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新版新目标英语八年级下册unit10知识点总结


Unit 10

I ’ve had this bike for three years.

Section A 1. for +一段时间 表示动作持续一段时间,用于现在完成时 2.keep (kept ; kept)保留 用作系动词,保持(某种状态) ,其后常接形容词作表语。 Please keep quiet / silent! 请保持安静! 用作实义动词 (1)保管;保存;保留 Please keep these things for me while I am away. (2)赡养;饲养 I used to keep sheep in my childhood. (3)坚持;继续 接 V-ing 形式作宾语。 If you keep practicing your spoken English, you'll soon make great progress. (4)阻止;阻碍 keep sb/sth from doing sth 其中介词 from 不能省略 The heavy rain didn't keep them from watching the football match. (5)保持 其后常接复合宾语,表示使(某人或某物)保持某种状态或使某一动作继续。 ① keep + sb/sth + 介词 If your hands are cold, keep them in your pockets. ② keep + sb/sth + 形容词 These gloves will keep your hands warm. ③ keep + sb/sth + V-ing ,“让某人 / 某物一直……”,强调动作的持续性。 I'm sorry I've kept you waiting. 很抱歉,让你久等了。 keep a record 保持记录, keep in touch (with)保持与……的联系 keep out (of) 把……关在外面 keep up 保持;使……不能入睡 keep one's / an eye on 密切注视 keep away (from) 离开 keep in mind 牢记 keep one's word 遵守诺言 3.bring back (v+adv) 使回想起;使回忆起 4.in need 需要;需求 in danger 在危险中 in trouble 在困境中 in silence 在沉默中 A friend in need is a friend indeed. 患难见真情

in good health 在好的健康状态中

5. no more ;not … anymore/ no longer ;not... any longer 不再 词语 同义词 用法 no longer not… any longer 强调时间或动作“不再延续” , 与延续性动词连用 no more not … any more 强调数量和程度“不再增加” , 与非延续性动词连 用 位置区别:当修饰动词时,no longer 通常置于 be 或行为动词前;no more 一般置于行为动词后。 not... any longer 与 not... any more 常置于句末。 He can no longer walk. = He can’t walk any longer The little girl no more cried. = The little girl didn’t cry any more. 6.since 自从 Since +从句(一般过去时) ,主句用现在完成时 He has studied very hard since he came to our school. since 与 for 在现在完成时态中的用法 since 其后接时间点或时态为一般过去时的句子, 表示某 I’ve been a soldier since two years 事是从什么时候开始的 ago for 其后接时间段,表示某事持续了多长时间 I’ve been a soldier for two years. 7. for 给;为了 介词 for 用法归纳 (1)(表目的)为了。They went out for a walk. 他们出去散步了。 (2)(表利益)为,为了。 What can I do for you? 你想要我什么?

8.a couple of 几个;一些= a few 后接可数名词复数 a couple of 一对 ,优指夫妻、情侣 I’ll be back in _______________days. (几天) 9.a bit 稍微;有点儿 (1)a bit 和 a little 在肯定句中, 修饰动词、形容词、副词和比较级,"一点儿"。 The speaker spoke up a bit/a little so as to make himself heard more clearly. 演讲者把嗓门提高了一点儿,以便使别人听得更清楚。 (2)a little 可以直接作定语修饰名词, a bit 修饰名词,需后面加 of 构成短语 ,两者都只能修饰不可数名词 There is a little/a bit of food left for lunch. 午饭只能吃剩下的一点食品了。 10.check out 查看;观察 check v 检查 11. grow up 成长 (常用于指人或动物) 12.clear out 清理;把……清空 clean up 清理;使整洁 13. decide v 决定→-decision n 决定 (1)decide to do sth= make up one’s mind to do sth 决定做某事 (2)make a decision 做决定 14.no longer = not ... any long 不再 【在句中位置】no longer 位于助动词、情态动词或实意动词之后; not ... any longer not 常与助动词或情态动词连用,any longer 位于句末。 I no longer live in this city. = I don’t live in this city any longer. 【辨析】 no longer, not ... any longer; no more , not... any more. 词语 同义词 用法 no longer not ... any longer 强调时间或动作“不再延续” ,与延续动词连用 no more not ... any more 强调数量和程度“不再增加” 与非延续动词连用 He can no longer walk = He can’t walk any longer. I have no more money to give you.= I don’t have money to give you any more. 15.own v 拥有→owner n 物主 of one’s own 某人自己的 16.lose (lost , lost) 失去 I hope we won’t lose the competition. 17.part with 与……分开;失去(尤指舍不得的东西) They were sorry to part with the old house. the owner of … ……的所有者

18. certain (1) 某种; 某事;某人 (在句中只能做定语,常与不定代词 a 连用,可修饰单、复数名词) A certain person called on me yesterday. (2) adj. 确实的,无疑的 be certain of 对某事有把握 They are certain of success. be certain to do sth 肯定做某事 He is certain to come. be certain +that 确信 I’m certain that he’ll come. 19.as for 至于;关于 (后跟名词、代词或动名词作宾语) As for computer, I’m not telling you anything. 20.to be honest = to tell (you) the truth 老实说;说实话 honest adj. 诚实的(反)dishonest adj. 不诚实的 an honest boy 一个诚实的男孩 【注】honest 以元音音素开头,所以前面的定冠词要用 an. 21.for a while 一会儿

22.do with 处理;对付(某人或某物) deal with 处理 与 how 连用 do with 处理 与 what 连用 do with 处理;安置,强调处理的对象,常与 what 连用 I don’t know what to do with these letters. deal with 处理;应付,强调处理的方式、方法,常与 how 连用 He taught me how to deal with pressure. Section B- Self Check 1. by (1)by doing sth 通过…方式 by studying with a group 【注】介词短语作方式状语,回答以 How 开头的问句, 表示“怎样做”。 (2) by+ 交通工具(交通工具前不能加限定词) by bike by train by the way 顺便问一下 by accident= by chance 偶然地 by mistake 错误地 one by one 一个接一个 step by step 一步一步地 little by little 逐渐地 by the time 到……为止 by oneself 独自地 by and by 不久之后 2. once or twice 一两次 once = one time 一次 twice= two times 两次 four times 四次 three or four times 三到四次 三次或三次以上用:“基数词+times”three times 三次 3. search v 搜索;搜查 【记】research v 研究,调查 → search 4. among among between

search for 寻找;搜寻

They searched for him.

prep 在(其中) ; …….之一 介词,表示在三个或三个以上的人或物之中 介词;表示两者之间 between … and …

The girl disappeared among the crowd I sit between Sue and Jane.

5.last (1)adj. 刚过去的;最后的 6.return (1) v 回;返回

last time at last 最后

(2) v 持续 (可以跟一段时间连用)

He returned home yesterday.

(2) v 归还;放回 He returned her book

7. be back 返回 (强调状态,若表示“回到某地” 则要在其后加介词 to) We are all happy to be back to school after the long holiday. go back 走回来 get back 回去 come back 回来 give back 归还 run back 跑回 8. shame n 羞耻;羞愧;惭愧 It’s a shame to do sth 做某事是可耻的 It’s a shame to lie. 在口语中常用 That’s a shame! / It’s a shame! /What a shame!” 真遗憾;多可惜啊 9. regard 将……认为,把……视为 regard…with… 对……持某种态度 regard … as … 把…… 当作…… I regard you as my friend. 10.be true of 符合于;对……适用 11.count v 数数 The little girl can count. 12. century n 百年;世纪 世纪的表达法:

look back 回顾

(1)表示多少世纪要用序数词,序数词前一定要加 the. 在……世纪 in the + 序数词 + century He was born in the 20th century. (2)表示某世纪某年代,首先要用定冠词,然后在年代后加 s. …….世纪…… 年代 in 1840 是= 1840’s 19 世纪 40 年代 the 1860s 19 世纪 60 年代 13. according to + 名词 依据;按照

14.opposite (1) prep 对面的;另一边的 = across from. We live on the opposite side of the street. (2)adj. 相对的;相反的 15. a symbol of … ……的象征 Blue is a symbol of peace. 16.in one’s time 在某人一生中 = in one’s life In my time, my happiest thing is that I met you. 17.especially 尤其;特别;格外 侧重强调某物超过其他全部,突出特别的程度。 He is especially busy this week. specially = on purpose“特意地;专门地” , 着重为了某一目的而“专门地、特别地” 18. memory 回忆;记忆→memorize v 记忆,背诵 lose one’s memory 失去记忆 have a good / bad memory 记忆力好/ 坏 19. consider v 考虑=think about consider doing sth 考虑做某事 后跟动名词的动词和短语: 完成,实践, 值得, 忙(finish, practice, be worth, be busy) 考虑,建议,不禁, 想 (consider, suggest, can’t help, feel like) 错过,习惯,放弃 (miss, be used to, give up ) 继续,喜欢,介意 ( keep on, enjoy, mind) 20. in one’s opinion 介词短语 依……看;据……看来;……. 认为 . 通常放在句首,用逗号把它和句子隔开,与介词短语 according to … 意义相近。 21. hold (held; held) 拥有,抓住 hold a sports meeting 举行一场运动会 22.so far 到现在为止

hold back 阻挡

hold on 等等;别挂电话

hold on to 坚持

用于现在完成时中,它表示过去发生的动作延续到现在。

23. friend n 朋友 → friendly adj. 有好的 → friendship n 友谊 (1) make friends 交朋友 (2) make friends with sb. 与某人交朋友 (3)be friendly to 对….友好


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