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学生版专题十一 名词性从句


专题十一 名词性从句 考点荟萃 名词性从句一直备受高考命题者的关注,近几年来的高考题主要考查在具体语境中连接词的选 择,尤其是连接词 what 和 that 的辨析,以及 whether 与 if 表示“是否”时的区别。因此,正确 区分名词性从句的类型, 根据在从句中的作用和所表达的意义, 确定恰当的连接词是一轮复习的 重点。此外,名词性从句和定语从句的辨析,也是高考考查的重点。 考点解读 一、认识各种名词性从句 名词性从句相当于名词,可分别作句子的主语、表语、宾语和同位语。因此,名词性从句 具体分为主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句和同位语从句。名词性从句中的连接词有连词 that / whether / if,连接代词 what / who(m)/ which / whose / whatever / whoever / whomever / whichever,连接副词 where / when / why / how 。 从名词性从句在句中所起的作用来说, 名词性从句是句子不可缺少的一部分, 和句子的其他成分 之间也不会用逗号隔开。 而定语从句和状语从句是句子中的修饰成分, 去掉之后不会影响句子主 体结构的完整性。这是判断是否是名词性从句最主要的特征。如: I wonder how much these shoes cost. (宾语从句,不可省去) He is the very man I look after. (定语从句,修饰 the man) You may borrow the book as long as you keep it clean. (状语从句)

1. 主语从句 Who will go is not important. It doesn't matter so much whether you will come or not. (形式主语 it 代替后面的真正 的主语从句) 注意:that 引导主语从句放于句首时,不能省略。 That he suddenly fell ill last week made us surprised. 2. 表语从句 The question was who could go there. My idea is that we can get more people to help in the work. That is why the brothers wanted to make a bet. It looked as if it was going to rain.
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3 . 宾语从句 I hope (that) everything is all right. 注意:(1)that 在引导宾语从句时,常可省略,但如果有两个以上的宾语从句时,最后一个 从句的 that 不能省略。如: I know (that) he has just graduated from college and that he is looking for a job. (2) 如果动词宾语后又有补语,那么要使用 it 作形式宾语,然后把宾语从句放在补语之后。如: I make it known that we'll be invited to the ball. (3) 如果主句的谓语动词的时态是一般过去时,那么从句的时态要采用相应的与过去有关的时 态,但如果从句描述的是客观事实,从句时态不可调整“呼应”。如: She remembered that she had left her wallet at the school gate. Our teacher said that light travels faster than sound. 4. 同位语从句 同位语从句在句中作某一名词的同位语, 一般位于该名词(如: news, fact, idea, suggestion, promise 等)之后,说明该名词的具体内容。如: I have no idea when he will be back. The fact that he had not said anything surprised everybody.

注意: 在动词: 一坚持(insist)、 二命令(order, command)、 三建议(suggest, advise, recommend)、 四要求(demand,require,request,ask)后的宾语从句和这些动词的过去分词后的主语从句, 以及这些动词的名词引出的表语从句和同位语从句中,谓语部分常用(should)do 形式。如: He insisted that he (should) try once again. His advice is that everyone (should) do his best to help the poor girl. It is required that students (should) attend at least 90% of the lectures.

二、名词性从句的连接词 名词性从句的连接词是名词性从句中最核心的问题,也是高考的常考点。连接词的选择要 考虑它在从句中的作用和所表达的意义。

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在句中所 连接词 词义 作成分 The problem is that we don't have 从 属 连 词 The if/ whether 是否 / question is that / / enough money. 例句

whether they have so much money.

在句中所 连接词 词义 作成分 例句

who/ whom/ which/ whose/ 连 接 代 词 whoever/ whomever / which ever/ whatever what

原疑问代词的意义; what 更 常 表 示: the thing that /

①Pay attention to what 主语、宾语、表 语、定语 the teacher said. ②Who kept the door open all night was

the …that 所 …… 的东 西/……

unknown.

①Whoever breaks the 无 论 谁 / 无 论 哪 个 主语、宾语、表 law will be punished. (些)/无论什么 语、定语 ②You can take whichever book you like.

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在句中所 连接词 词义 作成分 例句

①When he will go is 连 接 副 词 原疑问副词的意义或 “…… 的时 when/ where/ why/ how 间(the time when);……的地 点(the place where); ……的原 状语 因(the reason why)”; ……的方 式(the way that) unknown. ②I wonder

why he tried to avoid me. ③This room is where I was born. ④This is how we work.

误区点拨 1. what 与 that (1) 【误】 All what he did was for you. 【正】 【正】 (2) 【误】 I was thinking that I could do for you. 【正】 2. who 与 whoever 【误】 Who is the first to come will get a gift. 【正】 【正】 3. whether 与 if (1) 【误】 They don't know if to go there. 【正】

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(2) 【误】 It depends on if we have enough time. 【正】 【解析】 在以下情况只能用 whether 不能用 if:



作介词宾语时,连接词一般用 whether。 It all depends on whether they will come back.



后面直接跟 or not 时,用 whether。 I didn't know whether or not he had arrived in Wuhan.



主语从句、表语从句和同位语从句中,只能用 whether。 Whether the meeting will be put off has not been decided yet. The question is whether they have so much time.



whether 可与动词不定式连用,但 if 不能。 I have not decided whether to go or not.



whether 可引导一个让步状语从句,表示“不管,无论”,而 if 不能。 Whether he comes or not, we will begin our party on time.

4. whoever 与 whomever 【误】 Please give the book to whomever needs it most. 【正】 5. 【误】 He will win the match is certain. 【正】 【正】 6. 【误】 What we bought was some bananas. 【正】 7. 名词性从句的语序 【误】 So now you know what should you do. 【正】 8. 【误】 【正】 9. 【误】 He is late. That's why he got up late this morning. 【正】
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There's a fact that English is being accepted as an important language.

10. 【误】 We'll discuss the problem that the sports meeting will be held in Beijing Stadium. 【正】 实战演练 1. [2010· 全国卷Ⅰ] We haven't discussed yet ________ we are going to place our new furniture. A.that B.which C.what D.where

2. [2009· 北京卷] At first he hated the new job but decided to give himself a few months to see ________it got any better. A.when B.how C.why D.if

3. [2010· 全国卷Ⅱ] —Have you finished the book? —No. I've read up to ________ the children discover the secret cave. A.which B.what C.that D.where

4. [2010· 福建卷] We should respect food and think about the people who don't have ________ we have here and treat food nicely. A.that B.which C.what D.whether

5.________ the flight to New York will be delayed is ________I'm especially worried about. A.If; what C.When; that B.Whether; that D.Whether; what

6. [2010· 重庆卷] To improve the quality of our products ,we asked for suggestions ________ had A.whoever C.whichever used the products. B.who D.which

7. [2010· 北京卷] ________some people regard as a drawback is seen as a plus by many others. A.Whether 8. B.What C.That D.How

[2010· 北京卷] I want to be liked and loved for ________I am inside. A.who B.where C.what D.how

9 . [2010·北 京 卷 ] Part of the reason Charles Dickens loved his own novel , David
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Copperfield,was ________ it was rather closely modeled on his own life. A.what B.that C.why D.whether

10.Mum is coming. What present________ for your birthday? A.you expect she has got B.you expect has she got C.do you expect she has got D.do you expect has she got 11.People believe that there is no doubt ________a cure for H1N1 has been found. A.which B.that C.what D.whether

12.[2010· 江苏卷] —I prefer shutting myself in and listening to music all day on Sundays. —That's ________ I don't agree. You should have a more active life. A.where B.how C.when D.what

13.Father made a promise ________I passed the examination he would buy me a new dictionary. A.that B.if C.whether D.that if

14.________ children should learn from around us is a question of great importance. A.Where B.Whom C.When D.How

15.—Alice looks blue today. —Yes, I asked her, but she wouldn't say ________ troubled her. A.why was it that C.it was what B.that was why D.what it was that

16.[2010· 浙江卷] —How about camping this weekend,just for a change? —OK,________you want. A.whichever C.whatever B.however D.whoever

17.[2010· 陕西卷] It never occurred to me ________you could succeed in persuading him to change his mind. A.which B.what C.that D.if

18. [2010· 四川卷] How much one enjoys himself traveling depends largely on ________ he goes with,whether his friends or relatives.
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A.what

B.who

C.how

D.why

19.—You know, I'm poor in Chinese; you are not good at English, and … —That's ________ we should help each other. A.when B.where C.how D.that

20.The free tickets will go to ________ comes first to the concert. A.whoever C.whichever B.whomever D.no matter who

模拟演练 1 . (2011·陕西西安分科质检 )After working on the maths problem for hours , he found________he thought was the key to it. A.what C.where B.that D.which

2.(2011· 济南第二次统考)The hospital nearby has just got a,________you’d call it, er...a scanner. A.that C.what B.which D.how possible for

3 . (2011·潍 坊 质 量 监 测 )Sometimes advertisements make companies to sell the customers ________money can not buy. A./;that C.that;which B.it;what D.it;whose

4.(2011· 四川绵阳模拟)Most of________we call geniuses (天才) are successful only because they have made extraordinary efforts. A.whom C.which B.who D.what

5 . (2011·宁 夏 银 川 调 研 )She is very dear to us.We have been prepared to do________it takes to save her life. A.whichever C.whatever B.however D.whoever

6.(2010· 西城 5 月)—Why are you staring at me? —You look stupid!The way you wear is________annoys me most. A.which B.where C.how D.what

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7. (2011· 湖北武汉联考)Faced with trouble or difficulty, a person takes ________help that is available. A.whatever C.wherever B.whenever D.however

8.(2011· 浙江温州联考)The fact has worried many scientists________the earth is becoming warmer and warmer these years. A.what C.that B.which D.though

9.(2011· 日照市调研考试)—Do you know her? —No. Her name rings a bell but I can’t remember________I read it before. A.where C.that B.what D.if

10. (2011· 南通一模)________there are living creatures in the outer space as those on Earth hasn’t been proved until now. A.How C.Where B.When D.Whether

11.(2011· 南通二模)—He is eager to try something he has never tried before. —Oh,I see. That’s ________he’s different from others. A.when C.how B.where D.what

12 . (2010·贵 阳 部 分 学 校 联 考 )The painting is so valuable that it is difficult to calculate________its price would be. A.that B.which C.what D. /

13.(2010· 济南统考)The media today can draw public attention to________help is actually needed. A.that C.where B.which D.whose

14.(2010· 海淀一模)Sorry I’m so late,but you cannot imagine________great trouble I took to find your house. A.what B.how C.which D.why

15 . (2010·成 都 第 一 次 诊 断 )Professor Backman took up scientific research for decades,and this is________he devoted all his life to.

A.which B.what

C.where

D.how

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