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初二下 unit11 知识点讲解 1. laundry [C] 洗衣房 (pl.) laundries[ U] 待洗或刚洗过的衣物 She must put the laundry in drawers 2. sweep v. 扫 (swept swept) n. [C] 打扫,清扫 sweeper n. 清洁工,清扫器 Jim swept the path in front of the house. sweep the kitchen / the floor sweep sth away 扫除;消灭;摧毁 Houses were swept away by the floods. The kitchen needs a good sweep. a road sweeper 3. garbage n. [U] 垃圾 Can you take the garbage out when you go? garbage can 垃圾桶 garbage truck 垃圾车 garbage collector 垃圾清洁工 4.drawer [C] 抽屉 in the drawer 5.make the bed 铺床 ,叠被, 整理床铺 lie in bed 躺在床上 go to bed 上床睡觉 time for bed = time to go to sleep 到了睡觉的时候 6. put sth. away 把某物收拾起来(放回原处)e.g. Please put it / them away. put sth. into 把某物放入? ? e.g. Put dry laundry into drawers. 7. have to 不得不,必须 don’t have to = needn’t 不必 I have to hang the wet clothes outside. In the end, he had to go into a hospital. Do you often have to go to the dentist’s? The children don’t have to go to school on Sundays. 8. hang ---hanged---- hanged v. 吊死 Hang ---hung --- hung v. 悬挂 hang up 挂起; 挂断电话 hang on 挂上 Susan is hanging up her suit. After I hung up I realized I forgot to ask him his phone number Hang your coat on the hook. 9.blanket n. 毛毯, 毯子;厚层、厚的覆盖层 vt. 以厚层覆盖 be blanketed with (似) 用毯覆盖 The valley was covered with a blanket of snow. 山谷白雪如毯。 The valley was blanketed with snow.山谷中覆盖着如毯的白雪。 10..depend v. 依靠、依赖 dependent adj. dependence n. [U] ①depend on /upon 依靠于??. ②depend on sb. / sth. to do sth. All living things depend on the sun. You can’t depend on your parents forever. Good health depends on good food, exercise and getting enough sleep. He depends on you to help him.

11.neither (1) conj. neither? nor?“ 既不? ? 也不? ?”表示两者都不 She likes neither English nor French. He is neither a worker nor a teacher. 在句中连接两个主语时,就近原则,谓语动词与其最近的人称保持一致 Neither you nor I am tired. Neither you nor he is right. (2) adj. “两者都不(的), ”“两者中无一(的) ” 修饰名词做主语时,所修饰的名词和谓语动词都是单数形式。 Neither parent cares what happens to the child. Neither sentence is right. (3) pron. “两者中无人” 谓语动词用单数 Neither of them is on the team. Neither of us likes it. Would you like coffee or tea? Neither, thanks. (4) adv “也不” “He doesn’t go to school by bike”. “Neither / Nor do I” “I have never been to Paris before”. “Neither / Nor have we”. 12..spot n. 1)a point of interest: 名胜,观光点: There are a lot of spots to visit in the old city. 这座古城有许多可供参观的名胜。 2)a mark on a surface differing sharply in color from its surroundings. 斑点: 鲜明地区别于背景的表面颜色的标记。 She had spots on her face when she was ill. 当她生病的时候,她脸上有斑点。 3)地点;场所 This is a nice spot for a house. 这里是建房的好地方。 13. understand v. 理解、明白---understood--- understood He didn’t understand what I said. A good teacher must understand his children. understanding adj. 同情达理的 an understanding man n. 理解 13.. pillow n. 1)枕头 vt. 枕在??上;作为??的枕头 There are no pillows on the bed. 床上面根本没有枕头。 He used his boots for a pillow. 他用靴子作枕头。 He pillowed his head on a pile of books. 他枕在一堆书上。 pillow one’s head on one’s arm 把头枕在手臂上 14. spoon n. 勺子 spoonful n. 一匙量 a spoonful of sugar. two spoonfuls of sugar. 15. make sure of/ make sure (that)/ be sure of/ be sure to do/ be sure (that) 1) make sure of sth eg. Make sure of the time and places 2)make sure (that)?.

eg. Make sure that you will arrive there on time. * be sure of eg, He is sure of success. He was sure of winning the match. be sure to do eg. He is sure to be back soon. be sure (that) eg. I am sure I am right. 16..both… and.. either… or…. neither… nor… ①Both? and? “既? ? 又? ?”表示两者都肯定。 连接两个主语时,谓语动词用 复数 Both you and I are right. She can both sing and dance. ②Either? or? “或者? ?或者? ?” “要么? ?要么? ?” 表示选择,连接两 个主语时,就近原则,谓语动词与其最近的人称保持一致 Either you or I am right. She is either at home or in the school. ③Neither? nor?“ 既不? ?也不 ? ? ”表示两者都不。连接两个主语时,就近原 则,谓语动词与其最近的人称保持一致 Neither you nor I am right. 17.they both = both of them we both = both of us After breakfast , we both have to wash the dishes. 18. explain v. 解释,说明 explanation n. 解释 (1)explain sth to sb. e.g. The teacher explained the text to us. ( explain 不能接双宾语) (2) explain that.. eg. She explained that she had been ill. (3) explain ( to sb) why / how/ where etc e.g. She explained to me what had happened. She explained to us how this machine was used. 19. Also, I have to place my pillows in the right spots. = I have to put my pillows in the right places, too. 20.place (1)n. 地方,位置(2)v. 放置,安放 He placed the book back on the shelf. ①take place 发生 ②take the place of 代替,取代 ③in place 在适当的位置 ④in place of = instead of 代替 21.help (1) [U] n. She gave me a lot of help (2) v. ① help sb. (to) do sth. ②help sb. with sth. ③help sb. with doing sth. I have to help with breakfast every morning 22.I don’t have to cook = I needn’t cook. 23.It’s interesting to hear about your family.= To hear about your family is interesting. It’s +adj. +to do ? 结构 it 是形式主语, to do 不定式是句子的真正主语,可以换 成 To do ? is + adj, 的结构。 It’s important for us to learn English well. 24. “in the states = in the USA = in America In our homes in the States, the work is the same. 25. borrow sth. from “从? ? 借来某物”

e.g. He can borrow books from the library. Can I borrow one? lend sth to “把某物借给? ? e.g. Can you lend the book to me? = Can you lend me the book? ※keep “保持,保留” 为延续性动词。表示把某物“借”或“保留”多就是,要用 keep. 而不用 borrow, lend You can keep the book for one day only. How long can I keep the bike? 26. forget 与 leave ①forget 表示“忘记”带某物,其宾语是事物不跟地点或场所 You mustn’t forget your homework tomorrow. I forgot my umbrella when I left home this morning. ②leave 表示“把某物遗忘在某处” ,后必须跟地点场所 eg. I think I have left my bag on the bus. 语法 must 与 have to must 和 have to 都作 “必须”解,一般情况下可通用。 (1) must 表示“必须” ,侧重说话人的个人意志,主观看法或要求。have to 表示“不 得不”侧重外界的客观的需要。 What must you do before you go to bed tonight? = What must you do before going to bed tonight? What is one thing your must do around the house?你在家必须做的一项家务活是什么? You must stop smoking 你必须戒烟(个人的主观要求) You have to follow these rules. 你必须遵守这些规则。 (客观环境有这种要求) (2)have to 有时态和人称的变化,而 must 没有 e.g. He must say it in English. He has to say it in English (3) 表示否定时,两者的含义不同 must not = mustn’t “不许,禁止,一定不能” do not have to =don’t have to “不必” You mustn’t go now . 你现在不要走。You don’t have to go so early. 你不必走这么早 (4)must I ?..? 的否定回答 No, you needn’t. -- Must I stay here now? 我必须留在这儿吗? -- No, you needn’t . 不,你不必。 作文练习 We should put our things away. 我们应该把自己的物品整理好。 I usually set the table before the dinner. 我通常在吃晚饭前摆放餐具。 I often do the work around the house. 我经常做家务。 I am going to learn to do housework. 我将要学着做家务。

Who washes the dishes in your home? 在你家里谁洗碗? I can make the bed. 我会整理床铺。 I have to take the garbage outside every day. 我每天不得不把垃圾倒到外面。 Working around the house always keeps me busy. 我总是忙于做家务。 随着年龄的增长,我们逐渐学会了做家务,一家人相互配合其乐融融。那你家里家务活 都由谁来做呢? WORK AROUND THE HOUSE There are three people in my family. We have a nice and big house. It’s very hard for mother to clean the house. So father and I decide to share the work. Every morning father gets up earlier to cook breakfast. I have to make my bed and my mother sweeps the floor. After breakfast, I hurry to school. On weekend, are all busy. We do we housework together. My father has to put garbage outside. Mother has to sweep the floor and do the laundry. I have to set the table and wash the dishes. After that we are all tired. But we are all very happy when the room is clean. We enjoy working around the house. It brings us happiness.