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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong

弃我去者,昨日之日不可留 乱我心者,今日之日多烦忧
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Travelling with baggage 背着行囊去旅行
Feb 16th 2006 From The Economist print editi

on (1) FEW modern travel writers excite more hostility and awe than Sir ★Wilfred Thesiger[1], who died in 2003. Despising the “drab uniformity of the modern world”, Sir Wilfred ★slogged across [2] Africa and Asia, especially Arabia, on animals and on foot, immersing himself in tribal societies. He delighted in killing—lions in Sudan in the years before the second world war, Germans and Italians during it. He disliked “soft” living and “★intrusive[3]” women and revered murderous savages, to whom he gave guns. He thought educating the working classes a waste of good servants. He kicked his dog. His journeys were more notable as feats of ★ masochistic[4] endurance than as exploration. Yet his first two books, “Arabian Sands” about his crossing of the , Empty Quarter, and “The Marsh Arabs”, about southern Iraq, have a ★terse[5] brilliance about them. As records of ancient cultures on the ★cusp[6] of ★oblivion[7], they are unrivalled. 现代游记作家鲜有人能比 2003 年去世的威福瑞?塞西格爵士更令人敬畏。威福瑞爵士厌恶这个“单一乏味 的现代世界” ,于是或兽力或徒步,长途跋涉,穿越非洲和亚洲,特别是阿拉伯半岛,完全将自己沉浸在 了部落社会中。 在德国人和意大利人参加的二战前的那段岁月里, 他住在苏丹, 喜欢捕猎狮子。 他讨厌 “温 和”的生活,憎恶“不安本分”的女人,敬重残暴的原始人并向他们赠送枪支。在他看来,让工人阶级受 教育无异于优秀奴仆人才的浪费。他用脚踹自己的狗。他的旅行所以出名,与其说是因为探险历程,莫若 说是因为他那种“受虐狂”的表现。不过,他的头两本著作,一本叙述横穿阿拉伯半岛南部沙漠“空白之 地”的《阿拉伯沙地》和另一本描写南伊拉克的《沼地阿拉伯人》 ,简洁明了地记录了他光辉的旅程。相 比湮没于历史深处的那些古文化记载,这样的旅程同样无与伦比。 Sir Wilfred's critics invariably sing the same chorus. They accuse him of hypocrisy, noting that his part-time primitive lifestyle required a private income and good connections to obtain travel permits. They argue that he ★ deluded[8] himself about the motives of his adored tribal companions. In Kenya, where he lived for two decades towards the end of his life, his Samburu “sons” are calculated to have ★fleeced him of[9] at least $1m. (2) Homosexuality, latent or otherwise, explains him, they conclude, pointing to the photographs he took of beautiful youths. 非议威福瑞的人从来都异口同声地指责他是伪君子,说他的半原始生活方式少不了私人收入支持,而且要 想获得旅行批准,他还得处理好人际关系。他们坚持认为,威福瑞说自己旅行的动机是仰慕部落社会里的 同伴,这是自欺欺人。威福瑞晚年曾在肯尼亚生活了二十年,据估算,他在桑姆布鲁部落认养的几个“儿 子”至少从他那里骗取了 100 万美元。批评人士指着威福瑞拍摄的一些漂亮年轻人的照片,断定威福瑞的 所作所为完全因为他是同性恋,无论明不明显。 This may all be true, but it does not diminish his achievements. (3)Moreover, he admits as much himself in his
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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong autobiography and elsewhere. In 1938, before his main travels, for example, Sir Wilfred wrote of his efforts to adopt foreign ways: “ (4)I don't delude myself that I succeed but I get my interest and pleasure trying.” 也许大家说的都没错,但是这并不会抹杀他的功绩。况且,在他的自传和别的地方,对这些话他并未作任 何辩解。比如,他曾写到,1938 年在一系列重要旅程开始前利用过外交途径, “到底成功与否,我不想欺 骗自己,但是趣味和快乐终究来之不易。 ” In this authorised biography, Alexander Maitland adds a little colour to the picture, but no important details. He describes the beatings and sexual abuse the explorer suffered at his first boarding school. Quoting from Sir Wilfred's letters, he traces the ★craggy[10] traveller's devotion to his dead father, his mother and three brothers. At times, Sir Wilfred sounds more forgiving, especially of friends, and more playful than his reputation has suggested.(5) for his sexuality, Mr Maitland refers ★coyly [11] to occasional “★furtive[12] embraces and As ★voyeuristic[13] encounters” presumably with men. Wearisome as this topic has become, Mr Maitland achieves , nothing by skirting it; and his allusion to Sir Wilfred's “almost-too precious” relationship with his mother is annoyingly vague. 在威福瑞授权出版的这本传记中,亚历山大?梅特兰也就此添油加醋说了一通,不过没什么引人注目的详 细描写。书中记述了这位探险家最初上寄宿学校时曾经遭受的责打和性虐待。梅特兰引用威福瑞信中的话 说,这位经历坎坷不平的旅行者热爱自己去世的父亲、母亲还有三个兄弟。威福瑞有的时候似乎要比传言 中说的更为宽容,尤其是对朋友,而且也更为顽皮。至于他的性取向,梅特兰只是蜻蜓点水地提到,威福 瑞大概曾和男人,偶尔“偷偷摸摸地拥抱一下或者有一点窥淫爱好” 。尽管这一话题已经让人感到厌倦, 梅特兰若想回避,就只能一无所获。并且,他暗示威福瑞与其母亲的关系“几乎过于做作” ,也让人摸不 着头脑,厌烦不已。 There may be a reason why Mr Maitland struggles for critical ★distance[14] He writes that he and Sir Wilfred were long-standing friends, but he fails to mention that he collaborated with the explorer on four of his books and later inherited his London flat. If Mr Maitland found it so difficult to view his late friend and benefactor objectively, then perhaps he should not have tried. An earlier biography by Michael Asher, who ★scoured[15] the deserts to track down Sir Wilfred's former fellow travellers, was better; (6)Mr Maitland seems to have interviewed almost nobody black or brown. 梅特兰力求为威福瑞正名或许是有原因的。他在书中虽然说和威福瑞是多年好友,却对曾与这位探险家合 作出版四本书以及后来继承他在伦敦的一处寓所一事只字未提。 设若梅特兰自觉难以实事求是地评价他的 这位已故至交和恩人,也许他就不应该多此一举。在梅特兰之前也有一篇威福瑞的传记,写得相对就好一 些。作者是迈克尔?阿舍,他曾到沙漠中四处寻觅威福瑞以前的旅行同伴,而梅特兰却好象几乎完全是闭 门造车。 His book is, however, (7)a useful companion to the explorer's autobiography, “The Life of My Choice”. Hopefully, it will also refer readers back to Sir Wilfred's two great books, and to sentences as lovely as this: “Memories of that first visit to the Marshes have never left me: (8) firelight on a half-turned face, the crying of geese, duck ★flighting[16] in to feed, a boy's voice singing somewhere in the dark, canoes moving in procession down a waterway, the setting sun seen crimson through the smoke of burning reed-beds, narrow waterways that wound still deeper into the Marshes.” 话说回来,梅特兰的这本书还是对威福瑞自传《我所选择的人生》起到了有益的助阵作用。但愿这本传记 也能让读者重新想起威福瑞那两本伟大著作,想起这些动人的语句: “沼泽地的第一次旅行始终萦怀:映 照在侧头而望的脸上的火光,群鹅的鸣叫,结对飞入觅食的鸭子,黑暗某处男孩的歌声,顺水而行的独木 舟,透过芦苇垫燃烧发出的浓烟看到那绯红的落日,狭窄的河道蜿蜒而入沼泽深处。 ”

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong ★★★NOTES 注释★★★ [1]Wilfred Thesiger:威福瑞?塞西格,毕业于牛津大学,既是一名冒险家,也是一名出色的军人。出生于 非洲,大学毕业后他回到了家乡。一生中到过世界上许多人们难以想象的,荒凉的地方,特别是非洲东部 地区和中东地区。他的自传《四分之一空间》《阿拉伯沙地》 , ,影响了一代代旅行作家。 [2]slog:v.艰难行进,长途跋涉;拼命苦干 如:slog across the swamp;沉重缓慢地走过沼泽地 slogged through both volumes. 缓慢吃力地读完了那两卷 slogged away at Latin.苦读拉丁文 [3]intrusive:adj.打扰的,插入的 [4]masochistic:adj.性受虐狂的,受虐狂的 [5]terse:adj.简洁的,简明的(brief and to the point) [6]cusp:n.尖顶,尖端,尖角 [7]oblivion:n.遗忘,忘却;湮没,埋没 如:to be buried in oblivion 被人遗忘 The city has long since passed into oblivion.该市早已湮没。 [8]delude:v.欺骗,蒙蔽(into)=deceive 如:fraudulent ads that delude consumers into sending in money.欺骗顾客花钱的虚假广告 附注——近义词比较: deceive, betray, mislead, beguile, delude,这些动词都有“通过狡诈的手段把他人导入错误、危险 或不利的位置”的意思。 1) Deceive 是有意隐瞒或歪曲真相的意思: “There is a moment of difficulty and danger at which flattery and falsehood can no longer deceive” (Letters of Junius). “在艰难和危险的时刻,奉承和欺骗不再能蒙蔽人” (朱尼厄斯的信) 。 2)Betray 含有不忠或背叛的意思: “When you betray somebody else, you also betray yourself” (Isaac Bashevis Singer). “你背叛别人的时候,你也背叛了你自己” (伊萨艾克?巴谢维丝?辛格) 。 3)Mislead 意为引入错误的方向或引向错误的思维、行动: “My manhood, long misled by wandering fires,/Followed false lights” (John Dryden). “游移的火焰长久地误导,我的成年时期跟随着虚妄的光” (约翰?德莱顿) 。 4)Beguile 含有通过友好的方法引诱、欺骗的意思: They beguiled unwary investors with tales of overnight fortunes. To 他们以一夜之间可以发大财的承诺,诱骗了掉以轻心的投资者。 5)Delude 指欺骗到一个程度,致使受骗人无法分辨真伪,或做出可靠的判断: The government deluded the public about the dangers of low-level radiation. 政府欺骗公众,关于低强度辐射的危险性。

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong [9]fleece:vt. (常与 of 连用)骗取,诈取(金钱)(原意是指剪羊毛,薅羊毛) ; 如:They fleeced us of $100 at that hotel.那家旅馆敲了我们一百美元。 [10]craggy:adj.陡峭的,崎岖不平的 [11]coyly:adj.羞怯地;害羞地 [12]furtive: adj.偷偷的;秘密的 如:The man's furtive manner gave rise to the suspicion of the theft among the policemen."那个男人鬼鬼祟祟的 样子,引起警察怀疑盗窃案是他作的案。" [13]voyeuristic:adj.喜好窥阴的 [14]distance:n.分歧,不和,不同意: 如:The candidates could not be at a greater distance on this issue.在这个问题上,候选人之间分歧很大。 [15]scour:vt. 搜索;仔细或彻底的查看: 如:The detective scoured the scene of the crime for clues.那个侦探在犯罪现场仔细搜索线索 [16]flight:vi.成群飞行;迁徙 ★★★砖已抛,玉何在?★★★ 请您试试文中划线语句的翻译: (1) FEW modern travel writers excite more hostility and awe than Sir Wilfred Thesiger, who died in 2003. (2) Homosexuality, latent or otherwise, explains him, they conclude, pointing to the photographs he took of beautiful youths. (3) Moreover, he admits as much himself in his autobiography and elsewhere. (4) I don't delude myself that I succeed but I get my interest and pleasure trying. (5) As for his sexuality, Mr Maitland refers coyly to occasional “furtive embraces and voyeuristic encounters” , presumably with men. (6) Mr Maitland seems to have interviewed almost nobody black or brown. (7) a useful companion to the explorer's autobiography, “The Life of My Choice”. (8) firelight on a half-turned face

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Bridge across the Bosporus
Feb 23rd 2006 From The Economist print edition MORE than 80 years after being ★supplanted[1] by the Turkish republic, the Ottoman empire will not die. Bloodshed in the Balkans; Arab and Kurdish nationalism across the Middle East; ★Turcophobia[2] in Armenia; (1)all are echoes of a dynasty that survived for 600 years▲ and whose dominions e____ ① ____ from the
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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong Danube through the Levant to Algiers. Few historians have dared compress the story of this extraordinary enterprise into a single volume. “Osman's Dream” shows why.

Osman led one of several Turcoman tribes, of Central Asian descent, that were competing for control of Anatolia at the beginning of the 14th century. (The dream in question was interpreted to mean that Osman would found an imperial house; (2) “Ottoman” is the European corruption of his name▲). By the mid-16th century, Osman's descendants had killed off the Byzantine Empire and t____ ② ____ its capital, Constantinople (renamed Istanbul), into the world's greatest mosque city. They also had control of the Muslim holy places, Mecca and Medina, in Arabia. The empire's expansion was driven in part by Islamic notions of a just war against the ★infidel[3], but the Ottomans were also notable for their relative tolerance. Jews fleeing the ★Spanish inquisition[4] were welcomed to Istanbul. Christian converts became key figures in the bureaucracy, armed forces and the ★ harem[5]. Even at the empire's peak, however, the tide of history was turning in Europe's f__ ③ .___ Challenged by the Europeans' intellectual and military ★prowess[6], hampered by the fiscal ineptitude of its leaders, and powerless to suppress the petty nationalisms that infected its Balkan possessions, (3)the empire began to unravel—at times abruptly, at others imperceptibly. ▲ With her doctorate in the ★fiendishly[7] complex discipline of Ottoman studies, (4) Finkel is ideally placed Ms to make sense of this. ▲But “Osman's Dream” leaves one with the impression that the author's scholarship— she includes a 30-page bibliography—could have been put to better use. Her apparent desire to record every event of significance sometimes r___ ④ ___ in a dispiriting succession of military campaigns and diplomatic intrigues; (5)one would have preferred a ★pruning[8] of the ★thicket[9] of events and more discussion of what it all means.▲ (6)The author offers glimpses of a more satisfying book. ▲She includes a suggestive aside on the blending of French and Persian inspirations in the Ottoman palace-building of the early 18th century—as good an emblem for the empire's strained multiculturalism as you could wish for. There are ★tantalising[10] allusions to both the fascination and the repulsion which animated the later Ottomans' ★ambivalence[11] t___ ⑤ ___ Europe. And one wishes that (7)Ms Finkel had developed her intriguing defence of the empire in the 19th century, “multi-confessional, geographically incoherent and economically backward”▲, in the face of demands, on the part of ★impertinent[12] Europeans, that it reform internally. The limitations of Ms Finkel's approach are most apparent in her ★perfunctory[13] treatment of the empire's final, ★tumultuous[14] years. She deals no more than cursorily with the Armenian massacres during the first world war, preferring to observe that scholarship has suffered from the highly-charged contemporary d___ ⑥ ___ over whether the killings constitute genocide. This point would have made a worthwhile ★footnote[15].(8) As a substitute for an account of what happened, it is a ★cop-out[16].▲ ★★★NOTES★★★ [1]supplant:vt.取代,排挤 如: word processor has largely supplanted electric typewriters. Word 处理程序已很大程度上取代了电动打 The 字机。
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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong It is my view that the new historical disciplines complement rather than supplant traditional history.我认为这些 新的历史学科对传统历史学起到了补充而非排挤作用。 ▲近义词辨析▲ replace, supplant, supersede 这些动词在用来指把某人或某物辞退或搬走并用他人或他物代替他、她或它时具可比性。 ? Replace是指成为或提供代替他人或他物的物或人的相等物或替换物, 尤其是对已经丢失、耗尽、用竭 或被辞退: “A conspiracy was carefully engineered to replace the Directory by three Consuls” (H.G. Wells). “细心策划密谋以三个执政官取代督政府” (H.G,威尔斯) 。 “I succeed him [Benjamin Franklin, as envoy to France] ; no one could replace him” (Thomas Jefferson). “我接替他[本杰明?富兰克林,作为派往法国的特使] ;没有人能够取代他” (托马斯?杰弗逊) 。 ? Supplant通常指用阴谋诡计或卑鄙的手段来取代他人的位置: “The rivaling poor Jones, and supplanting him in her affections, added another spur to his pursuit” (Henry Fielding). “对抗的可怜的琼斯,以及用她的影响取代他的位置的举动进一步刺激了他的追求” (亨利? 费尔汀) 。 ? Supersede 是指用另一个被认为更优秀、更有价值、更有用或者更年轻的人或物代替某人或某物: “In our island the Latin appears never to have superseded the old Gaelic speech” (Macaulay). “在我们的岛 上古老的盖尔语似乎永远被拉丁语所取代” (麦考利) 。 “Each of us carries his own life-form—an indeterminable form which cannot be superseded by any other” (Carl Jung).我们每个人都有自己的生活方式-一种无法查明、不能被其它任何一种方式取代的方式” (卡尔?荣 格) [2]turcophobia:n.憎恶土耳其风俗习惯的人, 憎恶土耳其的人 -phobia:后缀;表示“对某一特定事物的强烈的、不正常的或不合逻辑的恐惧” : 如:xenophobia 仇外,惧外; Americanophobia 对美国(或美洲)文化的憎恶,美国(或美洲)文化仇视心理 Anglophobia 反英, 恐英病 technophobia 技术恐惧(指对技术对社会及环境造成不良影响的恐惧) thanatophobia [心]死亡恐怖(症),死亡恐惧(症) [3]infidel:adj. & n. 不信教的(人) ;异端的(人) [4]Spanish inquisition:西班牙宗教法庭,1480-1834 年的天主教法庭,以残酷迫害异端著称。1543 年将数 以万计再洗礼教派教徒在火刑柱上烧死。西班牙国王伊莎贝拉一世创建。 参考文献:http://www.pep.com.cn/200406/ca416233.htm [5]harem:n.(伊斯兰教国家中的)闺房,后宫;女眷们 [6]prowess:n. 卓越的技能;杰出的才能;本领 如:He is a football player of great prowess. 他是一名技能卓绝的足球选手。 The young student from the theatrical school showed great prowess at acting in the play.这个戏剧学校的学生在 这出戏中显示出了非凡的演技。 [7]fiendishly:adv.恶魔似地, 极坏地;
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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong fiendish:adj.极凶的,极大的;极为讨厌或糟糕的 如:a fiendish blizzard 极大的暴风雪 a fiendish problem 极大的难题 [8]prune:vt.(常与 down, off, away 连用)修剪(树、花木)(常与 of 连用)删改;删除 ; 如:prune the slang from a speech 删去演说中的俚语 [9]thicket:n.密集生长的灌木或矮树;错综复杂,盘根错节 如: the thicket of unreality which stands between us and the facts of life 在我们和生活的现实之间存在着无 法穿越的虚幻 [10]tantalise: (美语 tantalize)vt.挑逗,逗弄 如:The very thought that a human being would deliberately starve herself for any reason provoked, intrigued, and tantalized the public.( “Psychobiology and Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa” by Katherine A Halmi)有人认为,不管出于何故,一个人会故意忍饥挨饿。这种想法让公众既生气,又好奇, 还有点着急。 (凯瑟琳?A?哈尔米《神经性食欲缺乏和易饿病的精神生物学研究和治疗方法》 ) [11]ambivalence:n.矛盾心理,双重人格;摇摆,举棋不定(towards) ambivalent adj.(对人、事物)有矛盾心理的 如:There is an ambivalent feeling towards rural workers.人们对于民工的心情是复杂的。 [12]impertinent:adj.无关的,不切题的;无礼的,鲁莽的 如: deemed all such inquiries on the part of a slave improper and impertinent, and evidence of a restless spirit. He 他认为一个奴隶如此多嘴多舌,是不合礼仪的,很显然这个奴隶还很不安分。“Narrative of the Life of ( Frederick Douglass” by Frederick Douglass) ★近义词辨析★ irrelevant, extraneous, immaterial, impertinent 这些形容词共有的核心意思是“与所考虑的问题没有关系的” an irrelevant comment; 一句不相干的评语; a question extraneous to the discussion; 与讨论不相关的问题; an objection that is immaterial after the fact; 和该事实无关的反对意见; mentioned several impertinent facts before finally coming to the point.在最后谈到要点之前先说了几个不相关 的事实 [13]perfunctory:adj.草率的,敷衍的,马马虎虎的 如:The operator answered the phone with a perfunctory greeting.接线员接通电话,象征性的打了招呼 [14]tumultuous:adj.骚乱的,喧嚣的,吵闹的,无序的;狂暴的 如:These details have also had a tumultuous effect on the nation of Bolivia. ( “Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life” by Jon Lee Anderson)这些详细资料也引起了波利维亚的动乱。 (乔恩?李?安德森《切?格瓦拉:革 命人生》 ) [15]footnote:n.(缩写 fn.)脚注(放在书或手稿的页底的注释,对文中的标明的一部分加以评论或引出参考 书目) ;无足轻重的事(与某一大的范畴或事件有关但不重要的事) 如:a political scandal that was but a footnote to modern history.一件对现代历史无足轻重的政治丑闻
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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong [16] cop out:逃避,躲开;临阵退缩 cop-out n.逃避,自首,托词;违约者 如:You've got to take it up. Don't try to cop out of it by telling me you're too busy!"这件事你一定得做,不要推 诿说你忙不过来。" Jimmy was known to the team as a cop-out because he never showed up for important games.(A Concise Collection of College-student’s Slang) 队里都知道吉米是个喜欢临阵脱逃的人,凡是重要比赛都不见他人 影。 ★★★砖已抛,玉何在?★★★(参见文中带▲标记的部分) (1) all are echoes of a dynasty that survived for 600 years (2) “Ottoman” is the European corruption of his name (3) the empire began to unravel—at times abruptly, at others imperceptibly. (4) Ms Finkel is ideally placed to make sense of this. (5) one would have preferred a pruning of the thicket of events and more discussion of what it all means. (6) The author offers glimpses of a more satisfying book. (7) Ms Finkel had developed her intriguing defence of the empire in the 19th century, “multi-confessional, geographically incoherent and economically backward”, in the face of demands, on the part of impertinent Europeans, that it reform internally. (8) As a substitute for an account of what happened, it is a cop-out. 全部译文,欢迎指正,共同交流

博斯普鲁斯大桥
奥斯曼帝国虽已被土耳其共和国取代逾 80 年之久,但它永远都不会销声匿迹。巴尔干半岛上血流成河, 中东弥漫的阿拉伯和库尔德民族主义情绪,亚美尼亚人对土耳其的憎恶,无不显现出一个存续了 600 年、 疆域囊括从多瑙河经黎凡特(地中海东部自土耳其至埃及地区诸国)至阿尔及尔广阔土地的王朝所遗留下 来的痕迹。一直以来,几乎没有哪位历史学家能贸然地用一本书来记述这一超凡之事。 《奥斯曼之梦》对 此作出了解释。 14 世纪初,几个从中亚衍生而来的土库曼人部落,为控制安纳托利亚(译者注:土耳其的亚洲部分,一 般认为等同于小亚细亚)而干戈相向,此时奥斯曼成了其中一个部落的首领。 (曾有人认为奥斯曼的 “梦 想”就是要兴建一座王宫; “Ottoman”一词是欧洲人在使用奥斯曼名字时的讹误。 )到 16 世纪中叶,奥斯 曼的后人消灭了拜占庭帝国,并将其首都君士坦丁堡(后改名为伊斯坦布尔)建设成为世界上最著名的清 真寺城市。与此同时,阿拉伯半岛上的穆斯林圣地麦加和麦地那也为其所统治。 伊斯兰教主张发动一场反对异教徒的正义战争,这对奥斯曼帝国的扩张起到了一定的推动作用,但是奥斯 曼人同样以善于包容而著称。从西班牙宗教法庭逃离出来的犹太人在伊斯坦布尔受到欢迎,基督教信徒也 在帝国官僚机构、武装部队乃至后宫中扮演举足轻重的角色。然而,历史的潮流还是转而朝着有利于欧洲 的方向发展,即便是在帝国鼎盛时期也是如此。聪明才智和军事才干不如欧洲人,受制于自身领导人拙劣 的财政管理能力,对巴尔干半岛上蔓延的一小撮民族主义分子又无能为力,奥斯曼帝国开始分崩离析—— 有时会发生一些突如其来的震荡,但多半却在不知不觉中衰微。 芬克尔女士拥有奥斯曼帝国历史研究的博士学位, 对奥斯曼曾进行过极为复杂、 严谨的研究。 从理论上讲, 弄清“奥斯曼梦想”的真实含义当然非她莫属。不过, 《奥斯曼之梦》一书却让人觉得作者的学识并未得 到充分发挥——书后列出了长达 30 页的参考书目。作者显然希望把所有重要事件都一一记录下来,结果
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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 有时无外乎对那些战争和外交阴谋活动的简单罗列,令人味同嚼蜡。其实,我们只需扼要叙述一下那些错 综复杂的事件,更多的笔墨应当放在对其意义的讨论中。 相比之前,这本书还是有不少出彩之处。作者在文中特意提到,18 世纪初期奥斯曼兴建王宫时,曾融合 了法国人和波斯人的灵感——这种糅合再好不过地寓示了奥斯曼帝国牵强的多文化主义色彩。 书中引经据 典描述了奥斯曼人对外来文化的着迷和排斥, 生动再现了奥斯曼人后期对欧洲的矛盾心态, 很是引人入胜。 芬克尔女士辩解说,对于作为旁观者的欧洲人而言,19 世纪的奥斯曼帝国“教义信仰多样化、地域不连 贯,甚而经济倒退” ,完全是为形势所迫。这一观点令人感到好奇,有人希望芬克尔女士应当进一步展开 阐述。 (文中的 that it reform internally 令人匪夷所思,尤其是主语为单数 it,而 reform 又给出复数形式, 为什么呢?) 芬克尔的记述方式还是有其局限性的,最明显的是关于奥斯曼帝国末期动荡岁月的描写过于草率。她对第 一次世界大战期间亚美尼亚大屠杀一事只是一笔带过, 却对当代学术界关于这场杀戮是否等同于种族屠杀 的激烈争议详加评述。这一点若作为脚注应当合情合理,可用来取代对事件真相的记述,就只能是一种回 避事实的托词而已。 译后小记: 本文是一篇书评,我没有读过《奥斯曼之梦》 ,对奥斯曼帝国也只是略有所知,因此翻译起来很是艰难。 一些语句我不敢擅自意译,生怕理解出错,误入“歧途” 。但为了译文通顺,我尽量加入了一些自己的理 解,不妥之处望高手支招。[/replyview] 完型填空答案: [replyview]①extended ②turned ③favour ④results ⑤towards ⑥dispute

TEXT 8

Ready, fire, aim 预备!开火!瞄准! !
Feb 16th 2006 From The Economist print edition Foreword:A vice-president, a ★quail[1] and the first glimmer of class warfare in hunting 引言:一位副总统,一只鹌鹑,等级矛盾第一次在打猎中凸现。 POLITICALGRAVEYARD.COM is (1)a goldmine for both trivia addicts and congenital time-wasters.▲ Do you want to find out about American politicians who were killed in duels (17 a______①_____ to the site)? Or about politicians who were murdered (86)? Or politicians who have been to outer space (6)? Or politicians who died while hunting or fishing (14)? Just point and click. But as yet the site doesn't have an entry for politicians who almost kill the poor ★
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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong saps[2] they are hunting or fishing with. 对于喜欢捕风捉影的人和那些天生爱好浪费时间的人而言,政治墓园网站(politicalgraveyard.com)是一 个极佳去处。您想知道有多少美国政治家在决斗中丧生吗(该网站认为是 17 人)?有多少政治家遭谋杀 (86 人)?有多少政治家曾去过外太空(6 人)?又有多少政治家在打猎或钓鱼时不幸身亡(14 人)? 点击便知。不过迄今为止,有关那些差点杀死同去狩猎或者钓鱼的“可怜虫”的政治家人数,这家网站还 没有登记。 No doubt (2)the good people ▲at politicalgraveyard will soon update their site. Ever since Dick Cheney took aim at a quail on February 11th and hit a 78-year-old lawyer i_________②, America has been talking of little else. This is not only because Mr Cheney's tragicomic accident seemed to sum up his style of shooting first and asking questions later (hence a torrent of jokes about Mr Cheney's insistence that he was right to shoot despite the failure to find quail in the bushes). It is also because he handled the incident with astonishing ★ineptitude[3]. 政治墓园网站指定要更新他们的网页了。2 月 11 日,迪克?切尼瞄准一只鹌鹑,结果却击中一位 78 岁的 律师。自那以后美国人无不对此议论纷纷。切尼先生令人啼笑皆非的遭遇,似乎充分表明他惯于先斩后奏 (因此这事也一时传为笑柄,都说他有权开枪射击,即便是灌木丛中没有鹌鹑) ,不过人们关注的焦点并 非仅此而已,他在处置这一突发事件中所表现出来的无能也让人感到惊讶。 Harry Whittington's wounds were s________③: he was pepper-sprayed in the face, neck, chest and rib cage, and rushed to intensive care. But Mr Cheney didn't bother to tell the public that their vice-president had ★winged[4] a lawyer until the next day (when he got his host to phone her local paper, the ★Corpus Christi[5] Caller-Times) and he didn't give a television interview until February 15th, a day after his v_________④ suffered a mild heart attack. As one ally puts it, “ (3)Dick is beyond PR.”▲ 哈里?惠廷顿伤得不轻,面、颈、胸和胁部都被散弹击中,当时已立即被送往重症救护中心。不过切尼却 直到事发次日才不情愿地告知公众,他们的副总统开枪误伤了一名律师(他让牧场女主人打电话给当地的 《圣餐号召者时报》透露实情) ,并且直到 2 月 15 日(也就是事发后第四天)才接受电视采访,而此时受 害者出现轻微心脏病症状已近一天。正如切尼的一位支持者所说, “迪克没有处理好公共关系。 ” The media has ★pored over[6] every aspect of the incident: the fact that Mr Cheney had failed to buy the proper stamp for his licence (he subsequently sent $7 to the requisite authorities); that his host was a lobbyist; that the White House initially tried the strategy of t________⑤the shooting as a joke. But one thing was almost entirely ignored—(4)the fact that Mr Cheney was spending his weekend slaughtering innocent birds in the first place. ▲ 媒体对整个事件方方面面都很关注:如切尼的捕猎许可证上缺少一个需要购买的印章(高地猎禽印章—— 译者注) (他后来已经给管理部门送去了 7 美元) ;那个牧场女主人是个政治说客;白宫起初曾试图把这一 事件当作笑话来处理。 尽管如此, 人们还是完全忽视了一个问题——事情归根究底在于切尼周末去打猎了。 In many European countries, no ambitious politician would want to be seen with a hunting rifle in his hands and a ★cuddly[7] animal in his sights. In America, politicians ★go to great lengths[8] to get seen doing just that. The classic example of the shooting photo-op was (5)John Kerry's appearance in rather too ★pristine[9] duck-hunting gear▲ in October 2004. But even left-wingers like Howard Dean and Dennis Kucinich ★(6) defer to[10] the hunting vote.▲ 在许多欧洲国家,没有哪一个胸怀大志的政治家希望别人发现,自己手中拿着一支来福枪,对着视线中某 个小生灵。可是在美国,政治家们却想方设法让自己在众人面前露脸。2004 年 10 月约翰?克里站在一架 有点土气的跟踪野鸭装置前的照片可谓经典。不过,即使是霍华德?迪恩和丹尼斯?库希尼奇这样的左翼人 士,也对狩猎持赞同意见。
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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong And why not? Hunters like to boast that their sport is as American as baseball and apple pie, a tradition shared by young and old, rich and poor, conservatives and l_______⑥. The US Fish and Wildlife Service claims that 80m Americans aged 16 or over—nearly 40% of the adult population—“enjoyed some recreational activity relating to fish and wildlife” in 2001, the latest year for which figures are a__________⑦. About 13m Americans shoot, and they spend some $20.6 billion a year on their pastime. (7)There is a hunting channel.▲ There are ★ camouflaged[11] Bibles for people who want to read scripture before blasting off. There are also powerful lobbies, from the National Rifle Association to the ★Safari[12] Club International. The Congressional Sportsmen's Foundation has more than 300 members. 况且,何乐而不为呢?猎人们不无自豪地说,这项运动跟棒球、苹果点心一样,是一项传统,无论老少、 贫富,还是保守或自由人士都喜闻乐见。美国鱼类和野生物部称,2001 年首次统计显示,有 8000 万 16 岁以上的美国人——约占成人总人数的 40%——“喜欢某种与鱼类和野生物有关的娱乐活动” 。目前,大 约有 1300 万美国人会打猎,他们每年花掉约 206 亿美元用于此项消遣。现在,只要你想打猎,就有人给 你安排好;还有人为你准备了假《圣经》 ,让你在开火前能装模作样地诵读一遍;还有一大批有着三寸不 烂之舌的说客,有来自全国步枪协会的,也有来自国际狩猎俱乐部的。国会运动员基金会的成员已超过 300 人。 But(8) the reality is not quite so ★tally ho[13]▲. The proportion of the population that goes hunting has been shrinking for the past 20 years. The number of hunters fell by 7% in the decade ending in 2001; the number of small-game hunters, including quail hunters, fell by 29%. The main cause of this is e__________⑧. Every year America loses 1.5m acres of wildlife habitat and 1m acres of farm and ranchland to development and ★ sprawl[14]. But the real worry for hunters is, or should be, class. 不过,实际情况还是有所不同的。近 20 年来,进行捕猎的人数所占人口比例持续下降,2001 年之前的 10 年内,捕猎人减少了 7%,而捕猎小动物如鹌鹑的人数更是减少了 29%。这主要是由经济情况造成的。美 国每年有 150 万英亩野生物栖息地和 100 万英亩农牧场被经济扩张所蚕食鲸吞。然而,真正让狩猎者感到 担忧的,还是或者说应该是,捕猎过程中的等级问题。 ■■■完型填空答案■■■ 1、according 2、instead 3、serious 4、victim 5、treating 6、liberals 7、available 8、economics ★★★NOTES 注释★★★ [1]quail:n.鹌鹑 vi.(与 at, before 连用)畏惧;畏缩;沮丧: 如:He quailed at the thought of meeting the President.他对会见总统的打算感到害怕。 [2]sap:n.(俚语)笨蛋,傻瓜;精力,活力;树汁,体液 vi.挖坑道;vt.使衰竭,消耗 [3]ineptitude:n.不称职,不适当的动作(adj. inept) [4]wing:vt.打伤??翅膀,打中??要害 [5] Corpus Christi:n.【罗马天主教】圣餐节:三一节(星期日)后的第一个星期四、食圣餐的日子
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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong [6]pore over:v.注视,凝视 如:He pored over the classified ads in search of a new job.他仔细阅读分类广告栏以寻找新的工作 [7]cuddly:adj.令人想拥抱的,喜爱抚的 [8]go to great lengths:竭尽全力 go to great pains 费大力气 [9]pristine adj.纯洁的,质朴的;古时的,原来的 [10]defer to:v. 服从,遵从(出于尊敬他本人或由于承认他的权威、学识或判断力,听从他的意见,遵从 他的愿望,服从他的决定) 如:Do you always defer to your parents wishes? 你总是顺从父母的意志吗? ★近义词辨析★ yield, relent, bow, defer, submit, succumb 这些动词都表示让步于不能再反对或抵抗的人或事。 1) Yield 的应用最为广泛: 如:yield to an enemy; 对敌投降; yield to reason;屈服于理由; yieldto desire. 屈服于欲望。 “The child . . . soon yielded to the drowsiness” (Charles Dickens). “这孩子?一会儿就支持不住昏昏欲睡 了” (查尔斯?狄更斯) 2) relent 是指出于对处于自己权威和影响下的人的尊重而缓解某一制度或决定的苛刻或严格: “The captain at last relented, and told him that he might make himself at home” (Herman Melville). “最后, 船长缓和下来,告诉他随便些” (荷曼?麦尔维尔) 。 3)Bow 表示因失败或通过礼貌而让步: “Bow and accept the end/Of a love” (Robert Frost). “屈服并接受爱情的结局” (罗伯特?弗罗斯特) 4)defer 是指出于尊重或对他人权威、才学或判断的认可而让步: “Philip . . . had the good sense to defer to the long experience and the wisdom of his father” (William Hickling Prescott). “菲利浦?很明智地在他父亲的丰富经验和智慧面前作出了让步” (威廉姆?希克林?普莱斯哥 特) 。 5)Submit 表示经过无用或不成功的抵抗之后,出于被迫而放弃: “What must the King do now? Must he submit?” (Shakespeare). “现在国王必须做什么? 他必须投降吗?” (莎士比亚) 。 6)Succumb 强烈暗示屈服不可一世的或无法抵抗的事物: “I didn't succumb without a struggle to my uncle's allurements” (H.G. Wells). “我对叔叔的诱惑未作任何反 抗便屈服了” (H.G.威尔斯) [11]camouflage:vt.伪装,掩饰 如:The military vehicles were camouflaged.军车被伪装起来了。 [12]safari:n.旅行,探险(复数:safaris) [13] tally n. 符木(古时用,上有刻痕记载交货、欠款等的数量), 记账, 得分, 标记牌, 标签, 符合, 对应物, 计数器
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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong ho:interj.嗬!(用来表示惊讶或高兴以引起注意或催促前行) 如:Land ho! Westward ho!停下!向西! [14] sprawl vi.摊手摊脚地坐卧,平躺,倒卧;不规则的伸展;蔓延 如:sprawling on the sofa 平躺在沙发上 suburbs that sprawl out into the countryside 乱七八糟向乡间扩展的市郊

TEXT 9

Memoirs of a quail-shooting man 一位鹌鹑捕猎者的自述
The biggest d________① in hunters is taking place among the working class—among the “Deer Hunter” crowd in the small towns of the north-east, the ★rednecks[15] of the South and the cowboys of the West. Their places are being taken by moneyed professionals, (1)the sort of people who weren't brought up to hunt▲ but who discovered that it is a good way to ★flash their money[16] and make connections. The number of hunters with household incomes above $100,000 increased by more than a q________② in the 1990s. There are so many ★nouveaux chasseurs strutting around[17] the canyons of Manhattan that both Holland & Holland and Barbour have opened shops there. 捕猎人数减少最多的是工人阶层,包括东北部小城镇上的“猎鹿一族” 、南部的乡下佬以及西部牛仔。腰 缠万贯的职业猎人霸占了他们的捕猎领地,这种猎人原来压根不曾想过要去打猎,但后来却发现打猎对于 炫耀财富并疏通人际关系而言,是一条不错的门路。20 世纪 90 年代,家庭收入 10 万美元以上的猎人总 数增长了四分之一还多。猎人中的这些新贵趾高气扬地在曼哈顿峡谷中悠哉游哉,引得 Holland&Holland 和 Barbour 两大品牌都在那里开张营业了。 Mr Cheney's own expedition was a lot closer to “Gosford Park” than “The Deer Hunter”—a group of fat old ★toffs[18] (2)waiting for wildlife to be ★flushed[19] towards them at huge expense▲. There has also been a big increase in so-called “exotic hunting” where guests not only go after i_________③ species such as wolves , and bears, but also blast away at imported zebras and giraffes. (3)Convenience is essential for the hedge-fund crowd. ▲Most exotic hunts take place in ranches from which the animals can't escape (Texas has 600). Exotic hunters can shoot elephants from cars or from the backs of other elephants, sometimes the orphaned calves of the victims of previous hunts. For the truly lazy there is “just-in-time shooting”, where animals are trained to turn up at certain hours, and “internet shooting” where you can g________④ the gun from your desk. All this removes , much of the inconvenience from hunting. (4)It also removes its main justification—that it is the most natural way of culling local wildlife. ▲ 切尼先生看上去更像是“高斯福特公园族”而不是“猎鹿一族” 。所谓高斯福特公园族是指一群上了年纪 的、大腹便便的纨绔子弟,悠然自得地等着出高价雇来的人将猎物赶进他们的射程。还有一种所谓的“异 国情调式打猎”也越来越受青睐,其间猎人不仅可以捕猎土产猎物如狼、熊等,还可以猎杀从国外引进的 斑马、长颈鹿。对在围场打猎的人来说,方便是第一位的。大多数“异国情调式打猎”都在猎物无法逃走 的牧场进行(在得克萨斯州有 600 个这样的牧场) 。异国情调式猎人可以坐在汽车上或是躲在其他大象的 身后射杀大象,有时也射杀一些已经中弹的落单小牛。要是实在懒得动,可选择“准时射击” ,也就是把 猎物训练好,让它们能在特定的时候出现在枪口之下。另外,还有一种“互联网控制射击” ,猎人坐在电 脑桌前可以遥控猎枪。如此种种,省却了打猎中的很多不便,却也让享受这种方便的猎人们无法自圆其说
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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong ——他们坚持认为打猎是土产野生物优胜劣汰最合乎情理的方式。 (言下之意,就原来意义上的打猎而言, 猎物存在于大自然之中,有的有能力逃过猎杀,有的则难免落网,这倒有点像优胜劣汰。然而无论是围猎 还是遥控射猎,被猎杀的动物要么无处可逃,要么被迫自投罗网,何言优胜劣汰呢?) America's anti-hunting movement is tiny by British standards. But (5)it is gathering momentum,▲ with the mainstream Humane Society taking an increasingly tough line and even conservatives protesting about exotic hunting. (The examples above are taken from “Dominion: The Power of Man, the Suffering of Animals, and the Call to Mercy”, a remarkable book by Matthew Scully, one of Mr Bush's former speechwriters.) The ★squall over [20]Mr Cheney's behaviour in Quailgate will probably die down, providing Mr Whittington survives. But the d________⑤ over hunting will go on growing. 美国的反狩猎行动相比英国还有些微不足道,不过随着动物保护协会的声势日益高涨,并且连保守派也开 始反对异国情调式捕猎, (上述例证引自《统治权——人类之力量、动物之苦难和仁慈之感召》一书,这 本好书的作者马修?斯佳丽曾是布什总统的演讲撰稿人之一。 )反狩猎行动已经蓄势待发了。假如惠廷顿先 生没有生命危险, 切尼在鹌鹑门所作所为引发的喧嚣也许将渐渐消逝, 不过关于狩猎的争论将会日趋激烈。

完型填空答案: 1、decline 2.quarter 3.indigenous 4. guide 5.debate ★★★NOTES 注释★★★ [15] redneck n.【无礼用语】 【俚语】 红脖子,乡下佬(对属于农村劳动阶层、从事露天劳动,特别是美 国南方这一阶层白人的贬称) ;红脖子(被认为是持有狭隘保守,经常是有偏见的社会政治观点的人) [16]flash their money 炫耀他们是有钱人 flash vt.& n.【俚语】 招摇(庸俗华丽的或炫耀式的展览)=flaunt “The antique flash and trash of an older southern California have given way to a sleeker age of cultural hip” (Newsweek)“旧南加州往日的炫丽与糟粕,早已被文化嬉皮的时髦时代取代”(新闻周刊) [17] nouveaux adj.新近到达的,新近产生的 chasseur n.(法语)猎人 strut vi.昂首阔步,神气十足地走 [18]toff:n.有钱人,花花公子 [19]flush:v.惊起,从隐蔽处赶出 [20]squall:vi.狂风吹袭;狂叫,狂吹 n.尖叫声 补充背景材料: Gosford Park: 《高斯福德庄园》是一部电影的片名,又译作《迷雾庄园》 ,故事发生在 30 年代的英国,高 斯福德庄园名流云集。富有的庄园主威廉?麦考德和妻子西尔维娅邀请了一些朋友举办狩猎会。客人包括 西尔维娅的姨妈康斯坦丝伯爵夫人,西尔维娅的姐夫安东尼?梅瑞蒂斯,大明星艾维?诺威鲁,以及美国电 影制片人莫里斯?魏斯曼——他来英国为他的下一部“陈查里”电影作准备。 热闹的庄园里还有一群人, 他们构成了与上流社会相对的另一个群体。 这是庄园以及各位来宾的仆人侍从。
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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 男管家詹宁斯统管男仆,不过他的工作可不轻松,这其中有几个令人头疼的“特殊人” :英俊潇洒的帕克 斯自小在孤儿院长大,性格孤僻,我行我素;魏斯曼的侍从亨利也搅得庄园颇为不安。女管家威尔森太太 则指挥着一干女仆,其中最突出的是年轻活泼的艾丽丝。 伯爵夫人的女仆玛丽是个天真的女孩,她好奇地观察着这座庄园里的各色人等,逐渐发现原来上流社 会和仆人的世界之间并没有截然分离的界线,相反,这两个世界由于种种复杂的关系产生了千丝万缕的联 系,庄园轻松闲适的气氛下其实埋藏着令人不安的因子。 麦考德先生的富有使不少人都得依附于他, 其中包括伯爵夫人和梅瑞蒂斯。 但麦考德似乎并不受欢迎, 女厨克劳福特太太就对他颇有怨词。性格乖戾的伯爵夫人亦不招人喜欢。西尔维娅表面上高贵优雅,其实 她已经有了外遇。梅瑞蒂斯曾经是战争英雄,但如今已破产,正急切地需要麦考德为他投资。亨利是个投 机分子,他来到庄园后立刻就开始追逐上流社会的富婆,另一方面也不忘与女仆们调情。帕克斯由于种种 原因成了众人瞩目的对象之后,自然对亨利的放纵十分不满。女仆艾丽丝则与麦考德先生关系暧昧?? 麦考德先生的死把庄园带入了惊恐的气氛中:他被人谋杀在书房里。庄园里的不少人似乎都有杀人的 动机,这起案件一时间扑朔迷离。警察局的探长汤普森奉命前来调查,但这个装模作样的家伙看起来没多 大本事,或许他们真需要一位“陈查里”来侦破这起谋杀案?? the Deer Hunter:同样是一部电影,可译为《猎鹿人》《猎鹿者》《越战猎鹿人》等,剧情:宾夕法尼亚 、 、 州三个年轻的钢铁工人迈克尔(Michael) ,史蒂文(Steven)和尼克(Nick) ,在越南战争时来到了越南。 在离开美国时,史蒂文与已怀孕的安吉拉(Angela)结了婚,他们的婚礼也是这三个年轻人的告别聚会。 婚礼结束后,三个人一同去打猎,迈克尔以神奇的枪法击中了一头雄鹿,但他仍神情抑郁,因为在他心中 这就等于在拿生命做赌注。在战场上,他们三人没过多久就都成了越南士兵的俘虏,越南士兵逼迫他们用 左轮手枪玩俄罗斯轮盘赌,尼克被吓得半死,迈克尔却很镇定,他还乘机抢了越南士兵的枪,与同伴一同 逃出了俘虏营,但逃出后大家又失散了。迈克尔和史蒂文回到了美国,史蒂文终身残废,住在疗养院中不 愿回家, 迈克尔虽然无恙, 但精神上已不复当年, 他与尼克的女朋友琳达同居。 当迈克尔得知尼克还活着, 并且住在西贡时,他来到了越南并找到了尼克,但此时的尼克已麻木不仁,尼克在迈克尔面前玩俄罗斯轮 盘赌,这一次他饮弹而亡。 《猎鹿人》是反思越战的经典之一,影片并没有下大笔墨去描绘战争的惨烈场面和宏大气势,而是将重点 放在表现战争对人内心造成的影响与创伤,以和平年代的亲情友情反衬出战争对人异化的恐怖可憎。德尼 罗、斯特里普和沃肯等几位主要演员在片中的表现可圈可点,他们精准却不夸张的表演很好地诠释出战争 给人带来的悲哀。值得一提的是片中另一位演员约翰·卡泽勒,他在未拍摄完前因患骨癌去世,没有看到 《猎鹿人》最终的辉煌成就,也未能与未婚妻梅丽尔·斯特里普结为百年之好,相当令人遗憾。不过值得 欣慰的是,这位神情忧郁的演员却为影迷留下了 5 部记忆深刻的影片,除了本片,其余分别是:科波拉的 《教父 1、2》与《对话》 ,以及西德尼·吕美特的《炎热午后》 (Dog Day Afternoon, 1975) 。

TEXT 10

Ominous
Feb 23rd 2006 From The Economist print edition FOR most of the past three years, the highly pathogenic bird flu k________① as H5N1 has been found mainly in Asia. Suddenly it has arrived in many countries in Europe, triggering widespread alarm. The detection of the virus in wild birds across Europe is certainly a cause for concern, particularly to Europe's poultry farmers▲, who are rightfully worried that the presence of the virus in wild birds will increase the risk to their flocks. However, in
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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong the m_________② of a European debate about the benefits of vaccinating chickens and whether or not poultry should be brought indoors, there is a danger that far more significant events elsewhere will be ★overlooked[1]. In particular, most attention should be f________③ on the fact that bird flu is now widespread in the poultry flocks of two nations in Africa—Egypt and Nigeria—and in India. And on the fact that, in Nigeria, the disease is continuing to spread despite great efforts undertaken by the government. An outbreak in Afghanistan also appears to be inevitable. Arguably, these matter much more than the (also inevitable) arrival of the disease in Europe▲. Poor countries with large rural populations are in a far weaker position to handle, and ★stamp out[2], outbreaks of bird flu in poultry, through both ★culling[3] and the prevention of the movement of animals in the surrounding areas. In Africa and India, chickens and ducks are far more likely to be found ★roaming[4] in people's backyards, where they can mingle with humans, other d________④ animals and wildlife, thus spreading the disease. In Europe, by c_______⑤, most poultry are kept in regulated commercial farms. The opening up of a new African front for the bird-flu virus▲ is a problem because eradication there will be tremendously difficult. There is a high risk that the disease will spread to other countries on the continent and it could easily become endemic—as it has in Asia. This offers the virus huge new scope to mutate▲ and become a disease that can pass between humans. The virus is certainly mutating—genetic changes have already affected its biological behaviour, although apparently not yet its transmission between humans. Experts are unsure as to how much, and what kind, of genetic changes would be required for the virus to become a global health threat. N_____⑥ do they know how long this process might take. But to ★dwell on[5] the increased risk of a pandemic of influenza is to miss a serious point about the direct risks posed by the loss of a large numbers of chickens and ducks across Africa. For some time, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation has been warning that if avian flu gets out of c_______⑦ in Africa, it will have a devastating impact on the livelihoods of millions of people. Poultry is a vital source of protein. For example, it provides almost 50% of the protein in the diet of Egyptians. The spread of a disease that is highly lethal to poultry, and requires culling, could have a ★dire[6] nutritional impact, there as elsewhere▲. Africa would also have to contend with huge economic losses. People who ★scratch out[7] a living in poor African nations simply cannot a_______⑧ to lose their chickens. Most of the world's poor live in rural areas and depend on agriculture. In Africa, rather a lot of these poor people depend heavily on their poultry. It is easy to see why some believe that bird flu could turn out to be primarily a development—rather than just a health—issue for the whole African continent. No game of chicken What can be done? It is clear that the movement and trade of poultry is making a big contribution to the spread of the virus. That trade needs tighter regulation, as does the movement of live birds from countries with H5N1 infections. In such places trade should be suspended u_______⑨ flocks have been cleaned up. In addition, Nigeria and surrounding countries need serious public-education campaigns about the danger of contact with dead birds. When outbreaks o______ ⑩ , governments should immediately offer realistic compensation to farmers for birds lost to disease and culling▲. Without this, poor farmers will be tempted to hide bird-flu outbreaks and continue to sell poultry that should be culled. Farming practices that mix poultry
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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong species in farms or live animal markets are a danger too, and must be addressed—although that might take longer. The effort would be helped if those in the poultry industry and governments in poultry-exporting nations would stop simply pointing to the risks posed by wild birds and start paying more attention to the movement of animals, products and people from infected to un-infected regions and countries. Unusually for a complex problem with international ★ramifications[8], money is available to make a serious attempt at tackling it▲—$1.9 billion was pledged by the world's wealthier nations last month in Beijing. There is no excuse for delay, unless we want more dead people to follow lots more dead ducks. ☆★注释☆★ [1]overlook vt.(1)俯瞰,俯视 The house on the hill overlooks the village. 从小山上的房子可以俯视村庄。 (2)忽略;没注意;漏看 You have overlooked several of the mistakes in this work. 你忽略了这个工作中的几个错误。 The secretary is very careful and never overlooks any little points. 秘书是个很细心的人她从不忽视细节。 [2]stamp out 扑灭,踩灭;毁灭,根除 =do away with; eradicate [3]cull vt.挑出老弱或劣质动物杀死:Every year the groups of seals that live off our coasts are culled because they eat too much fish. 每年居住在我们海岸边的海豹群都被人挑出一部分杀死,因为他们吃掉太多的鱼。 [4]roam vi.& vt. 游荡;闲逛 The visitors roamed around the town.这些来访者在城里游逛。 [5]dwell on vt.细想,说得过于详细: Don't dwell so much on your past.过去的事不必再长篇大论了。 [6]dire adj.(1)迫切的,重大的(指需要;危险) :be in dire need of food 极需食物 (2)可怕的:a dire warning 可怕的预兆 [7]scratch a living =to scrape a living (收入)勉强足以糊口 [8]ramification n.(通常复数)分支,支派(尤指看法、规律等)(网状组织的)分支,支流,分叉:the ; ramifications of a business/of a railway system 商店分号/铁路系统分支

不祥之兆(全文)
过去的近三年中,H5N1 型高致病性禽流感主要出现在亚洲,如今已波及许多欧洲国家,为我们敲响了疫 情广泛流行的警钟。从途经欧洲的野生禽类体内检测出的禽流感病毒肯定让人们感到担忧,尤其是对于欧 洲家禽养殖农户而言更是如此。这些农户担心野生禽类携带的病毒将危及到他们的家禽,这种担心无可厚 非。不过,在关于给鸡注射疫苗到底有没有用以及应不应该对家禽实行圈养的这场争论中,欧洲人可能会 忽视别的一些极为重要的事情,这很危险。 需要特别指出的是, 目前禽流感疫情在非洲的两个国家——埃及和尼日利亚——以及印度家禽中已经蔓延 开来,而且在尼日利亚,虽然政府已全力以赴,但疫情仍在不断地扩散。阿富汗发生疫情暴发流行似乎也 在所难免。人们对此应当予以高度重视。 也许可以这么说,相比疫情进入欧洲(同样不可避免)而言,这些更至关紧要。贫穷国家农村人口多,对 家禽中暴发的禽流感疫情处置和扑灭能力,都远远弱于欧洲国家,无论是通过控制和阻止周边地区内动物 的流动。在非洲和印度,人们的院子里来回走动的鸡、鸭随处可见,它们与人群、其他家畜以及野生动物
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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 密切接触后,疫情遂得以传播。而在欧洲,大多数家禽都养殖在管控严格的经济农场中。 禽流感病毒新近侵入非洲为人们提出了一个难题,因为那里的人要想根除疫情将非常困难。疫情很可能会 蔓延到欧洲其他国家,而且会跟亚洲一样,无疑将导致地方性流行,从而增加了病毒变异的可能性,人畜 禽流感就会变成人与人之间传播的疾病。的确,禽流感病毒正在发生变异——很显然,基因上的改变尚未 引起病毒在人间传播,但已经对病毒的生物学特性产生影响。至于病毒变异为人间传播类型从而威胁人类 健康,其基因到底需要改变多少和发生何种改变,有关专家还难以确定,也无从知晓这种变异到底需要多 长时间。 但是,过分关注禽流感大流行的危险,就会无法认识到非洲大陆丧失大批鸡、鸭所带来的直接威胁。联合 国粮农组织曾一度发出警告,非洲禽流感疫情一旦失控,数百万人的生计将遭到灭顶之灾。家禽是蛋白质 的重要来源,比如埃及人饮食中摄取的蛋白质 50%来自家禽。不论在哪里,一种对家禽极具毁灭性的疫病 流行,必然导致家禽(染病的以及可疑病禽)被大范围捕杀,从而可能引发严重的营养问题。此外,非洲 还必须应付巨大的经济损伤。对非洲穷国中靠养鸡勉强糊口的人们来说,鸡没了,这日子就完全过不下去 了。世界上大多数穷人居住在农村,以农为生,而非洲这些人中一多半又主要依靠家禽养殖维持生计。所 以不难理解,为什么有人认为,禽流感所引发的不仅仅是健康问题,更主要的还是发展问题。 别拿鸡当儿戏 如何是好呢?显而易见,家禽的流动和交易对禽流感病毒的播散起到了很大作用。我们必须对禽类交易以 及来自 H5N1 病毒感染疫区国家的活禽流动进行严格管控。在病禽尚未彻底扑杀之前,这些地区应当停止 禽类交易。 此外,尼日利亚及其周边国家要认真开展教育活动,让民众认识到接触死禽的危险性。各国政府在疫情暴 发时,应当立即向农民提供相应补偿,以弥补因家禽染病以及大范围扑杀给他们造成的损失。若非如此, 穷苦的农民就会冒险隐情不报,继续售卖那些本应被扑杀的家禽。同时,农民习惯在农场或者活禽交易市 场将不同禽类混养混卖,这也很危险,必须处理妥当——尽管也许这需要更长时间。如果禽类产业人士和 家禽输出国政府不再只强调野生禽类的危害,而开始高度重视动物、禽类产品以及人群在有疫情和无疫情 国家及地区之间的流动,上述疫情防控措施才会不至于白费力气。 异乎寻常地是,为了认真解决一个如此纷繁复杂的国际性问题,所需资金已然到位——上个月世界一些富 裕国家在北京承诺将拨款 19 亿美元。我们没有任何理由拖延下去,除非希望在死了很多鸭子之后再死去 更多的人。 完形填空答案(以原文为准,请自行辨析) : ①known ②midst ③focused ④domestic ⑤contrast ⑥Nor ⑦control ⑧afford ⑨until ⑩occur

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