Powerful search engines provide ____________________information, rendering libraries and encyclopedias obsolete. 12. One of the major advantages of working in a big company is that you get to meet people of _______ backgrounds. 13. New York is a very culturally/ethnically ______ city. 14. There is _____________ evidence that wearing uniform clothes can effectively reduce the rates of traffic accidents.
15. ___________ school facilities, like libraries, labs and gyms, are essential to the well-rounded development of students. 16. Parents teach children _________ facts about science and life. 17. Giving teachers sufficient training and further education is of ________ importance to improving the country’s quality of education. 18. With oil prices skyrocketing to over 100 dollars and global warming intensifying, governments come to the realization that to develop renewable energy is their ____________________ 19. Admittedly, some commercial advertisements can provide a certain amount of information which consumers might find useful. But compared with the hypes and deceptions of advertisements, these benefits are ___________. 20. It has been argued that compared with higher education early education is a low __________ of the government. 21. A group of travelers can get __________________ discounts at airlines, hotels, and tourist attractions while traveling alone means you have to pay full prices. 22. A recent survey can back up this point. It suggests that high school students who are in the school choir or do painting in their spare time achieved _______________ higher scores in their SAT tests. 23. For instance, the famous Three Gorges Dam can generate ___________ power for china and reduce the use of fossil fuels. 24. George Soros, the Hungarian-born U.S. billionaire, said on Tuesday that the upcoming G20 summit has “_____________ influence" on the world economy deeply affected by the financial crisis. 25. Surfing the Internet __________ decreases interpersonal communication, resulting in loneliness, self-inflicted isolation, and other mental illnesses. 26. Thirdly, making school uniforms mandatory improves the physical health of teenagers, precluding students from wearing fashionable but unhealthy apparel and shoes, for example, ___________ tight jeans and high-heels. 27. Practicing _____________sports improves the physical health of teenagers. 28. Practicing sports ________________ improves the physical health of teenagers. 29. However, as the gas prices _________ in the past decade, renewable energy has been playing an increasingly important role. 30. With traveling agencies _________ these days, the question arises, “Is traveling in the company of kindred souls the best way of traveling?” 31. This payment will ______their pension funds by an average of 20 per cent. 32. Those commercials (featuring Michael Jordan), along with the company’s “Just Do It” marketing campaign and
campaigns featuring football and baseball star Bo Jackson and motion-picture director Spike Lee, _____ Nike’s profits in the United States, particularly for its sports apparel. 33. The world’s natural resources are ______ very rapidly. 34. The country’s foreign currency reserves have __________ over the past few years. 35. Television has never really “destroyed” interpersonal communication even though it has ________ the quality time spent with family members and friends to a degree. 36. CFCs released by air-conditioners and refrigerators are rapidly _______ the Earth’s ozone layer. 37. The major aviation companies need to ______ prices if they are to compete with budget airlines. 38. People will spend less time on cooking because the pace of life is becoming ______ frantic. 39. With children spending an inordinate amount of time on surfing the Internet, parents and educators have expressed serious concern, “Is television a __________ for children?” 40. People enter colleges and universities because a higher education can_ ______________ to them. 41. If it is educational and serious program that we are talking about, then children can definitely _______ from watching them. 42. I believe television viewing ___________to children physically, academically and socially. 43. Sponsoring athletics brings huge financial benefits to the country, _________ economy and creating job opportunities 44. In order to ____________ working and academic performances, some people argue that employees and students should wear uniform clothes when they are at work or in school. 45. Playing mahjong excessively can _____________ people’s health. 46. Secondly, computer games _______ useful information about science and history. 47. Working experiences help students ______ various essential skills, e.g. communication skills, organizing skills and leadership. 48. For employees, wearing uniforms at work fosters a sense of unity, which______________ loyalty and higher
efficiency. 49. First, technology ____ people to communicate in a faster, more economical and more time-saving way. 50. According to a survey __________ by the China Daily, five out of ten respondents said they spent more than three hours a day on watching television. 51. College students should _________________extracurricular activities as much as possible. 52. In many cases, parents_ ____________carry out their responsibilities.
53. We should ______________ consuming products made of animal parts to save endangered species. 54. As a result, teachers, for fear of getting negative evaluations, may _____________carry out their responsibility as disciplinarians. 55. The plan of allowing high school students to choose any subjects they are interested in has given rise to considerable _____________ 56. In order to improve educational standards, some educators ______________ the implementation of a student-evaluation system of teachers. 57. Admittedly, some parents and educators may ______________ teenager students having jobs, citing reasons from drops in academic performances to negative physical effects. 58. Music and art enhance children’s concentration. A recent survey can__________this point. 59. Movies about real life are worth watching because they make people reflect on their lives. Shawshank Redemption is a __________ in point. 60. Compared with complaining in person, complaining in a letter is a _______ choice. 61. Generally speaking, traveling abroad _____________-traveling domestically.