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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 1

Rebuilding the American dream machine 重建美国梦机器
Jan 19th 2006 | NEW YORK From The Economist print edition FOR America's colleges, January is a month of reckoning. Most applications for the next academic year beginning in the autumn have to be made by the end of December, so a university's popularity is put to an objective standard: how many people want to attend. One of the more unlikely offices to have been flooded with mail is that of the City University of New York (CUNY), a public college that lacks, among other things, a famous sports team, bucolic campuses and raucous parties (it doesn't even have dorms), and, until recently, academic credibility. 对美国的大学而言, 一月是一个清算的月份。 大多数要进入将于秋季开学的下一学年学习的 申请必须在 12 月底前完成,因此一所大学的声望就有了客观依据:申请人的多少。纽约城 市大学,一所公立学院,与其他学校相比,它没有一支声名显赫的运动队,没有田园诗一般 的校园,也没有喧嚣嘈杂的派对——甚至连宿舍都没有,而且,直到最近也没取得学术上的 可信度,可就是这所大学的办公室塞满了学生们寄来的申请函,这简直有些令人难以置信。 A primary draw at CUNY is a programme for particularly clever students, launched in 2001. Some 1,100 of the 60,000 students at CUNY's five top schools receive a rare thing in the costly world of American colleges: free education. Those accepted by CUNY's honours programme pay no tuition fees; instead they receive a stipend of $7,500 (to help with general expenses) and a laptop computer. Applications for early admissions into next year's programme are up 70%. 城市大学主要吸引人的地方在于它为从 2001 年开始为聪明过人的学生所设立的培养计划。 6 万名城市大学的五所顶尖学院学生中,约有 1100 人能得到“免费教育” ,这在花费巨大的美 国大学界可是一件稀罕事。被纳入城市大学荣誉计划的学生无需支付学费,相反,他们还获 得一份 7500 美元的定期生活津贴(用于补助日常开销)以及一本笔记本电脑。这所学校申 请尽早被批准进入下一学年计划的学生达到了 70%。 Admission has nothing to do with being an athlete, or a child of an alumnus, or having an influential sponsor, or being a member of a particularly aggrieved ethnic group—criteria that are increasingly important at America's elite colleges. Most of the students who apply to the honours programme come from relatively poor families, many of them immigrant ones. All that CUNY demands is that these students be diligent and clever. 批准与否跟学生是不是一名运动员,或者是不是校友子弟,或者有没有颇具影响力的后台,

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 或者是不是某个爱打抱不平的民族社团成员, 都毫无干系——而这些在美国的知名学府中已 经日益成为重要标准。 申请加入荣誉计划的学生大多数来自相对贫困的家庭, 其中许多人都 是移民。城市大学唯一需要的就是这些学生必须勤奋并且聪颖。 Last year, the average standardised test score of this group was in the top 7% in the country. Among the rest of CUNY's students averages are lower, but they are now just breaking into the top third (compared with the bottom third in 1997). CUNY does not appear alongside Harvard and Stanford on lists of America's top colleges, but its recent transformation offers a neat parable of meritocracy revisited. 去年,城市大学学生的标准化考试平均分位居全美最高分的 7%之列。城市大学其他学生平 均分较低,但是他们即将冲进前三名(相比 1997 年的倒数前三名) 。城市大学无法与哈佛和 斯坦福这样的美国顶尖学校比肩,然而他们新近的转变让我清楚地领略到实力主义的再现。 (这一段请高手参详) Until the 1960s, a good case could be made that the best deal in American tertiary education was to be found not in Cambridge or Palo Alto, but in Harlem, at a small public school called City College, the core of CUNY. America's first free municipal university, founded in 1847, offered its services to everyone bright enough to meet its gruelling standards. 20 世纪 60 年代以前,有一个很好的例子可以拿来说一说,那就是美国高等教育管理最好的 并不在剑桥大学或者是 Palo Alto 大学,而是在哈莱姆(黑人住宅区) ,在一所名叫城市大学 的公立学校里,也就是纽约城市大学的核心地。美国第一所市立免费大学创建于 1847 年, 它为任何聪明才智足以应付其严格入学标准的人提供服务。 City's golden era came in the last century, when America's best known colleges restricted the number of Jewish students they would admit at exactly the time when New York was teeming with the bright children of poor Jewish immigrants. In 1933-54 City produced nine future Nobel laureates, including the 2005 winner for economics, Robert Aumann (who graduated in 1950); Hunter, its affiliated former women's college, produced two, and a sister branch in Brooklyn produced one. City educated Felix Frankfurter, a pivotal figure on the Supreme Court (class of 1902), Ira Gershwin (1918), Jonas Salk, the inventor of the polio vaccine (1934) and Robert Kahn, an architect of the internet (1960). A left-wing place in the 1930s and 1940s, City spawned many of the neo-conservative intellectuals who would later swing to the right, such as Irving Kristol (class of 1940, extra-curricular activity: anti-war club), Daniel Bell and Nathan Glazer. 城市大学的黄金时代开始于上个世纪, 那时美国最知名的大学都限制犹太人学生入学, 当时 纽约到处都是贫苦的犹太移民的聪明孩子。1933 年到 1954 年之间,城市大学培养出了 9 个 后来获得诺贝尔奖的人,其中包括 2005 年经济学奖获得者罗伯特?奥曼(毕业于 1950 年) 。 城市大学前附属女子学院则培养出两名诺贝尔奖获得者, 而其在布鲁克林的一所分校也培养 出一名。城市大学还培养出了最高法院的关键人物费利克斯?法兰克福(1902 届) 、埃拉?格 什温(1918 届) 、天花疫苗发明者乔纳斯?索尔克(1934 届)以及互联网设计者罗伯特?卡恩 (1960 届)等人。20 世纪三、四十年代,城市大学作为左翼分子活动区,城市大学孕育了 许多新保守主义知识分子,他们后来都转向了右翼,比如欧文?克里斯托(1940 届,校外活 动积极分子,参加过反战俱乐部) 、丹尼尔?贝尔和内森?格雷泽。

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong What went wrong? Put simply, City dropped its standards. It was partly to do with demography, partly to do with earnest muddleheadedness. In the 1960s, universities across the country faced intense pressure to admit more minority students. Although City was open to all races, only a small number of black and Hispanic students passed the strict tests (including a future secretary of state, Colin Powell). That, critics decided, could not be squared with City's mission to “serve all the citizens of New York”. At first the standards were tweaked, but this was not enough, and in 1969 massive student protests shut down City's campus for two weeks. Faced with upheaval, City scrapped its admissions standards altogether. By 1970, almost any student who graduated from New York's high schools could attend. 哪里出问题了呢?简单点说,就是城市大学降低了它的标准。这一部分与人口统计有关,一 部分与憨头憨脑的热忱有关。20 世纪 60 年代,全美的大学都面临着招收少数民族学生的强 大压力。 尽管城市大学对各色人种都敞开校门, 但也只有少数黑人和拉丁美洲裔学生能通过 严格的测试(其中包括后来成为国务卿的科林?鲍威尔) 。持批评意见的人士断定,这不符合 城市大学“服务于全纽约市民”的宗旨。起初,入学标准作了调整,但仍不够。1969 年, 学生大规模的抗议让城市大学停课两周。 面对突如其来的变化, 城市大学彻底废除了所有入 学标准。到 1970 年,几乎所有纽约高等中学毕业的学生都可以进入城市大学学习。 The quality of education collapsed. At first, with no barrier to entry, enrolment climbed, but in 1976 the city of New York, which was then in effect bankrupt, forced CUNY to impose tuition fees. An era of free education was over, and a university which had once served such a distinct purpose joined the muddle of America's lower-end education. 可是,教育质量却因此骤然下降。一开始,由于没有入学限制,报名上学的人数不断攀升, 但到了 1976 年,实际上已经陷入破产困境的纽约市,逼迫城市大学征收学费。免费教育的 时代终结了,一所曾经有如此独特办学取向的大学从此成了美国低端教育的乌合之众。 By 1997, seven out of ten first-year students in the CUNY system were failing at least one remedial test in reading, writing or maths (meaning that they had not learnt it to high-school standard). A report commissioned by the city in 1999 concluded that “Central to CUNY's historic mission is a commitment to provide broad access, but its students' high drop-out rates and low graduation rates raise the question: ‘Access to what?’ ” 直到 1997 年, 城市大学系统的新生十之有七未能通过阅读、 写作和数学中至少一门加试 (亦 即他们还未达到高中标准) 。1999 年纽约市府发布的一项报告总结认为, “纽约城市大学历 史性使命的核心是承担面对大众的教育义务, 但是学生的高退学率和低毕业率引发了这样一 个问题: ‘提供什么教育?’。 ” Using the report as ammunition, profound reforms were pushed through by New York's then mayor, Rudolph Giuliani, and another alumnus, Herman Badillo (1951), America's first Puerto Rican congressman. A new head of CUNY was appointed. Matthew Goldstein, a mathematician (1963), has shifted the focus back towards higher standards amid considerable controversy. 纽约市当时的市长鲁道夫?丘里安尼以及同样是城市大学校友(1951 届)的美国第一名波多 黎各裔议员赫尔曼?巴蒂洛,利用该报告为导火索,对城市大学进行了深入改革。一名新校 长上任,他叫马修?高德斯坦,是一名数学家。他把争议的焦点重新引回到了更高的入学标 准之上。

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong For instance, by 2001, all of CUNY's 11 “senior” colleges (ie, ones that offer full four-year courses) had stopped offering remedial education. This prompted howls from the teaching faculty, who said it would “create a ghetto-like separation between levels of colleges”, keeping black and Hispanic students out of the best schools. In fact, the racial composition of the senior schools, monitored obsessively by critics, has remained largely unchanged: one in four students at the senior colleges is black, one in five is Latino. A third have ties to Puerto Rico, Jamaica, China and the Dominican Republic. 例如,到 2001 年,所有城市大学的“高级学院” (亦即提供全部四年培养课程的学院)停止 提供加试教育,随即引起了教师们的强烈不满,他们认为这将“造成学院不同水平学生之间 如犹太人区一般的分裂” ,并将黑人和拉丁美裔学生拒之门外。事实上,批评家们一直关注 着,高级学院学生的种族构成大部分保持不变:高级学院学生中黑人占四分之一,拉丁美裔 人占五分之一,还有三分之一是波多黎各、牙买加、中国和多米尼加人后裔。 Admissions standards have been raised. Students applying to CUNY's senior colleges now need respectable scores on either a national, state or CUNY test, and the admissions criteria for the honours programme are the toughest in the university's history. Contrary to what Mr Goldstein's critics predicted, higher standards have attracted more students, not fewer: this year, enrolment at CUNY is at a record high. There are also anecdotal signs that CUNY is once again picking up bright locals, especially in science. One advanced biology class at City now has twice as many students as it did in the late 1990s. Last year, two students, both born in the Soviet Union, won Rhodes scholarships, and a Bronx native who won the much sought-after Intel Science Prize is now in the honours programme. 入学标准提高了, 申请进入城市大学高级学院学习的学生如今需要在全国、 州或者城市大学 考试中取得优异成绩,而荣誉计划的纳入标准则成为该大学有史以来最为严厉的一项标准。 与高德斯坦先生预期的恰恰相反,更高的入学标准吸引了更多的学生,而非更少:今年,报 名人数又创新高。也有小道消息称,城市大学正在再一次挑选聪明的当地居民,尤其是在科 学方面。它的一门高级生物学目前上课人数是 20 世纪 90 年代末期的两倍。去年,两名均出 生于前苏联的学生荣获罗兹奖学金(译者注: 一个获得按塞西尔?罗兹的遗嘱设立的奖学金的 学生,该奖允许他在牛津大学入学攻读两或三年的时期),一名布朗克斯区(译者注:美国 纽约市的行政区,位于曼哈顿北部大陆,纽约东南部。曾为荷兰西印度公司工作的一个丹麦 人,琼纳斯?布朗克最早定居,该地区于 1898 年成为大纽约的一部分。 )出生的学生则荣获 许多人梦寐以求的因特尔科学奖,现已获准进入荣誉计划。 All this should not imply that CUNY is out of the woods. Much of it looks run down. CUNY's annual budget of $1.7 billion has stayed largely unchanged, even as student numbers have risen. With New York City's finances still precarious, city and state support for the university has fallen by more than one-third since 1991 in real terms. It has, however, begun to bring in private money. 如此种种,并不表示纽约城市大学已经走出泥潭。很多方面都在每况愈下。即便学生人数增 加了,该大学每年 17 亿美元的预算仍未能得到较大改观。由于纽约市财政仍旧不稳定,市 府和州府资助自 1991 年以来已经下降了超过三分之一。然而,学校已经开始从私人那里赚 取资金。

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong A new journalism school will open in the autumn, helped by a $4m grant from the Sulzberger family, who control the New York Times, and led by Business Week's former editor, Steve Shepard (class of 1961). Efforts to raise a $1.2 billion endowment have passed the half-way mark, helped by (formerly estranged) alumni. Intel's former chairman, Andrew Grove, who graduated from City in 1960 as a penniless Hungarian immigrant, donated $26m (about 30% of City's operating budget) to the engineering school, calling his alma mater “a veritable American dream machine”. 由于得到《纽约时报》老板苏尔兹伯格家族 400 万美元的赞助,在《商业周刊》前任编辑史 蒂夫?谢巴德 (1961 届学生) 的牵头下, 一所新办的新闻学院将于秋季开学。 在一些校友 (此 前与学校较为疏远)的帮助下,募集 12 亿美元捐赠的行动已经成功了一半。1960 年毕业、 曾经身无分文的匈牙利移民、因特尔公司前任主席安德鲁?格罗夫向工程学院捐赠了 2600 万美元(约相当于大学预算的 30%) ,并称赞他的母校是“一部真正的美国梦机器” 。 There are broader lessons to draw from CUNY, especially to do with creating opportunities in higher education for the poor. Currently, only 3% of the students in America's top colleges come from families in the lowest income quartile and only 10% from the bottom half, according to a study by Anthony Carnevale and Stephen Rose for the Century Foundation. Most students are relatively well-off, and their numbers include plenty of racial minorities who receive preferential status independent of their economic circumstances. 纽约城市大学还有很多的经验值得我们学习,尤其是关于在高等教育中为穷人创造机遇方 面。根据安东尼?卡内瓦和斯蒂芬?罗斯的一项“世纪基金”研究,目前美国顶尖大学的学生 中仅有大约 3%来自低收入家庭,而且仅有 10%来自中等收入以下的家庭。大多数学生家境 相对较好,其中包括许多不受经济条件约束、享受特权的许多少数民族学生。 For all its imperfections, CUNY's model of low tuition fees and high standards offers a different approach. And its recent history may help to dispel the myth that high academic standards deter students and donors. “Elitism”, Mr Goldstein contends, “is not a dirty word.” 对城市大学所有不完善的方面而言, 它关于低学费和高标准的模式为我们展示了一个与众不 同的教育方法,而且,该大学新近发展进程也许有助于打破这样一个谬论,那就是学校高标 准会让学生以及捐助者们望而却步。高德斯坦先生坚持认为, “杰出人物统治论这个词并不 难听。 ” TEXT 2

Here be dragons 龙来了
Jan 26th 2006 From The Economist print edition Google, the internet search engine that has grown into a corporate giant, began operations in China on January 25th. Though critics suggest it has betrayed its own motto - “don't be evil” - by agreeing to censor certain sites, Google maintains it will do more good than harm 已经成为公司巨人的国际互联网搜索引擎——Google, 月 25 日启动了在中国的业务。 1 尽管

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 评论家认为,Google 违背了自己的箴言——“别干坏事” ,因为它同意对一些特定的站点进 行审查,但 Google 公司坚持认为这样一来将利大于弊。 IN 2001 human-rights activists in China crowed that a little-known search engine called Google was the most important tool ever created to skirt state censors. Users could retrieve content that Beijing banned by clicking to call up a “cached” copy of the web page, stored by Google. Soon, however, Google itself was being sporadically blocked. The firm was instructed to deactivate that particular feature, and for a short time its web address was even re-routed by Chinese network operators to the website of a local rival. 2001 年,一种鲜为人知的、名叫 Google 的搜索引擎成为那时被用来避开国家审查的最重要 工具。中国人权激进分子为此而幸灾乐祸。用户可以通过点击打开由 Google 存储的“缓冲 存储”网页备份,从而重新获得被政府封杀的相关内容。不过,Google 公司自己很快也被 不定期关闭。该公司接到通知,要求它取消那种特定功能,并且中国网络运营者甚至曾一度 将该公司的网址链接改到一家中国本地搜索引擎(google 的竞争对手)上。 The continual cat-and-mouse game ended this week when Google, now a corporate giant, entered the dragon’s den. On January 25th the search engine “Google.cn” began operations. It is a first step towards beefing up the company’s local presence, which will also mean placing computer-servers in the country. This will speed up service for mainland users, who otherwise must penetrate the great firewall of China, which dramatically slows down access to Google.com. 本周,当现已成为公司巨人的 Google 进入了“中国龙潭” ,长久以来的猫捉老鼠游戏也就结 束了。1 月 25 日,中文搜索引擎“Google.cn”开始运行。这是公司为加强本地化实力所迈 出的第一步, 也意味着公司即将把计算机服务器放到中国了, 如此一来可以加快为中国大陆 用户的服务速度, 此外也必然会穿越中国巨大的防火墙——这面防火墙大大减慢了用户登录 Google 的速度。 Having local infrastructure gives an advantage to Google’s search-engine rivals, such as China’s Baidu.com (which enjoys around 40% of the Chinese search market, compared with Google’s 30%), and Yahoo! and Microsoft’s MSN, which have local Chinese operations. China’s internet market, with more than 100m users, is one of the fastest-growing and most lucrative in the world. Can Google—with its motto “don’t be evil”—do business in China without betraying its soul? 中国地方政府部门倾向于支持 Google 在搜索引擎方面的竞争对手,比如中国百度(大约占 中国搜索业市场的 40%份额,而 Google 为 30%) ,以及在中国内地都有业务的雅虎、微软的 MSN。拥有 1 亿用户的中国互联网市场是全球发展最快、最富利润的市场之一。以“别干坏 事”自诫的 Google 公司,用不着自食其言,能在中国做成生意吗? The company is making a concerted effort to do just that. It has reached an agreement with the Chinese authorities that allows it to disclose to users, at the bottom of a list of search results, whether information has been withheld. This is similar to what the company does in other countries where it faces content restrictions, such as France and Germany (where Nazi sites are banned), and America (where it removes material that is suspected of copyright infringement). Although the disclosure is more prominent on these western sites, putting such a message on its Chinese site is an important step towards transparency and, furthermore, is something its rivals

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong do not do. Google 公司正齐心协力,就是为了“自食其言” 。他们已经与中国政府达成共识,允许其搜 索结果列表底部信息向用户开放, 无论是否属于禁止范围。 这类似于该公司在其他一些同样 面临内容限制的国家中的做法,比如法国和德国(禁止纳粹站点)以及美国(疑似侵犯版权 的有关材料将被删除) 。尽管在这些西方国家信息公开化要更为突出,但在 Google 中国站点 上出现这一讯息是其向透明化迈出的重要一步, 更为甚者, 这也是某种其中国对手无法办到 的事情。 Furthermore, Google is tiptoeing into the country with only a handful of services. It is not offering e-mail, blogging or social-networking services, because it worries that it will not be able to ensure users’ privacy. It wishes to avoid the situation in which MSN and Yahoo! find themselves, whereby they are forced to obey the Chinese government’s orders in censoring content and revealing users’ identities. Rather than be placed in a position where it may have to compromise its values, Google instead is narrowing what it offers (although its news service will contain only government-approved media sources). 而且,Google 只须提供很有限的服务,就悄悄地进入了中国市场。由于担心无法确保可以 保护用户隐私,该公司并不提供电子邮件、博客以及社交网络服务。Google 公司希望自己 不会落入 MSN 和雅虎如今的境地——这两家公司不得不遵守中国政府关于内容审查和泄露 用户身份方面的规定。Google 公司目前的处境并不损及其自身利益,相反还缩减了支出费 用(虽然其提供的新闻服务内容来源仅限于政府认可的新闻媒体) 。 Google believes that entering China, even with restraints on content, lets it offer more information than if it remained outside. Yet the decision comes as American internet firms such as Yahoo! and MSN duck criticism that they are complicit with the Chinese authorities. Google 相信,进入中国,无论诸多内容限制,仍令其能提供比以往更多的信息。不过,当 雅虎、MSN 这些美国互联网公司纷纷回避那些指责他们与中国政府串通一气的言论时, Google 公司终于下了决心。 Meanwhile in America For Google, taking the higher road happens to also be a way to differentiate its service. This month America’s Department of Justice went to court to force Google to comply with a subpoena seeking more than 1m web addresses and a weeks’ worth of all users’ searches (down from an original demand of every web address it holds and two months of searches), albeit without any information that would identify individual users. The government wants the data in order to examine the effectiveness of software filters to block pornography, for a case involving a law prohibiting the content, which the Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional. 美国国内反响 对于 Google 而言,向更高目标进发恰好也是一种让服务多样化的途径。1 月,美国司法部 通过法庭勒令 Google 公司履行之前法院发出的传票,提供一百多万个网址以及所有用户数 周的使用搜索引擎记录(亦即??和两个月的搜索情况) ,不过不需要确认个人用户身份的 相关信息。美政府之所以要这些数据,是想要检验一下打击网络色情的软件滤过性能, The government requested, and received, information from Yahoo!, MSN and AOL—all of which

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong initially stonewalled about whether they disclosed the data. Yet Google resisted, arguing that “acceding to the request would suggest it is willing to reveal information about those who use its services. This is not a perception that Google can accept.” The day the subpoena was made public, Google’s shares dropped almost 9%, its largest single-day decline since it began trading in 2004. 美政府要求并业已收到了来自雅虎、MSN 以及 AOL 提交的材料,这些公司起初对是否公布 有关数据有些举棋不定。不过,Google 公司最终还是予以了拒绝,并称“谁要是同意按要 求去做,就表面谁愿意泄露其用户的隐私。Google 对此感到不可思议。 ”传票公布于众的当 天,Google 的股价几乎下跌了 9%,创下 2004 年上市以来最大单日跌幅。 Google’s stance could put commercial pressure on its rivals to adopt more customer-friendly policies, and may serve as a warning to other internet firms to treat customers’ data with more care. Yet such high-mindedness will be tested as Google enters China. Keeping its options open, the company is not shutting down the Chinese-language version of Google.com. It will remain available, for those willing to wait a bit longer for their uncensored search results. 从商业上看,Google 公司这一态度有可能迫使其竞争对手采取更有益于用户的政策,并且 会提醒其他互联网公司在对待用户数据时要更为谨慎。然而,在 Google 进驻中国后,它的 这种高尚品格将受到考验。 Google 并未关闭 Google.com 的中文界面, 仍然保持着其可选性, 如此一来, 对于那些想搜索到未经审查的信息而宁愿网速慢一些的用户而言, 仍然有路可寻。 TEXT 3

Food firms and fat-fighters 食品公司与减肥斗士
Feb 9th 2006 From The Economist Global Agenda Five leading food companies have introduced a labelling scheme for their products in the British market, in an attempt to assuage critics who say they encourage obesity. But consumer groups are unhappy all the same. Is the food industry, like tobacco before it, about to be *engulfed[1] by a wave of lawsuits brought on health grounds? 五家业内领先的食品公司采取了一项方案, 就是在其投入英国市场的食品上作出标注, 力图 堵住那些说他们鼓励肥胖的批评人士的嘴。不过,消费者团体仍然不开心。食品业会像之前 的烟草一样,被卷入一场关乎健康的诉讼之中吗? KEEPING fit requires a combination of healthy eating and regular exercise. On the second of these at least, the world’s food companies can claim to be setting a good example: they have been working up quite a sweat in their attempts to fend off assaults by governments, consumer groups and lawyers who accuse them of peddling products that encourage obesity. This week saw the unveiling of another industry initiative: five leading food producers—Danone, Kellogg, Nestlé, Kraft and PepsiCo—introduced a labelling scheme for the British market which will show “guideline daily amounts” for calories, fats, sugar and salt on packaging. The new labels will start to appear on the firms’ crisps, chocolate bars, cheese slices *and the like[2] over the next few months. A number of other food giants, such as Cadbury Schweppes and Masterfoods, have

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong already started putting guideline labels on their products. 将健康的饮食习惯和经常性的锻炼二者结合才可以让身体保持健康。 至少就第二点而言, 全 球的食品公司可以说是树立了一个很好的典范: 为了避开政府、 消费者团体以及律师们的抨 击——指责食品公司四处兜售促进肥胖的产品,他们已经累得大汗淋漓了。本周,食品业的 另一举措也公诸于世:五家业内领先的食品厂商——Danone, Kellogg, Nestlé, Kraft 以及 PepsiCo——在英国市场实施了一项商品标注计划,即在包装上标明卡路里(热量) 、脂肪、 糖和盐的“每日摄入量指南” 。在接下来的几个月里,这些食品公司的土豆条、巧克力棒、 干酪片等等包装上将开始出现这类新标注。其它许多食品业巨头如 Cadbury Schweppes 和 Masterfoods 也已经着手在其产品上加入指导性标记。 The food companies say doing this will empower consumers, allowing them to make informed decisions about which foods are healthy. (1)But consumer groups have cried foul. They point out that the Food Standards Agency, a government watchdog, is due to recommend a different type of labelling scheme next month: a “traffic light” system using colours to tell consumers whether products have low, medium or high levels of fat, salt and the like. The food firms, they say, have rushed to introduce their own, fuzzier guidelines first in a cynical attempt to undermine the government’s plan—which they fear might hurt their sales. In consumer tests, the traffic light performed better than rival labelling schemes. 这些食品公司说, 这么做可以让消费者在确定何种食品为健康食品时心知肚明。 但是消费者 团体大声疾呼食品公司此举纯属犯规,他们指出,作为政府监督机构,食品标准局应该在下 个月推出一项不同的标注措施——“红绿灯”方法,亦即应用不同颜色,提醒消费者食品的 脂肪、糖、盐分等含量是低、中等还是高。他们说,食品公司突然率先采用他们自定的那些 模糊指南,是对政府计划的恣意破坏,他们害怕政府的计划会让他们的产品卖不出去。对消 费者进行调查后显示, “红绿灯”方法比食品公司的标注方案效果要好。 Nevertheless, the food companies argue that the traffic-light system is too simplistic and likely to scare people away from certain products that are fine if consumed in moderation, or in conjunction with plenty of exercise—which most observers, including the medical profession, agree is crucial for anyone wanting to stay in shape. They also point out that they have competitors to worry about—namely the big supermarket chains with their own-label products. Last April, Tesco, the biggest of these, announced that it was rejecting the traffic-light system in favour of a less stark “signposting” approach. Its rivals fear that adopting colour-coding could put them at a competitive disadvantage. 然而,食品公司辩称, “红绿灯”方法过于简单,某些产品会因此吓跑消费者,而这些产品 如果食用适量或者结合充分锻炼, 对人都是十分有益的, 而且包括医学专家在内的大多数观 察人士都认为, 这些食品对于任何想要保持好体形的人而言都至关重要。 同时, 他们还指出, 他们要顾及一些竞争者, 也就是那些对产品加上各自标注的大型超市连锁店的做法。 去年四 月,最大一家超市连锁店 Tesco 宣布,他们反对采用“红绿灯”方法,取而代之的是一种更 为灵活的“路标”法。因此,食品公司担心,若采用颜色编码(也就是红绿灯法) ,会令他 们在竞争中处于劣势。 Better labelling has become an important weapon of the food giants’ armoury as they fight back against their critics. In October 2005 McDonald’s, the world’s largest fast-food company, said it

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong would start printing nutritional facts on the packaging of its burgers and fries, including the fat, salt, calorie and carbohydrate content. Before that, information about (2) big-sellers such as the Big Mac, which contains 30g of fat, could only be found on the firm’s website or in leaflets. 在食品业巨头们回击批评意见的过程中,更好的标注方式已经成为他们“武器库”中的一个 “杀手锏” 。2005 年 10 月 1 日,世界最大快餐公司麦当劳称,公司将在汉堡包和炸薯条包 装上印上营养常识,包括脂肪、盐分、热量以及碳水化合物含量。此前,人们只能从食品公 司的网站或宣传品上看到一些销路好的食品有关信息,比如含有 30 克脂肪的 Big Mac。 But labelling is not enough; the food firms know they must also offer healthier fare. McDonald's has introduced salads and fruit to its menus. Kraft and others have brought out low-carbohydrate ranges. Last year, McDonald’s even announced a sporty makeover for Ronald McDonald, its mascot clown, in a bid to encourage children to be more active. But some in the industry suspect that consumers are keener on seeing (3)lighter, healthier meals on the menu than they are on actually buying and eating them; such products are not what the industry calls “ (4)business builders”. That said, some of Nestlé’s more nutritional products, like its PowerBar range for athletes, enjoy higher margins and growth than its traditional fare. 不过,标注还不够;食品公司清楚,他们还必须生产出更加健康的食品。麦当劳公司已将沙 拉和水果引入了它的点餐单之中,Kraft 跟其它公司也制造出了一系列低碳水化合物食品。 去年,麦当劳甚至还宣布要对它的小丑吉祥物——麦当劳叔叔进行翻新改造,使其具有运动 型外表,以鼓励孩子们更为活泼。但是某些业内人士对此提出质疑,认为消费者更渴望在点 餐单上看到不加色素、比较健康的膳食,而不会真地去买来吃;这类食品并非是产业中所谓 的“商业增洁剂” 。这么说来,雀巢公司生产的某些更富营养的食品,比如运动员专用的 PowerBar 系列,要比其传统食品能带来更高的利润及增长。 Wobbling all over the world 全球食品业正经受震荡 The pressure on the industry is most acute in America, which leads the world in obesity. The proportion of Americans characterised as overweight has risen steadily from 47% ((5)bad enough in itself) in the late 1970s to around two-thirds, including over 30% who are clinically obese. Fast-food chains’ American sales grew from about $6 billion in 1970 to an estimated $134 billion in 2005. Eric Schlosser, author of “Fast Food Nation”, an influential book attacking the industry, has pointed out that Americans spend more on fast food than they do on higher education, PCs or new cars—worrying, when a single meal at a KFC of less than a pound-weight of food plus a large Pepsi can top 1,600 calories, not far short of the daily intake recommended by the government for adults doing only “light physical activity”. 肥胖人数居世界首位的美国食品业承受的压力最大。上世纪 70 年代末期,美国人中超重人 口所占比例从 47%(这个数字本身已经糟糕透了)逐步增长到大约三分之二,其中包括 30% 以上临床肥胖症患者,而美国快餐连锁店的销售额则从 1970 年的 60 亿美元增加到 2005 年 的大约 1340 亿美元。旨在抨击快餐业、颇具影响力的《快餐国度》一书作者埃里克?施罗瑟 曾指出,美国人吃快餐花的钱要比花在高等教育、个人电脑或者买新汽车上的钱多。令他感 到担忧的是,在肯德基快餐店光吃一顿不到一磅重的餐点,再喝一大杯百事可乐,摄入热量 就可能超过 1600 卡路里,这比美国政府为仅从事“轻度体力活动”的成人所推荐的每日摄 取量并不低多少。 (言下之意,一餐就摄取如此多热量,况乎一日三餐?)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong (6)Where the United States leads, others are following. In the European Union, up to 27% of men are considered to be obese, and almost a quarter of all children are deemed overweight. Britain, with its love of burgers and packaged meals, is seen as following closest on America’s heels, but the rate of obesity has started to swell on the continent too. Some 11% of the adult population of France were obese in 2003, up from 8% in 1997 (the actual level may be higher still since the figures are based on polls asking people if they are fat, and (7) self-reporting produces underestimates). France has *latched on to[3] the fast-food culture: it is one of the biggest and most profitable European markets for McDonald’s. 凡是有美国带头的地方,别国都会亦步亦趋。在欧盟国家,高达 27%的男性被认为患有肥胖 症, 几乎四分之一的儿童则被认为体重超常。 爱吃汉堡包和打包食物的英国被看作是跟美国 最贴近的“跟屁虫” ,不过其“肥胖队伍”同样开始日益壮大。在法国,成人患肥胖症的比 率从 1997 年的 8%一下子增加到 2003 年的 11%(由于统计数主要基于问卷调查,因此实际 水平可能更高——自己说自己的情况往往导致低估实际水平嘛) 。法国已经领悟了快餐文化 的真谛:它就是麦当劳公司在欧洲最大、最赚钱的市场之一。 No wonder, then, that the past few years have been bad for food companies (8)in image terms—and terrible for the fast-food lot. Attacks on the industry have changed the psychological climate in which it operates, and they may yet change the legislative climate too. So far, lawsuits brought on health-and-safety grounds have been more of a warning than a general threat. In 2003 a New York judge dismissed a lawsuit claiming that McDonald’s had misled customers into believing that its food was healthy (though the suit was later partially reinstated). A number of American states have passed “common-sense consumption laws” aimed at deterring obesity cases in local courts. 那么,过去这几年食品公司的日子不太好过,而快餐业就更加糟糕。对食品业的抨击,已经 带来了人们消费心理上的变化,或许也还将改变立法。迄今为止,基于健康安全的诉讼更多 的是一种警醒,而没有对食品业形成真正的威胁。2003 年,纽约一名法官驳回了一项诉讼, 该诉讼声称麦当劳公司误导了消费者, 让他们相信其食品是健康的 (尽管该诉讼后来又受到 部分复议) 。美国一些州还通过了《消费常识法》 ,旨在让地方法庭拒绝受理肥胖诉讼案例。 Nevertheless, some lawyers still see a similarity between the position of food companies now and that of tobacco companies in the 1960s and 1970s, when private lawsuits paved the way for a co-ordinated attack on “big tobacco” by attorneys-general. Worries about rising obesity rates among children, and fear of subsequent legal actions, have caused companies to (9)scale back their marketing of fatty food and soft drinks to minors. 不过, 有的律师仍然察觉到目前食品公司的处境与上世纪六、 七十年代时的烟草公司有一定 的相似之处。当时,众多个人诉讼为后来各州首席检察官针对“烟草业巨头”发动“协同攻 击”铺平了道路。各家食品公司关注到儿童肥胖比例正日益增长,并担心被起诉,已经开始 逐步缩减针对未成年人的高脂食品和软饮料的销售。 In several countries, government pronouncements and actions have added to the pressure on the industry. The British government’s push to introduce traffic-light labelling comes in the wake of a hard-hitting report from the House of Commons Health Select Committee, whose chairman said:

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong “The devastating consequences of the epidemic of obesity are likely to have a profound impact over the next century.” In France, a law has been passed to impose a 1.5% tax on the advertising budgets of food companies if they do not encourage healthy eating. The industry may claim, with some justification, that ultimate responsibility for bad diet *rests with[4] the individual, and that the amount of exercise you do is just as important as the amount of food you eat. But as long as governments, lawyers and health campaigners continue to pile on the pressure, it will have to work hard to convince them it is (10)doing its bit to stop people piling on the pounds. 有几个国家政府已经发布有关声明并采取了一些举措, 这让食品业感到压力倍增。 英国国会 下院健康特别委员会一份掷地有声的报告, 迫使英国政府开始全力引入 “红绿灯” 标识方案。 该委员会主席说: “肥胖症的流行所引发的破坏性后果很可能会对下个世纪产生深远影响。 ” 法国也已通过一项法律,拟对不宣扬健康饮食的食品公司征收 1.5%的广告预算税。食品业 也许会略显理直气壮地申辩, 不良饮食的根本责任应由消费者个人承担, 每个人的运动量同 进食多少同样重要。不过,只要政府、律师以及健康饮食倡议人士不停止施压,食品业就必 须努力让他们确信,为了不让人们变得越来越胖,它正在尽自己的一份绵薄之力。 注释: [1]engulf:席卷、吞没、吞噬 [2]and the like: 等等,诸如此类 [3]latch on to: 明白,了解。latch 的本义为“抓住,占有,插上插销” 。 [4]rest with: 在于,归属于,取决于 抛砖引玉: (1) 本句中 cried foul 应该如何翻译合适?这句话笔者译为“大声疾呼食品公司此举纯属 犯规”妥当否?难道这里 cry foul 就是比赛场上裁判“喊犯规叫停”? (2)big-sellers 中的 seller 是销售商还是销售商品?big 是指大型的还是销路好的或者其它? (3) light 在这个句子里的意思不应该是“轻的”吧?我猜想应该是“原色的,基色的,浅 色的” ,您认为呢? (4) builder 是“建造者”还是“增洁剂”?比较专业,请指教。 (5) 我思来想去,也找不出比“这个数字本身就已经糟糕透顶”更好的译法了,或许还真 有更好的? (6) Come on, guys! 谁能把这句翻译更为贴切、更为通达呢? (7) 越译越晕,我心里明白这个 self-reporting 的意思,可是到底怎么表达出来才准确呢? (8) in image terms,啥意思?我就不抛砖了,免得砸着自己,呵呵! (9) scale up 按比例增加;scale down 按比例缩减,那么 scale back 呢?我想,应该跟 scale down 差不多吧? (10) do one’s bits 我在词典上没有查到相应的短语,不过“bit”一词本身是“少许”之 意,我想译为“尽??绵薄之力”应当不坏,您看呢? TEXT 4

A question of standards 一个关乎标准的问题
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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong Feb 9th 2006 From The Economist Global Agenda More suggestions of bad behaviour by tobacco companies. Maybe 也许,烟草公司对那些不良行为应多提点建议 ANOTHER round has just been fought in the battle between tobacco companies and those who regard them as spawn of the devil. In a paper just published in the Lancet, with the provocative title “Secret science: tobacco industry research on smoking behaviour and cigarette toxicity”, David Hammond, of *Waterloo University[1] in Canada and Neil Collishaw and Cynthia Callard, two members of Physicians for a Smoke-Free Canada, a lobby group, criticise the behaviour of British American Tobacco (BAT). They say the firm considered manipulating some of its products in order to (1)make them low-tar in the eyes of officialdom while they actually delivered high tar and nicotine levels to smokers. 烟草公司与那些视其为“魔鬼之子”的人之间刚刚又进行了新一轮的交锋。新近出版的《柳 叶刀》刊登了一篇题目颇具煽动性的论文《秘密科研——烟草业开展对吸烟行为和香烟毒性 的研究》 ,作者是加拿大沃特鲁大学的戴维?哈蒙德以及加拿大一个名为“无烟加拿大医师” 游说团的两名成员尼尔?科里肖和辛西娅?加拉德。他们对英美烟草公司的行为提出了批评, 称该公司拟对某些烟草产品进行处理, 企图让监督部门误以为其焦油含量低, 而实际上这些 产品仍会使得烟民吸收高浓度的焦油和尼古丁。 It was and is no secret, as BAT points out, that people smoke low-tar cigarettes differently from high-tar ones. The reason is that they want a decent dose of the nicotine which tobacco smoke contains. They therefore *pull[2] a larger volume of air through the cigarette when they *draw on[3] a low-tar rather than a high-tar variety. (2)The extra volume makes up for the lower concentration of the drug. 正如英美烟草公司所指出, 人们吸低焦油含量香烟的感觉不同于高焦油含量香烟, 这在过去 和现在都不是什么秘密。 这是因为他们需要烟草中含有适量尼古丁, 抽低焦油品种的香烟时 所吸入的空气含量也因此比抽高焦油品种的香烟时高, (译者注:也就是说,尼古丁含量过 高,烟就很难吸,不容易抽得动。 )而这高出来的空气含量也弥补了瘾性物质(尼古丁)的 不足。 But a burning cigarette is a complex thing, and that extra volume has some unexpected consequences. In particular, a bigger draw is generally a faster draw. (3)That pulls a higher proportion of the air inhaled through the burning tobacco, rather than through the paper sides of the cigarette. This, in turn, means more smoke per unit volume, and thus more tar and nicotine. The nature of the nicotine may change, too, with more of it being in a form that is easy for the body to absorb. 不过,一支点燃的卷烟可是一个复杂的玩意儿,并且空气量增加也会带来意想不到的结果, 特别是当我们大口吸烟时往往会很快抽完一支烟, 此时所吸入的空气更多来自于燃烧的烟草 而非卷烟纸侧。因而,这就意味着每多吸一口空气,就会多吸一口焦油和尼古丁。多数尼古 丁都以一种易被人体吸收的形式存在,因此尼古丁的性质也可能发生改变。

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong According to Dr Hammond and his colleagues, a series of studies conducted by BAT's researchers between 1972 and 1994 quantified much of this. The standardised way of analysing cigarette smoke, as *laid down[4] by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO), which regulates everything from computer code to greenhouse gases, uses a machine to make 35-millilitre puffs, drawn for two seconds once a minute. The firm's researchers, by contrast, found that real smokers draw 50-70ml per puff, and do so twice a minute. (4)Dr Hammonds's conclusion is drawn from the huge body of documents disgorged by the tobacco industry as part of various legal settlements that have taken place in the past few years, mainly as a result of disputes with the authorities in the United States. 据哈蒙德医生及其同事们称, 英美烟草公司的研究员已于 1972 年到 1994 年间通过一系列研 究对上述大部分问题进行了定量检测。 卷烟烟尘分析的标准方法, 是由国际标准化组织 (ISO, 该组织可对包括计算机代码和温室气体在内的所有问题作出规定) 制定的, 此法利用一台机 器喷发出 35 毫升的烟雾,受试者每分钟吸一次、每次持续 2 秒即可吸完。以此为对照,英 美公司研究员发现, 真正的烟民每分钟 2 次即可吸完 50 至 70 毫升烟雾。 哈蒙德医生是从烟 草业提供的大量文献中得出这一结论的。 过去几年烟草业与美国当局一直僵持不下, 遂签署 了各类法律协议。作为其中的一项内容,烟草业被迫拱手交出这些文献。 Dr Hammond suggests, however, the firm went beyond merely investigating how people smoked. A series of internal documents from the late 1970s and early 1980s shows that BAT at least thought about applying this knowledge to cigarette design. A research report from 1979 puts it thus: “There are three major design features which can be used either individually or in combination to manipulate delivery levels; filtration, paper permeability, and filter-tip ventilation.” A conference paper from 1983 says, “The challenge would be to reduce the mainstream nicotine determined by standard smoking-machine measurement while increasing the amount that would actually be absorbed by the smoker”. Another conference paper, from 1984, says: “ (5)We should strive to achieve this effect without appearing to have a cigarette that cheats the league table. Ideally it should appear to be no different from a normal cigarette...It should also be capable of delivering up to 100% more than its machine delivery.” 不过哈蒙德医生表示,英美公司所调查的不仅仅人们的吸烟方式。英美公司上世纪 70 年代 末、 年代初的一系列内部文献表明, 80 该公司至少曾考虑过将这一知识用于卷烟设计。 1979 年的一份研究报告上这样说道: “可分别或联合应用与设计有关的三个要素,即过滤、烟卷 包装纸的通透性以及过滤嘴的通气效果,来控制焦油和尼古丁的释放水平。 ”1983 年一份会 议论文也提到, “关键在于,要在提高吸烟者尼古丁实际吸收量的同时,减少可被标准检测 方法测定到的含量。 ”1984 年另一份会议论文说: “我们应当努力达到这一效果并能在检测 中蒙混过关。理想化的结果是,这种香烟看上去应与一般香烟无任何差异?? 并且释放的 尼古丁及焦油量要比机器释放的高出 100%。 ” None of the documents discovered by the three researchers shows that BAT actually did redesign its cigarettes in this way, and the firm denies that it did. However, BAT's own data show that some of its cigarettes delivered far more nicotine and tar to machines which had the characteristics of real smokers than to those which ran on ISO standards. In the most extreme example, in a test carried out in 1987, the “real smoking” machine drew 86% more nicotine and 114% more tar from Player's Extra Light than the ISO machine detected, although smoke intake was only 27%

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong higher. 三名研究人员发现的文献中没有一篇表明英美公司确曾采用这种方法对其生产的卷烟进行 了改良,而且该公司也矢口否认这么干过。英美公司内部资料显示,其生产的某些卷烟向机 器(具有实际吸烟者特征)释放的尼古丁和焦油量远远超出 ISO 标准。最为极端的例子是, 在 1987 年进行的一项实验中, “真吸烟”机器从 Player's Extra Light 牌卷烟中吸收的尼古丁 和焦油量比 ISO 仪器实际检测到的量分别高出 86%和 114%,而烟雾摄入量仅高 27%。 (6)Regardless of how this [b][color=#0000FF]*came about[5], the irony is that low-tar brands may have ended up causing more health problems than high-tar ones.[/color][/b] As one of BAT's medical consultants put it as early as 1978, “Perhaps the most important determinant of the risk to health or to a particular aspect of health is the extent to which smoke is inhaled by smokers. If so, then deeply inhaled smoke from low-tar-delivery cigarettes might be more harmful than uninhaled smoke from high-tar cigarettes.” The firm, meanwhile, points out that the ISO test has been regarded as unreliable since 1967, and says its scientists have been part of a panel that is working on a new ISO standard. 不管事实真相是怎样的, 具有讽刺意味的是, 低焦油卷烟竟然比高焦油卷烟可能更有损于健 康。正如一名英美公司医学顾问 1978 年所言, “也许,吸烟者吸烟时的深浅度是危及健康或 者健康某一特定方面的最重要决定性因素。 若果真如此, 从低焦油卷烟中深深吸入的烟对人 的危害可能比高焦油卷烟中未被吸入的烟更大。 与此同时, ” 英美公司指出, 1967 年以来, 自 ISO 的试验一直都被认为是不可靠的。并且言称其公司的科学家们已加入某评估委员会,正 在研究制定新的 ISO 标准。 注释: [1]Waterloo: 在比利时中部靠近布鲁塞尔的城镇, 为拿破仑 1815 年 6 月 18 日遭到决定性失 败的“滑铁卢” ;而在加拿大安达略省东南部和美国衣阿华州东北部各有一座城市,一般译 名为“沃特鲁” ,以示区分。 [2]pull: 深吸; 对烟或饮料大口的吸或喝 [3]draw on: 吸收 [4]lay down: 规定,制定 [5]come about: 发生 抛砖引玉——请对文中划线短句给出您的译法(对应序号) : (1) make them low-tar in the eyes of officialdom (2) The extra volume makes up for the lower concentration of the drug. (3) That pulls a higher proportion of the air inhaled through the burning tobacco, rather than through the paper sides of the cigarette. (4) Dr Hammonds's conclusion is drawn from the huge body of documents disgorged by the tobacco industry as part of various legal settlements that have taken place in the past few years, mainly as a result of disputes with the authorities in the United States. (5) We should strive to achieve this effect without appearing to have a cigarette that cheats the league table. (6) Regardless of how this came about, the irony is that low-tar brands may have ended up causing more health problems than high-tar ones.

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong TEXT 5

Stuff of dreams 梦想的精粹
Feb 16th 2006 | CORK AND LONDON From The Economist print edition (译者注:本文是关于画展的评论。 ) Two exhibitions show how a pair of 18th-century painters, James Barry and Henry Fuseli, inspired the modern visual ★romance with[1] the gothic 两个画展展示的是,两位 18 世纪画家——詹姆斯?巴里和亨利?富塞利——如何唤起了现代 人从视觉上对哥特式艺术的憧憬。 THIS spring the bad boys of British art are ★ making a comeback[2]. Not Damien Hirst and his friends, but the original ★ enfants terribles[3]— ★ Henry Fuseli[4] (1741-1825) and James Barry (1741-1806)—who aimed, above all, to depict extremes of passion and terror in what they called the new art of the Sublime. 今春,英国艺术界的坏孩子再 次粉墨登场了。我们说的不是达米恩?赫斯特和他的朋友们,而是亨利?富塞利(1741-1825) 和詹姆斯?巴里(1741-1806) ,这两位“莽撞少年”的始作俑者,他们的首要目标就是要用 所谓的“新派高尚艺术”去描绘极度激情与恐怖。 Barry and Fuseli are hardly household names; indeed since Victorian times they have been virtually ignored. But in the late 18th century, Fuseli, and for a short time Barry also, were prominent members of the young Royal Academy of Arts (RA) and influential professors of painting there. Barry's ★fall from grace[5] was the most dramatic, but there is much to admire in this irascible Irish artist who, like Fuseli, once taught William Blake. Barry's prolific historical paintings demonstrate his ambition to rival the painters of antiquity and the Renaissance and to practise what the then president of the RA, Sir Joshua Reynolds, always preached—that history painting was the noblest form of art. (1)But Barry found it hard to be bound by rules, and he turned history and myth into a series of ★tableaux[6] that were at once oddly expressionistic and deeply personal.巴里和富塞利这两个名字算不上家喻户晓, 实际上自维多利亚时代以来, 世人对他们已经不闻不问。不过,在 18 世纪晚期,富塞利曾经是早期皇家美术学院(RA) 的杰出会员和颇具影响力的画师,巴里曾一度也是如此。巴里的失宠于众最富于戏剧性,但

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 跟富塞利一样曾给威廉?布莱克传授过技艺的这位性情暴躁的爱尔兰艺术家,还是拥有许多 让人敬佩的地方。 他的众多历史性画作都表明, 他热望与古代以及文艺复兴时期的画家相抗 衡, 始终信奉历史画乃是最为尊贵的艺术形式, 而这恰恰也是皇家美术学院当时的院长约书 亚?雷诺兹爵士所一直倡导的。但是历史画受制于过多约束让巴里感到难以接受,遂将史实 与神话融为一体,并用一系列舞台造型加以表现,随即成为与主流格格不入的表现派,并打 上了深深的个人主义烙印。 His melodramatic “King Lear Weeping over the Body of Cordelia” and his sexually charged “★ Jupiter and Juno on Mount Ida[7]”, now both part of a retrospective of the artist's work in Cork, (2)proved too full of feeling for a British audience raised on portraits and landscape paintings. His only loyal patron was Edmund Burke, who had ★coined[8] a theory of the Sublime. 巴里的情景画《泪洒科蒂利亚亡体的李尔王》以及他那幅洋溢着性爱的《艾达峰上的朱庇特 和朱诺》 ,现已成为科克城(爱尔兰南部港口城市)艺术家作品回顾展的一部分。这两幅画 作表明英国观众对肖像画和风景画投注了极大的热情。埃德蒙?伯克是唯一自始至终资助巴 里的人,正是他创立了“高尚艺术”理论。 Barry felt he was a persecuted soul, and he painted himself as various ill-fated characters, most bizarrely ★Philoctetes[9], the sailor whom Odysseus abandoned on the island of Lemnos because he smelled so bad. As if that weren't enough, Barry also incited his RA students to revolt and then allegedly accused Reynolds of financial impropriety. When he became too unbearable, Barry became the first artist to be expelled by the academy. 巴里认为自己的灵魂受到了戕害, 便将自己画成形形色色充满晦气的人物, 其中最为怪异的 是菲罗克忒忒斯, 那位由于臭气熏天而被奥德修斯抛弃在利姆诺斯岛上的水手。 似乎这还不 够, 巴里还鼓动他在皇家美术学院的学生造反, 而且据说后来甚至指控雷诺兹在财政上存在 违法问题。巴里变得越来越让人忍无可忍,于是成了第一个被学院开除的艺术家。 Barry knew Fuseli, and (3)he makes a minor appearance in “Gothic Nightmares: Fuseli, Blake and the Romantic Imagination”, the ★brainchild[10] of an engaging British ★polymath[11], Sir Christopher Frayling, who heads the Arts Council of England and the Royal College of Art. Sir Christopher has long been fascinated by the horror ★genre[12]—he once presented a popular television programme on the topic—and his favourite painting is Fuseli's “The Nightmare” (pictured above), an unsettling image of a sleeping maiden, with an ★ incubus[13] ★ perched[14] on her stomach and a ★ghoulish[15] horse peering through a curtain. 巴里认识富塞利,作为特邀嘉宾参加了《哥特式梦魇——富塞利、布莱克和浪漫主义幻想》 画展。 那次画展是由英格兰艺术理事会和皇家艺术学院主席、 富于号召力的英国人克里斯托 弗?弗雷林爵士策划的。克里斯托弗爵士长期以来痴迷恐怖艺术——曾以此为主题推出一档 颇受欢迎的电视节目——他最钟爱的画作是富塞利的《梦魇》 (上图) ,画中描绘的是一位熟 睡的女人, 腹部上栖息着一个梦淫恶鬼, 而布帘后面一匹长得像食尸鬼一般的马正探头窥视, 整幅画看了让人感到心神不宁。 Sir Christopher sees this painting, together with Fuseli's scenes from Milton and Shakespeare, as part of a search for national myths in the late 18th century. (4)Indeed, his interpretation illuminates an Enlightenment world that hovered between reason and ★bigotry[16], and where

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong a quasi-scientific interest in the ★occult[17] and the emerging genre of the novel fed a public that was hungry for “tales of wonder”. 克里斯托弗爵士认为, 富塞利的这幅画以及取材于密尔顿和莎士比亚作品的那些画作, 乃是 探寻 18 世纪民族神话的一部分。事实上,他的这一评注为纠缠在理智与偏见之间的“教化 世界”带来了曙光。在这样一个“教化世界”中,对玄妙之事的半带科学性的热诚和涌现出 的相关小说流派,让大众对“惊愕故事”的渴求得到了极大满足。 Unlike Barry, Fuseli—a former preacher who was forced to leave his native Zurich—looked rationally at the London art scene. He saw that(5)the only way to compete for “wall power” at the all-important annual exhibition of the RA was to carve out his own niche, the more eye-catching and ★esoteric[18] the better. In 1782 Fuseli exhibited “The Nightmare” for the first time, drawing record crowds of up to 3,000 people a day. Perplexed critics asked what the painting was about. In an age when art was supposed to depict an actual person or event, (6)it came as a shock that this was a painting not of a nightmare, but of the nightmare as a generalized experience. 当过传教士后来被迫离开祖国瑞士的富塞利跟巴里不一样,他较为理智地看待伦敦艺术境 况。他发现,要想在至关重要的皇家美术学院年度画展上争取到“支持力量” ,只有标新立 异,越引人注目、越生涩越好。1782 年,富塞利首次展出《梦魇》一作,每天观摩者创纪 录地达到 3000 人。批评家们对画中所要表现的主题感到百思不得其解。在一个艺术被认为 应该是描写真人真事的年代, 这幅画的诞生让世人感到震惊: 它并不单单是对一般恶梦的简 单描绘,而是对恶梦体验的一次真实再现。 Interestingly, it was not until 1793 that anyone suggested publicly that the painting of a scantily ★clad[19] woman stretched out on a bed might be about sex. In a post-Freud world, it is impossible to look at “The Nightmare” and see anything else.(7) There is a soft-porn ★ perversity[20] about many of Fuseli's muscular super-heroes and ★nubile[21] ★nymphs[22], particularly his Titania from “A Midsummer Night's Dream”. The ★erotic[23] drawings and prints by him and his pupil Theodor von Holst are so explicit that the Tate has hung a veil between them and Fuseli's popular fairy paintings nearby, which are a favourite with children. 有意思的是,直到 1793 年才有人公开指出,这幅画上的女人几乎一丝不挂地躺在床上,因 此可能与性有关。在后弗洛伊德时代,盯着《梦魇》而又不想入非非是不可能的。富塞利画 中肌肉结实的超级英雄和含苞欲放的美丽少女,尤其是取材于《仲夏夜之梦》的泰坦尼亚, 模糊的色情描绘让人多少有些心慌意乱。 由于富塞利及其学生霍尔斯特的素描和版画色情描 绘过于直接,泰特美术馆就悬挂起一块幕布,将在这些画与近旁富塞利那些迎合大众的、尤 其是孩子们最爱看的仙女画隔开。 Unsurprisingly, Fuseli's work was ★vilified[24] by the Victorians, and he came back into favour only when the Surrealists—(8)★enthralled[25] by his weird mix of deviance, death and dreams—claimed him as a hero. Today, the artist who bred his own moths in order to depict them accurately in his fairy paintings hangs in the same gallery as those other attention-seekers, Mr Hirst and Tracey Emin; it is almost as if he were their long-lost ancestor. 富塞利的作品遭到了维多利亚女王时代艺术家们的非难, 这是意料之中的事。 直到超现实主 义者――集反社会、 死亡、 幻想等诡异元素于一身的富塞利令他们着迷――称之为英雄的时

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 候,他这才重新受宠。如今,这位为了准确描绘仙女画中的飞蛾而亲自养殖的艺术家,同其 他那些万众瞩目的人如赫斯特、特雷西?艾明一样,也进入了美术陈列室,看上去就像是这 些人的鼻祖。 While Fuseli's rehabilitation is admirable, the Tate's obsession with inclusiveness dilutes Sir Christopher's ideas. (9)Viewers are overloaded with ★mawkish[26] pictures that the curators call “Gothic gloomth”, borrowing a phrase from Horace Walpole. Instead of rising to Sir Christopher's wide-ranging themes, which link Fuseli and Blake with other great European painters, including Goya and Caspar David Friedrich, the Tate has taken a ★parochial[27] view, showing virtually every mediocre British artist who ever ★dabbled[28] in gothic fantasy. Thankfully James Gillray is also there, and his ★biting[29] caricatures lift the spirits. 虽然富塞利的重振旗鼓令人肃然起敬, 但坚持包罗万象的泰特美术馆还是弱化了克里斯托弗 的观念。众多索然无味的绘画充斥着观众的视野,美术馆长们引用贺瑞斯?沃波尔的一条成 语,把这些画称作“哥特式晦暗” 。克里斯托弗爵士崇尚的主题广泛,将富塞利、布莱克同 包括戈亚、 卡斯帕?戴维?弗雷德里希在内的欧洲其他杰出画家有机结合在一起, 但泰特美术 馆却反其道而行之,几乎展出了所有和哥特式幻想沾点边、不入流的英国艺术家的作品,其 眼界之狭窄可见一斑。令人欣慰的是,这里面也包括了詹姆斯?基尔雷,他的讽刺画发人深 省,令人精神振奋。 The last room is one of the best.(10) Here Sir Christopher has added his cross-cultural ★ hallmark[30]: a series of horror film clips that invoke Fuseli's “The Nightmare” as the ultimate shock-horror icon. And at the exit, Angela Carter's words, “We live in gothic times”, are emblazoned on the wall. The spirit of Barry and Fuseli lives on. 最后一间是最好的展室之一,克里斯托弗爵士的“跨文化”印记在此得以展现,那就是一系 列以富塞利《梦魇》为最终惊悚形象的恐怖电影短片。并且,在展室出口处的墙上,安吉拉 ?卡特的名言“我们生活在哥特式时代”也赫然在目。巴里和富塞利的精神常驻人间。 ★★★注释★★★ [1]romance with:对??的迷恋、向往 如:a childhood romance with the sea 儿时对大海的浪漫向往(憧憬) [2]make a comeback: 恢复、复原(指名誉、地位、知名度、流行性) 如:The film star made an unexpected comeback. 这位电影明星出人意料地复出了。 [3]enfant terrible:莽汉(因其令人惊愕的不合传统的行为、工作或思想而使他人困窘或惊慌 的人) ;复数形式为 enfants terribles 如:The radical painter was the enfant terrible of the art establishment.激进派画家是艺术当权 派的可怕莽汉 [4]亨利?富塞利,生于瑞士的英国画家,作品包括恶梦 (1781 年) ,风格怪诞恐怖,对 20 世纪二三十年代的超现实主义者有一定影响 [5]fall from grace: 失去天恩,堕落(名誉、地位的贬低)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong [6]tableaux: 舞台造型,(由活人扮演的)静态画面、场面 [7]Jubiter:朱庇特(古罗马的保护神) ;另:木星 Juno: :罗马万神庙里最主要的女神,朱庇特的妻子亦是其姐姐,主司婚姻和妇女的安康; Mount Ida:艾达峰,克里特岛中部一山峰,海拔 2,457.7m(8,058 英尺) 。它是该岛的最高点, 在古代它与人们对宙斯的崇拜有密切的相关。 [8]coin:设计,杜撰(新词语) 如:Do not coin terms that are intelligible to nobody.不要生造谁也不懂的词语。 [9]Philoctetes:菲罗克忒忒斯,希腊神话中人物,在特洛伊战争中用其父大力神 Hercules 所 遗之弓和毒箭杀死特洛伊王子 Paris 的英雄 [10]brainchild:指计划,想法,创作等脑力劳动的创造物 [11]polymath:学识渊博的人 [12]genre:类型,流派(文艺作品) [13]incubus: 阴库巴斯恶鬼, 梦淫妖 (据说会趁女人熟睡压而在女人身上并与其交配的恶鬼) ; 梦魇;沉重负担 [14]perch:v. 栖息,栖止 如:Birds perched on the branch.鸟停在树枝上。 [15]ghoulish:adj.食尸鬼似的,残忍的 ghoul:n.食尸鬼;盗尸者 [16]bigotry:n.固执,顽固,偏见 [17]occult:n.神秘学,神秘之事,玄妙之事 [18]esoteric:adj.深奥的,秘传的,不公开披露的 如:Some words are really too esoteric for this dictionary. 有些单词实在太生僻了,未收入本词 典内。 [19]clad:穿衣的,覆盖着的 如:The woods on the mountain sides were clad in mist.高山坡上的小树林都笼罩在一片薄雾 中。 [20]perversity:n.反常;刚愎,任性;错乱 [21]nubile:adj.适于结婚的,到结婚年龄的;性成熟的

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong [22]nymph:n.美少女;居于山林水泽的仙女;罗马神话中宁芙女神 [23]erotic:adj.性欲的,好色的,色情的 [24]vilify:v.污蔑;诋毁;诽谤;辱骂 [25]enthrall:v.迷住,着迷 如:The boy was enthralled by the stories of adventure.这孩子被冒险故事迷住了。 [26]mawkish:adj.自作多情的,多愁善感的;令人作呕的,令人厌恶的 [27]parochial:adj.教区的;眼界狭窄的,地方性的 [28]dabble:v.涉水,涉足 dabble in:涉猎,涉足;不经意做?? 如:She just dabbles in chemistry.她只不过是随便搞一下化学。 [29]biting:adj.尖锐的,尖刻的;刺痛的 如:His remark has a biting edge to it.他的评语非常尖锐。 [30]hallmark:n.标记;特点 如:The sense of guilt is the hallmark of civilized humanity.犯罪感是文明人显而易见的特征。 [31]emblazon:v.用纹章装饰,醒目装饰;颂扬 ★★★砖已抛,玉何在?★★★(见文中划线部分) (1) But Barry found it hard to be bound by rules, and he turned history and myth into a series of tableaux that were at once oddly expressionistic and deeply personal. (2) proved too full of feeling for a British audience raised on portraits and landscape paintings. (3) he makes a minor appearance in “Gothic Nightmares: Fuseli, Blake and the Romantic Imagination” (4) Indeed, his interpretation illuminates an Enlightenment world that hovered between reason and bigotry, and where a quasi-scientific interest in the occult and the emerging genre of the novel fed a public that was hungry for “tales of wonder”. (5) the only way to compete for “wall power” at the all-important annual exhibition of the RA was to carve out his own niche, the more eye-catching and esoteric the better. (6) it came as a shock that this was a painting not of a nightmare, but of the nightmare as a generalized experience. (7) There is a soft-porn perversity about many of Fuseli's muscular super-heroes and nubile nymphs, particularly his Titania from “A Midsummer Night's Dream”. (8) enthralled by his weird mix of deviance, death and dreams (9) Viewers are overloaded with mawkish pictures that the curators call “Gothic gloomth”, borrowing a phrase from Horace Walpole.

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong (10)Here Sir Christopher has added his cross-cultural hallmark: a series of horror film clips that invoke Fuseli's “The Nightmare” as the ultimate shock-horror icon. TEXT 6

Travelling with baggage 背着行囊去旅行
Feb 16th 2006 From The Economist print edition (1)FEW modern travel writers excite more hostility and awe than Sir ★Wilfred Thesiger[1], who died in 2003. Despising the “drab uniformity of the modern world”, Sir Wilfred ★slogged across [2] Africa and Asia, especially Arabia, on animals and on foot, immersing himself in tribal societies. He delighted in killing—lions in Sudan in the years before the second world war, Germans and Italians during it. He disliked “soft” living and “★intrusive[3]” women and revered murderous savages, to whom he gave guns. He thought educating the working classes a waste of good servants. He kicked his dog. His journeys were more notable as feats of ★ masochistic[4] endurance than as exploration. Yet his first two books, “Arabian Sands”about his , crossing of the Empty Quarter, and “The Marsh Arabs”, about southern Iraq, have a ★terse[5] brilliance about them. As records of ancient cultures on the ★cusp[6] of ★oblivion[7], they are unrivalled. 现代游记作家鲜有人能比 2003 年去世的威福瑞?塞西格爵士更令人敬畏。 威福瑞爵士厌恶这 个“单一乏味的现代世界” ,于是或兽力或徒步,长途跋涉,穿越非洲和亚洲,特别是阿拉 伯半岛, 完全将自己沉浸在了部落社会中。 在德国人和意大利人参加的二战前的那段岁月里, 他住在苏丹,喜欢捕猎狮子。他讨厌“温和”的生活,憎恶“不安本分”的女人,敬重残暴 的原始人并向他们赠送枪支。在他看来,让工人阶级受教育无异于优秀奴仆人才的浪费。他 用脚踹自己的狗。他的旅行所以出名,与其说是因为探险历程,莫若说是因为他那种“受虐 狂” 的表现。 不过, 他的头两本著作, 一本叙述横穿阿拉伯半岛南部沙漠 “空白之地” 《阿 的 拉伯沙地》和另一本描写南伊拉克的《沼地阿拉伯人》 ,简洁明了地记录了他光辉的旅程。 相比湮没于历史深处的那些古文化记载,这样的旅程同样无与伦比。 Sir Wilfred's critics invariably sing the same chorus. They accuse him of hypocrisy, noting that his part-time primitive lifestyle required a private income and good connections to obtain travel permits. They argue that he ★deluded[8] himself about the motives of his adored tribal companions. In Kenya, where he lived for two decades towards the end of his life, his Samburu “sons” are calculated to have ★fleeced him of[9] at least $1m. (2)Homosexuality, latent or otherwise, explains him, they conclude, pointing to the photographs he took of beautiful youths. 非议威福瑞的人从来都异口同声地指责他是伪君子, 说他的半原始生活方式少不了私人收入 支持,而且要想获得旅行批准,他还得处理好人际关系。他们坚持认为,威福瑞说自己旅行 的动机是仰慕部落社会里的同伴,这是自欺欺人。威福瑞晚年曾在肯尼亚生活了二十年,据 估算,他在桑姆布鲁部落认养的几个“儿子”至少从他那里骗取了 100 万美元。批评人士指 着威福瑞拍摄的一些漂亮年轻人的照片, 断定威福瑞的所作所为完全因为他是同性恋, 无论

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 明不明显。 This may all be true, but it does not diminish his achievements. (3) Moreover, he admits as much himself in his autobiography and elsewhere. In 1938, before his main travels, for example, Sir Wilfred wrote of his efforts to adopt foreign ways: “ (4)I don't delude myself that I succeed but I get my interest and pleasure trying.” 也许大家说的都没错,但是这并不会抹杀他的功绩。况且,在他的自传和别的地方,对这些 话他并未作任何辩解。比如,他曾写到,1938 年在一系列重要旅程开始前利用过外交途径, “到底成功与否,我不想欺骗自己,但是趣味和快乐终究来之不易。 ” In this authorised biography, Alexander Maitland adds a little colour to the picture, but no important details. He describes the beatings and sexual abuse the explorer suffered at his first boarding school. Quoting from Sir Wilfred's letters, he traces the ★craggy[10] traveller's devotion to his dead father, his mother and three brothers. At times, Sir Wilfred sounds more forgiving, especially of friends, and more playful than his reputation has suggested.(5)As for his sexuality, Mr Maitland refers ★coyly [11] to occasional “★furtive[12] embraces and ★ voyeuristic[13] encounters”, presumably with men. Wearisome as this topic has become, Mr Maitland achieves nothing by skirting it; and his allusion to Sir Wilfred's “almost-too precious” relationship with his mother is annoyingly vague. 在威福瑞授权出版的这本传记中,亚历山大?梅特兰也就此添油加醋说了一通,不过没什么 引人注目的详细描写。书中记述了这位探险家最初上寄宿学校时曾经遭受的责打和性虐待。 梅特兰引用威福瑞信中的话说, 这位经历坎坷不平的旅行者热爱自己去世的父亲、 母亲还有 三个兄弟。 威福瑞有的时候似乎要比传言中说的更为宽容, 尤其是对朋友, 而且也更为顽皮。 至于他的性取向,梅特兰只是蜻蜓点水地提到,威福瑞大概曾和男人,偶尔“偷偷摸摸地拥 抱一下或者有一点窥淫爱好” 。尽管这一话题已经让人感到厌倦,梅特兰若想回避,就只能 一无所获。并且,他暗示威福瑞与其母亲的关系“几乎过于做作” ,也让人摸不着头脑,厌 烦不已。 There may be a reason why Mr Maitland struggles for critical ★distance[14] He writes that he and Sir Wilfred were long-standing friends, but he fails to mention that he collaborated with the explorer on four of his books and later inherited his London flat. If Mr Maitland found it so difficult to view his late friend and benefactor objectively, then perhaps he should not have tried. An earlier biography by Michael Asher, who ★scoured[15] the deserts to track down Sir Wilfred's former fellow travellers, was better; (6)Mr Maitland seems to have interviewed almost nobody black or brown. 梅特兰力求为威福瑞正名或许是有原因的。 他在书中虽然说和威福瑞是多年好友, 却对曾与 这位探险家合作出版四本书以及后来继承他在伦敦的一处寓所一事只字未提。 设若梅特兰自 觉难以实事求是地评价他的这位已故至交和恩人, 也许他就不应该多此一举。 在梅特兰之前 也有一篇威福瑞的传记,写得相对就好一些。作者是迈克尔?阿舍,他曾到沙漠中四处寻觅 威福瑞以前的旅行同伴,而梅特兰却好象几乎完全是闭门造车。 His book is, however, (7)a useful companion to the explorer's autobiography, “The Life of My Choice”. Hopefully, it will also refer readers back to Sir Wilfred's two great books, and to

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong sentences as lovely as this: “Memories of that first visit to the Marshes have never left me: (8) firelight on a half-turned face, the crying of geese, duck ★flighting[16] in to feed, a boy's voice singing somewhere in the dark, canoes moving in procession down a waterway, the setting sun seen crimson through the smoke of burning reed-beds, narrow waterways that wound still deeper into the Marshes.” 话说回来,梅特兰的这本书还是对威福瑞自传《我所选择的人生》起到了有益的助阵作用。 但愿这本传记也能让读者重新想起威福瑞那两本伟大著作,想起这些动人的语句: “沼泽地 的第一次旅行始终萦怀: 映照在侧头而望的脸上的火光, 群鹅的鸣叫, 结对飞入觅食的鸭子, 黑暗某处男孩的歌声,顺水而行的独木舟,透过芦苇垫燃烧发出的浓烟看到那绯红的落日, 狭窄的河道蜿蜒而入沼泽深处。 ”

★★★NOTES 注释★★★ [1]Wilfred Thesiger:威福瑞?塞西格,毕业于牛津大学,既是一名冒险家,也是一名出色的 军人。出生于非洲,大学毕业后他回到了家乡。一生中到过世界上许多人们难以想象的,荒 凉的地方,特别是非洲东部地区和中东地区。他的自传《四分之一空间》《阿拉伯沙地》 , , 影响了一代代旅行作家。 [2]slog:v.艰难行进,长途跋涉;拼命苦干 如:slog across the swamp;沉重缓慢地走过沼泽地 slogged through both volumes. 缓慢吃力地读完了那两卷 slogged away at Latin.苦读拉丁文 [3]intrusive:adj.打扰的,插入的 [4]masochistic:adj.性受虐狂的,受虐狂的 [5]terse:adj.简洁的,简明的(brief and to the point) [6]cusp:n.尖顶,尖端,尖角 [7]oblivion:n.遗忘,忘却;湮没,埋没 如:to be buried in oblivion 被人遗忘 The city has long since passed into oblivion.该市早已湮没。 [8]delude:v.欺骗,蒙蔽(into)=deceive 如:fraudulent ads that delude consumers into sending in money.欺骗顾客花钱的虚假广告 附注——近义词比较: deceive, betray, mislead, beguile, delude,这些动词都有“通过狡诈的手段把他人导 入错误、危险或不利的位置”的意思。 1) Deceive 是有意隐瞒或歪曲真相的意思: “There is a moment of difficulty and danger at which flattery and falsehood can no longer

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong deceive” (Letters of Junius). “在艰难和危险的时刻,奉承和欺骗不再能蒙蔽人” (朱尼厄 斯的信) 。 2)Betray 含有不忠或背叛的意思: “When you betray somebody else, you also betray yourself” (Isaac Bashevis Singer). “你背叛别人的时候,你也背叛了你自己” (伊萨艾克?巴谢维丝?辛格) 。 3)Mislead 意为引入错误的方向或引向错误的思维、行动: “My manhood, long misled by wandering fires,/Followed false lights” (John Dryden). “游移的火焰长久地误导,我的成年时期跟随着虚妄的光” (约翰?德莱顿) 。 4)Beguile 含有通过友好的方法引诱、欺骗的意思: They beguiled unwary investors with tales of overnight fortunes. To 他们以一夜之间可以发大财的承诺,诱骗了掉以轻心的投资者。 5)Delude 指欺骗到一个程度,致使受骗人无法分辨真伪,或做出可靠的判断: The government deluded the public about the dangers of low-level radiation. 政府欺骗公众,关于低强度辐射的危险性。 [9]fleece:vt. (常与 of 连用)骗取,诈取(金钱)(原意是指剪羊毛,薅羊毛) ; 如:They fleeced us of $100 at that hotel.那家旅馆敲了我们一百美元。 [10]craggy:adj.陡峭的,崎岖不平的 [11]coyly:adj.羞怯地;害羞地 [12]furtive: adj.偷偷的;秘密的 如:The man's furtive manner gave rise to the suspicion of the theft among the policemen."那个 男人鬼鬼祟祟的样子,引起警察怀疑盗窃案是他作的案。" [13]voyeuristic:adj.喜好窥阴的 [14]distance:n.分歧,不和,不同意: 如:The candidates could not be at a greater distance on this issue.在这个问题上,候选人之间 分歧很大。 [15]scour:vt. 搜索;仔细或彻底的查看: 如:The detective scoured the scene of the crime for clues.那个侦探在犯罪现场仔细搜索线索 [16]flight:vi.成群飞行;迁徙 ★★★砖已抛,玉何在?★★★ 请您试试文中划线语句的翻译: (1) FEW modern travel writers excite more hostility and awe than Sir Wilfred Thesiger, who died in 2003. (2) Homosexuality, latent or otherwise, explains him, they conclude, pointing to the

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong photographs he took of beautiful youths. (3) Moreover, he admits as much himself in his autobiography and elsewhere. (4) I don't delude myself that I succeed but I get my interest and pleasure trying. (5) As for his sexuality, Mr Maitland refers coyly to occasional “furtive embraces and voyeuristic encounters”, presumably with men. (6) Mr Maitland seems to have interviewed almost nobody black or brown. (7) a useful companion to the explorer's autobiography, “The Life of My Choice”. (8) firelight on a half-turned face TEXT 7

Bridge across the Bosporus
Feb 23rd 2006 From The Economist print edition MORE than 80 years after being ★supplanted[1] by the Turkish republic, the Ottoman empire will not die. Bloodshed in the Balkans; Arab and Kurdish nationalism across the Middle East; ★ Turcophobia[2] in Armenia; (1)all are echoes of a dynasty that survived for 600 years▲ and whose dominions e____ ① ____ from the Danube through the Levant to Algiers. Few historians have dared compress the story of this extraordinary enterprise into a single volume. “Osman's Dream” shows why.

Osman led one of several Turcoman tribes, of Central Asian descent, that were competing for control of Anatolia at the beginning of the 14th century. (The dream in question was interpreted to mean that Osman would found an imperial house; (2) Ottoman” is the European corruption “ of his name▲). By the mid-16th century, Osman's descendants had killed off the Byzantine Empire and t____ ② ____ its capital, Constantinople (renamed Istanbul), into the world's greatest mosque city. They also had control of the Muslim holy places, Mecca and Medina, in Arabia. The empire's expansion was driven in part by Islamic notions of a just war against the ★ infidel[3], but the Ottomans were also notable for their relative tolerance. Jews fleeing the ★ Spanish inquisition[4] were welcomed to Istanbul. Christian converts became key figures in the bureaucracy, armed forces and the ★harem[5]. Even at the empire's peak, however, the tide of history was turning in Europe's f__ ③ .___ Challenged by the Europeans' intellectual and military ★prowess[6], hampered by the fiscal ineptitude of its leaders, and powerless to suppress the petty nationalisms that infected its Balkan possessions, (3)the empire began to unravel—at times abruptly, at others imperceptibly. ▲ With her doctorate in the ★fiendishly[7] complex discipline of Ottoman studies, (4)Ms Finkel is ideally placed to make sense of this. ▲But “Osman's Dream” leaves one with the impression that the author's scholarship—she includes a 30-page bibliography—could have been put to

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong better use. Her apparent desire to record every event of significance sometimes r___ ④ ___ in a dispiriting succession of military campaigns and diplomatic intrigues; (5)one would have preferred a ★pruning[8] of the ★thicket[9] of events and more discussion of what it all means. ▲ (6)The author offers glimpses of a more satisfying book. ▲She includes a suggestive aside on the blending of French and Persian inspirations in the Ottoman palace-building of the early 18th century—as good an emblem for the empire's strained multiculturalism as you could wish for. There are ★tantalising[10] allusions to both the fascination and the repulsion which animated the later Ottomans' ★ambivalence[11] t___ ⑤ ___ Europe. And one wishes that (7)Ms Finkel had developed her intriguing defence of the empire in the 19th century, “multi-confessional, geographically incoherent and economically backward” in the face of demands, on the part of ▲, ★impertinent[12] Europeans, that it reform internally. The limitations of Ms Finkel's approach are most apparent in her ★perfunctory[13] treatment of the empire's final, ★tumultuous[14] years. She deals no more than cursorily with the Armenian massacres during the first world war, preferring to observe that scholarship has suffered from the highly-charged contemporary d___ ⑥ ___ over whether the killings constitute genocide. This point would have made a worthwhile ★footnote[15].(8) As a substitute for an account of what happened, it is a ★cop-out[16].▲ ★★★NOTES★★★ [1]supplant:vt.取代,排挤 如:The word processor has largely supplanted electric typewriters. Word 处理程序已很大程度 上取代了电动打字机。 It is my view that the new historical disciplines complement rather than supplant traditional history.我认为这些新的历史学科对传统历史学起到了补充而非排挤作用。 ▲近义词辨析▲ replace, supplant, supersede 这些动词在用来指把某人或某物辞退或搬走并用他人或他物代替他、她或它时具可比性。 ? Replace 是指成为或提供代替他人或他物的物或人的相等物或替换物, 尤其是对已经丢 失、耗尽、用竭或被辞退: “A conspiracy was carefully engineered to replace the Directory by three Consuls” (H.G. Wells). “细心策划密谋以三个执政官取代督政府” (H.G,威尔斯) 。 “I succeed him *Benjamin Franklin, as envoy to France+ ; no one could replace him” (Thomas Jefferson). “我接替他[本杰明?富兰克林,作为派往法国的特使] ;没有人能够取代他” (托马斯? 杰弗逊) 。 ? Supplant 通常指用阴谋诡计或卑鄙的手段来取代他人的位置: “The rivaling poor Jones, and supplanting him in her affections, added another spur to his pursuit” (Henry Fielding). “对抗的可怜的琼斯,以及用她的影响取代他的位置的举动进一

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 步刺激了他的追求” (亨利?费尔汀) 。 ? Supersede 是指用另一个被认为更优秀、 更有价值、 更有用或者更年轻的人或物代替某人 或某物: “In our island the Latin appears never to have superseded the old Gaelic speech” (Macaulay). “在我们的岛上古老的盖尔语似乎永远被拉丁语所取代” (麦考利) 。 “Each of us carries his own life-form—an indeterminable form which cannot be superseded by any other” (Carl Jung).我们每个人都有自己的生活方式-一种无法查明、不能被其它任何一 种方式取代的方式” (卡尔?荣格) [2]turcophobia:n.憎恶土耳其风俗习惯的人, 憎恶土耳其的人 -phobia:后缀;表示“对某一特定事物的强烈的、不正常的或不合逻辑的恐惧” : 如:xenophobia 仇外,惧外; Americanophobia 对美国(或美洲)文化的憎恶,美国(或美洲)文化仇视心理 Anglophobia 反英, 恐英病 technophobia 技术恐惧(指对技术对社会及环境造成不良影响的恐惧) thanatophobia [心]死亡恐怖(症),死亡恐惧(症) [3]infidel:adj. & n. 不信教的(人) ;异端的(人) [4]Spanish inquisition:西班牙宗教法庭,1480-1834 年的天主教法庭,以残酷迫害异端著称。 1543 年将数以万计再洗礼教派教徒在火刑柱上烧死。西班牙国王伊莎贝拉一世创建。 参考文献:http://www.pep.com.cn/200406/ca416233.htm [5]harem:n.(伊斯兰教国家中的)闺房,后宫;女眷们 [6]prowess:n. 卓越的技能;杰出的才能;本领 如:He is a football player of great prowess. 他是一名技能卓绝的足球选手。 The young student from the theatrical school showed great prowess at acting in the play.这个戏 剧学校的学生在这出戏中显示出了非凡的演技。 [7]fiendishly:adv.恶魔似地, 极坏地; fiendish:adj.极凶的,极大的;极为讨厌或糟糕的 如:a fiendish blizzard 极大的暴风雪 a fiendish problem 极大的难题 [8]prune:vt.(常与 down, off, away 连用)修剪(树、花木)(常与 of 连用)删改;删除 ; 如:prune the slang from a speech 删去演说中的俚语 [9]thicket:n.密集生长的灌木或矮树;错综复杂,盘根错节 如: the thicket of unreality which stands between us and the facts of life 在我们和生活的现实 之间存在着无法穿越的虚幻 [10]tantalise: (美语 tantalize)vt.挑逗,逗弄 如:The very thought that a human being would deliberately starve herself for any reason

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong provoked, intrigued, and tantalized the public.( “Psychobiology and Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa” by Katherine A Halmi)有人认为,不管出于何故,一个人会故 意忍饥挨饿。这种想法让公众既生气,又好奇,还有点着急。 (凯瑟琳?A?哈尔米《神经性 食欲缺乏和易饿病的精神生物学研究和治疗方法》 ) [11]ambivalence:n.矛盾心理,双重人格;摇摆,举棋不定(towards) ambivalent adj.(对人、事物)有矛盾心理的 如:There is an ambivalent feeling towards rural workers.人们对于民工的心情是复杂的。 [12]impertinent:adj.无关的,不切题的;无礼的,鲁莽的 如:He deemed all such inquiries on the part of a slave improper and impertinent, and evidence of a restless spirit.他认为一个奴隶如此多嘴多舌,是不合礼仪的,很显然这个奴隶还很不安 分。“Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass” by Frederick Douglass) ( ★近义词辨析★ irrelevant, extraneous, immaterial, impertinent 这些形容词共有的核心意思是“与所考虑的问题没有关系的” an irrelevant comment; 一句不相干的评语; a question extraneous to the discussion; 与讨论不相关的问题; an objection that is immaterial after the fact; 和该事实无关的反对意见; mentioned several impertinent facts before finally coming to the point.在最后谈到要点之前先 说了几个不相关的事实 [13]perfunctory:adj.草率的,敷衍的,马马虎虎的 如:The operator answered the phone with a perfunctory greeting.接线员接通电话,象征性的 打了招呼 [14]tumultuous:adj.骚乱的,喧嚣的,吵闹的,无序的;狂暴的 如:These details have also had a tumultuous effect on the nation of Bolivia. ( “Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life” by Jon Lee Anderson)这些详细资料也引起了波利维亚的动乱。 (乔恩? 李?安德森《切?格瓦拉:革命人生》 ) [15]footnote:n.(缩写 fn.)脚注(放在书或手稿的页底的注释,对文中的标明的一部分加以评 论或引出参考书目) ;无足轻重的事(与某一大的范畴或事件有关但不重要的事) 如:a political scandal that was but a footnote to modern history.一件对现代历史无足轻重的政 治丑闻 [16] cop out:逃避,躲开;临阵退缩 cop-out n.逃避,自首,托词;违约者 如:You've got to take it up. Don't try to cop out of it by telling me you're too busy!"这件事你一 定得做,不要推诿说你忙不过来。" Jimmy was known to the team as a cop-out because he never showed up for important games.(A Concise Collection of College-student’s Slang) 队里都知道吉米是个喜欢临阵脱逃的人,凡是 重要比赛都不见他人影。

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong ★★★砖已抛,玉何在?★★★(参见文中带▲标记的部分) (1) all are echoes of a dynasty that survived for 600 years (2) “Ottoman” is the European corruption of his name (3) the empire began to unravel—at times abruptly, at others imperceptibly. (4) Ms Finkel is ideally placed to make sense of this. (5) one would have preferred a pruning of the thicket of events and more discussion of what it all means. (6) The author offers glimpses of a more satisfying book. (7) Ms Finkel had developed her intriguing defence of the empire in the 19th century, “multi-confessional, geographically incoherent and economically backward”, in the face of demands, on the part of impertinent Europeans, that it reform internally. (8) As a substitute for an account of what happened, it is a cop-out. 全部译文,欢迎指正,共同交流

博斯普鲁斯大桥
奥斯曼帝国虽已被土耳其共和国取代逾 80 年之久,但它永远都不会销声匿迹。巴尔干半岛 上血流成河,中东弥漫的阿拉伯和库尔德民族主义情绪,亚美尼亚人对土耳其的憎恶,无不 显现出一个存续了 600 年、 疆域囊括从多瑙河经黎凡特 (地中海东部自土耳其至埃及地区诸 国)至阿尔及尔广阔土地的王朝所遗留下来的痕迹。一直以来,几乎没有哪位历史学家能贸 然地用一本书来记述这一超凡之事。 《奥斯曼之梦》对此作出了解释。 14 世纪初,几个从中亚衍生而来的土库曼人部落,为控制安纳托利亚(译者注:土耳其的 亚洲部分,一般认为等同于小亚细亚)而干戈相向,此时奥斯曼成了其中一个部落的首领。 (曾有人认为奥斯曼的 “梦想”就是要兴建一座王宫; “Ottoman”一词是欧洲人在使用奥 斯曼名字时的讹误。 )到 16 世纪中叶,奥斯曼的后人消灭了拜占庭帝国,并将其首都君士坦 丁堡(后改名为伊斯坦布尔)建设成为世界上最著名的清真寺城市。与此同时,阿拉伯半岛 上的穆斯林圣地麦加和麦地那也为其所统治。 伊斯兰教主张发动一场反对异教徒的正义战争, 这对奥斯曼帝国的扩张起到了一定的推动作 用, 但是奥斯曼人同样以善于包容而著称。 从西班牙宗教法庭逃离出来的犹太人在伊斯坦布 尔受到欢迎,基督教信徒也在帝国官僚机构、武装部队乃至后宫中扮演举足轻重的角色。然 而,历史的潮流还是转而朝着有利于欧洲的方向发展,即便是在帝国鼎盛时期也是如此。聪 明才智和军事才干不如欧洲人, 受制于自身领导人拙劣的财政管理能力, 对巴尔干半岛上蔓 延的一小撮民族主义分子又无能为力, 奥斯曼帝国开始分崩离析——有时会发生一些突如其 来的震荡,但多半却在不知不觉中衰微。 芬克尔女士拥有奥斯曼帝国历史研究的博士学位, 对奥斯曼曾进行过极为复杂、 严谨的研究。 从理论上讲,弄清“奥斯曼梦想”的真实含义当然非她莫属。不过, 《奥斯曼之梦》一书却 让人觉得作者的学识并未得到充分发挥——书后列出了长达 30 页的参考书目。作者显然希 望把所有重要事件都一一记录下来,结果有时无外乎对那些战争和外交阴谋活动的简单罗 列,令人味同嚼蜡。其实,我们只需扼要叙述一下那些错综复杂的事件,更多的笔墨应当放

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 在对其意义的讨论中。 相比之前,这本书还是有不少出彩之处。作者在文中特意提到,18 世纪初期奥斯曼兴建王 宫时, 曾融合了法国人和波斯人的灵感——这种糅合再好不过地寓示了奥斯曼帝国牵强的多 文化主义色彩。 书中引经据典描述了奥斯曼人对外来文化的着迷和排斥, 生动再现了奥斯曼 人后期对欧洲的矛盾心态,很是引人入胜。芬克尔女士辩解说,对于作为旁观者的欧洲人而 言,19 世纪的奥斯曼帝国“教义信仰多样化、地域不连贯,甚而经济倒退” ,完全是为形势 所迫。这一观点令人感到好奇,有人希望芬克尔女士应当进一步展开阐述。 (文中的 that it reform internally 令人匪夷所思,尤其是主语为单数 it,而 reform 又给出复数形式,为什么 呢?) 芬克尔的记述方式还是有其局限性的, 最明显的是关于奥斯曼帝国末期动荡岁月的描写过于 草率。 她对第一次世界大战期间亚美尼亚大屠杀一事只是一笔带过, 却对当代学术界关于这 场杀戮是否等同于种族屠杀的激烈争议详加评述。 这一点若作为脚注应当合情合理, 可用来 取代对事件真相的记述,就只能是一种回避事实的托词而已。 译后小记: 本文是一篇书评,我没有读过《奥斯曼之梦》 ,对奥斯曼帝国也只是略有所知,因此翻译起 来很是艰难。一些语句我不敢擅自意译,生怕理解出错,误入“歧途” 。但为了译文通顺, 我尽量加入了一些自己的理解,不妥之处望高手支招。[/replyview] 完型填空答案: [replyview]①extended ②turned ③favour ④results ⑤towards ⑥dispute TEXT 8

Ready, fire, aim 预备!开火!瞄准! !
Feb 16th 2006 From The Economist print edition Foreword:A vice-president, a ★quail[1] and the first glimmer of class warfare in hunting 引言:一位副总统,一只鹌鹑,等级矛盾第一次在打猎中凸现。 POLITICALGRAVEYARD.COM is (1)a goldmine for both trivia addicts and congenital time-wasters. ▲ Do you want to find out about American politicians who were killed in duels (17 a______ ① _____ to the site)? Or about politicians who were murdered (86)? Or politicians who have been to

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong outer space (6)? Or politicians who died while hunting or fishing (14)? Just point and click. But as yet the site doesn't have an entry for politicians who almost kill the poor ★saps[2] they are hunting or fishing with. 对于喜欢捕风捉影的人和那些天生爱好浪费时间的人而言,政治墓园网站 (politicalgraveyard.com) 是一个极佳去处。 您想知道有多少美国政治家在决斗中丧生吗 (该 网站认为是 17 人)?有多少政治家遭谋杀 (86 人) ?有多少政治家曾去过外太空 (6 人) ? 又有多少政治家在打猎或钓鱼时不幸身亡(14 人)?点击便知。不过迄今为止,有关那些 差点杀死同去狩猎或者钓鱼的“可怜虫”的政治家人数,这家网站还没有登记。 No doubt (2) good people ▲at politicalgraveyard will soon update their site. Ever since Dick the Cheney took aim at a quail on February 11th and hit a 78-year-old lawyer i_________②, America has been talking of little else. This is not only because Mr Cheney's tragicomic accident seemed to sum up his style of shooting first and asking questions later (hence a torrent of jokes about Mr Cheney's insistence that he was right to shoot despite the failure to find quail in the bushes). It is also because he handled the incident with astonishing ★ineptitude[3]. 政治墓园网站指定要更新他们的网页了。2 月 11 日,迪克?切尼瞄准一只鹌鹑,结果却击中 一位 78 岁的律师。自那以后美国人无不对此议论纷纷。切尼先生令人啼笑皆非的遭遇,似 乎充分表明他惯于先斩后奏(因此这事也一时传为笑柄,都说他有权开枪射击,即便是灌木 丛中没有鹌鹑) ,不过人们关注的焦点并非仅此而已,他在处置这一突发事件中所表现出来 的无能也让人感到惊讶。 Harry Whittington's wounds were s________③: he was pepper-sprayed in the face, neck, chest and rib cage, and rushed to intensive care. But Mr Cheney didn't bother to tell the public that their vice-president had ★winged[4] a lawyer until the next day (when he got his host to phone her local paper, the ★Corpus Christi[5] Caller-Times) and he didn't give a television interview until February 15th, a day after his v_________④ suffered a mild heart attack. As one ally puts it, “ (3)Dick is beyond PR.”▲ 哈里?惠廷顿伤得不轻,面、颈、胸和胁部都被散弹击中,当时已立即被送往重症救护中心。 不过切尼却直到事发次日才不情愿地告知公众, 他们的副总统开枪误伤了一名律师 (他让牧 场女主人打电话给当地的《圣餐号召者时报》透露实情) ,并且直到 2 月 15 日(也就是事发 后第四天)才接受电视采访,而此时受害者出现轻微心脏病症状已近一天。正如切尼的一位 支持者所说, “迪克没有处理好公共关系。 ” The media has ★pored over[6] every aspect of the incident: the fact that Mr Cheney had failed to buy the proper stamp for his licence (he subsequently sent $7 to the requisite authorities); that his host was a lobbyist; that the White House initially tried the strategy of t________⑤the shooting as a joke. But one thing was almost entirely ignored—(4)the fact that Mr Cheney was spending his weekend slaughtering innocent birds in the first place.▲ 媒体对整个事件方方面面都很关注: 如切尼的捕猎许可证上缺少一个需要购买的印章 (高地 猎禽印章——译者注) (他后来已经给管理部门送去了 7 美元) ;那个牧场女主人是个政治说 客;白宫起初曾试图把这一事件当作笑话来处理。尽管如此,人们还是完全忽视了一个问题 ——事情归根究底在于切尼周末去打猎了。

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong In many European countries, no ambitious politician would want to be seen with a hunting rifle in his hands and a ★cuddly[7] animal in his sights. In America, politicians ★go to great lengths[8] to get seen doing just that. The classic example of the shooting photo-op was (5)John Kerry's appearance in rather too ★ pristine[9] duck-hunting gear ▲ in October 2004. But even left-wingers like Howard Dean and Dennis Kucinich ★(6)defer to[10] the hunting vote.▲ 在许多欧洲国家,没有哪一个胸怀大志的政治家希望别人发现,自己手中拿着一支来福枪, 对着视线中某个小生灵。可是在美国,政治家们却想方设法让自己在众人面前露脸。2004 年 10 月约翰?克里站在一架有点土气的跟踪野鸭装置前的照片可谓经典。 不过, 即使是霍华 德?迪恩和丹尼斯?库希尼奇这样的左翼人士,也对狩猎持赞同意见。 And why not? Hunters like to boast that their sport is as American as baseball and apple pie, a tradition shared by young and old, rich and poor, conservatives and l_______⑥. The US Fish and Wildlife Service claims that 80m Americans aged 16 or over—nearly 40% of the adult population— “enjoyed some recreational activity relating to fish and wildlife” in 2001, the latest year for which figures are a__________⑦. About 13m Americans shoot, and they spend some $20.6 billion a year on their pastime. (7)There is a hunting channel.▲ There are ★ camouflaged[11] Bibles for people who want to read scripture before blasting off. There are also powerful lobbies, from the National Rifle Association to the ★Safari[12] Club International. The Congressional Sportsmen's Foundation has more than 300 members. 况且, 何乐而不为呢?猎人们不无自豪地说, 这项运动跟棒球、 苹果点心一样, 是一项传统, 无论老少、贫富,还是保守或自由人士都喜闻乐见。美国鱼类和野生物部称,2001 年首次 统计显示,有 8000 万 16 岁以上的美国人——约占成人总人数的 40%——“喜欢某种与鱼类 和野生物有关的娱乐活动” 。目前,大约有 1300 万美国人会打猎,他们每年花掉约 206 亿美 元用于此项消遣。现在,只要你想打猎,就有人给你安排好;还有人为你准备了假《圣经》 , 让你在开火前能装模作样地诵读一遍; 还有一大批有着三寸不烂之舌的说客, 有来自全国步 枪协会的,也有来自国际狩猎俱乐部的。国会运动员基金会的成员已超过 300 人。 But(8) the reality is not quite so ★tally ho[13]▲. The proportion of the population that goes hunting has been shrinking for the past 20 years. The number of hunters fell by 7% in the decade ending in 2001; the number of small-game hunters, including quail hunters, fell by 29%. The main cause of this is e__________⑧. Every year America loses 1.5m acres of wildlife habitat and 1m acres of farm and ranchland to development and ★sprawl[14]. But the real worry for hunters is, or should be, class. 不过, 实际情况还是有所不同的。 20 年来, 近 进行捕猎的人数所占人口比例持续下降, 2001 年之前的 10 年内,捕猎人减少了 7%,而捕猎小动物如鹌鹑的人数更是减少了 29%。这主要 是由经济情况造成的。 美国每年有 150 万英亩野生物栖息地和 100 万英亩农牧场被经济扩张 所蚕食鲸吞。 然而, 真正让狩猎者感到担忧的, 还是或者说应该是, 捕猎过程中的等级问题。 ■■■完型填空答案■■■ 1、according 2、instead 3、serious 4、victim 5、treating 6、liberals 7、available 8、economics ★★★NOTES 注释★★★

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong [1]quail:n.鹌鹑 vi.(与 at, before 连用)畏惧;畏缩;沮丧: 如:He quailed at the thought of meeting the President.他对会见总统的打算感到害怕。 [2]sap:n.(俚语)笨蛋,傻瓜;精力,活力;树汁,体液 vi.挖坑道;vt.使衰竭,消耗 [3]ineptitude:n.不称职,不适当的动作(adj. inept) [4]wing:vt.打伤??翅膀,打中??要害 [5] Corpus Christi:n.【罗马天主教】圣餐节:三一节(星期日)后的第一个星期四、食圣餐 的日子 [6]pore over:v.注视,凝视 如:He pored over the classified ads in search of a new job.他仔细阅读分类广告栏以寻找新的 工作 [7]cuddly:adj.令人想拥抱的,喜爱抚的 [8]go to great lengths:竭尽全力 go to great pains 费大力气 [9]pristine adj.纯洁的,质朴的;古时的,原来的 [10]defer to:v. 服从,遵从(出于尊敬他本人或由于承认他的权威、学识或判断力,听从他 的意见,遵从他的愿望,服从他的决定) 如:Do you always defer to your parents wishes? 你总是顺从父母的意志吗? ★近义词辨析★ yield, relent, bow, defer, submit, succumb 这些动词都表示让步于不能再反对或抵抗的人或事。 1) Yield 的应用最为广泛: 如:yield to an enemy; 对敌投降; yield to reason;屈服于理由; yieldto desire. 屈服于欲望。 “The child . . . soon yielded to the drowsiness” (Charles Dickens). “这孩子?一会儿就支持不 住昏昏欲睡了” (查尔斯?狄更斯) 2) relent 是指出于对处于自己权威和影响下的人的尊重而缓解某一制度或决定的苛刻或严 格: “The captain at last relented, and told him that he might make himself at home” (Herman Melville). “最后,船长缓和下来,告诉他随便些” (荷曼?麦尔维尔) 。 3)Bow 表示因失败或通过礼貌而让步: “Bow and accept the end/Of a love” (Robert Frost). “屈服并接受爱情的结局” (罗伯特?

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 弗罗斯特) 4)defer 是指出于尊重或对他人权威、才学或判断的认可而让步: “Philip . . . had the good sense to defer to the long experience and the wisdom of his father” (William Hickling Prescott). “菲利浦?很明智地在他父亲的丰富经验和智慧面前作出了让步” (威廉姆?希克林?普莱斯哥特) 。 5)Submit 表示经过无用或不成功的抵抗之后,出于被迫而放弃: “What must the King do now? Must he submit?” (Shakespeare). “现在国王必须做什么? 他 必须投降吗?” (莎士比亚) 。 6)Succumb 强烈暗示屈服不可一世的或无法抵抗的事物: “I didn't succumb without a struggle to my uncle's allurements” (H.G. Wells). “我对叔叔的诱 惑未作任何反抗便屈服了” (H.G.威尔斯) [11]camouflage:vt.伪装,掩饰 如:The military vehicles were camouflaged.军车被伪装起来了。 [12]safari:n.旅行,探险(复数:safaris) [13] tally n. 符木(古时用,上有刻痕记载交货、欠款等的数量), 记账, 得分, 标记牌, 标签, 符 合, 对应物, 计数器 ho:interj.嗬!(用来表示惊讶或高兴以引起注意或催促前行) 如:Land ho! Westward ho!停下!向西! [14] sprawl vi.摊手摊脚地坐卧,平躺,倒卧;不规则的伸展;蔓延 如:sprawling on the sofa 平躺在沙发上 suburbs that sprawl out into the countryside 乱七八糟向乡间扩展的市郊 TEXT 9

Memoirs of a quail-shooting man 一位鹌鹑捕猎者的自述
The biggest d________① in hunters is taking place among the working class—among the “Deer Hunter” crowd in the small towns of the north-east, the ★rednecks[15] of the South and the cowboys of the West. Their places are being taken by moneyed professionals, (1)the sort of people who weren't brought up to hunt▲ but who discovered that it is a good way to ★flash their money[16] and make connections. The number of hunters with household incomes above $100,000 increased by more than a q________② in the 1990s. There are so many ★nouveaux chasseurs strutting around[17] the canyons of Manhattan that both Holland & Holland and Barbour have opened shops there. 捕猎人数减少最多的是工人阶层,包括东北部小城镇上的“猎鹿一族” 、南部的乡下佬以及 西部牛仔。 腰缠万贯的职业猎人霸占了他们的捕猎领地, 这种猎人原来压根不曾想过要去打 猎,但后来却发现打猎对于炫耀财富并疏通人际关系而言,是一条不错的门路。20 世纪 90

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 年代,家庭收入 10 万美元以上的猎人总数增长了四分之一还多。猎人中的这些新贵趾高气 扬地在曼哈顿峡谷中悠哉游哉,引得 Holland&Holland 和 Barbour 两大品牌都在那里开张营 业了。 Mr Cheney's own expedition was a lot closer to “Gosford Park” than “The Deer Hunter”—a group of fat old ★toffs[18] (2)waiting for wildlife to be ★flushed[19] towards them at huge expense▲. There has also been a big increase in so-called “exotic hunting”, where guests not only go after i_________③ species such as wolves and bears, but also blast away at imported zebras and giraffes. (3) Convenience is essential for the hedge-fund crowd. ▲Most exotic hunts take place in ranches from which the animals can't escape (Texas has 600). Exotic hunters can shoot elephants from cars or from the backs of other elephants, sometimes the orphaned calves of the victims of previous hunts. For the truly lazy there is “just-in-time shooting”, where animals are trained to turn up at certain hours, and “internet shooting”, where you can g________④ the gun from your desk. All this removes much of the inconvenience from hunting. (4)It also removes its main justification—that it is the most natural way of culling local wildlife. ▲ 切尼先生看上去更像是“高斯福特公园族”而不是“猎鹿一族” 。所谓高斯福特公园族是指 一群上了年纪的、 大腹便便的纨绔子弟, 悠然自得地等着出高价雇来的人将猎物赶进他们的 射程。还有一种所谓的“异国情调式打猎”也越来越受青睐,其间猎人不仅可以捕猎土产猎 物如狼、熊等,还可以猎杀从国外引进的斑马、长颈鹿。对在围场打猎的人来说,方便是第 一位的。大多数“异国情调式打猎”都在猎物无法逃走的牧场进行(在得克萨斯州有 600 个这样的牧场) 。异国情调式猎人可以坐在汽车上或是躲在其他大象的身后射杀大象,有时 也射杀一些已经中弹的落单小牛。要是实在懒得动,可选择“准时射击” ,也就是把猎物训 练好,让它们能在特定的时候出现在枪口之下。另外,还有一种“互联网控制射击” ,猎人 坐在电脑桌前可以遥控猎枪。如此种种,省却了打猎中的很多不便,却也让享受这种方便的 猎人们无法自圆其说——他们坚持认为打猎是土产野生物优胜劣汰最合乎情理的方式。 (言 下之意,就原来意义上的打猎而言,猎物存在于大自然之中,有的有能力逃过猎杀,有的则 难免落网,这倒有点像优胜劣汰。然而无论是围猎还是遥控射猎,被猎杀的动物要么无处可 逃,要么被迫自投罗网,何言优胜劣汰呢?) America's anti-hunting movement is tiny by British standards. But (5) is gathering momentum, it ▲ with the mainstream Humane Society taking an increasingly tough line and even conservatives protesting about exotic hunting. (The examples above are taken from “Dominion: The Power of Man, the Suffering of Animals, and the Call to Mercy”, a remarkable book by Matthew Scully, one of Mr Bush's former speechwriters.) The ★squall over [20]Mr Cheney's behaviour in Quailgate will probably die down, providing Mr Whittington survives. But the d________⑤ over hunting will go on growing. 美国的反狩猎行动相比英国还有些微不足道, 不过随着动物保护协会的声势日益高涨, 并且 连保守派也开始反对异国情调式捕猎, (上述例证引自《统治权——人类之力量、动物之苦 难和仁慈之感召》一书,这本好书的作者马修?斯佳丽曾是布什总统的演讲撰稿人之一。 )反 狩猎行动已经蓄势待发了。 假如惠廷顿先生没有生命危险, 切尼在鹌鹑门所作所为引发的喧 嚣也许将渐渐消逝,不过关于狩猎的争论将会日趋激烈。

完型填空答案:
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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 1、decline 2.quarter 3.indigenous 4. guide 5.debate ★★★NOTES 注释★★★ [15] redneck n.【无礼用语】 【俚语】 红脖子,乡下佬(对属于农村劳动阶层、从事露天 劳动,特别是美国南方这一阶层白人的贬称) ;红脖子(被认为是持有狭隘保守,经常是有 偏见的社会政治观点的人) [16]flash their money 炫耀他们是有钱人 flash vt.& n.【俚语】 招摇(庸俗华丽的或炫耀式的展览)=flaunt “The antique flash and trash of an older southern California have given way to a sleeker age of cultural hip”(Newsweek)“旧南加州往日的炫丽与糟粕,早已被文化嬉皮的时髦时代取代” (新闻周刊) [17] nouveaux adj.新近到达的,新近产生的 chasseur n.(法语)猎人 strut vi.昂首阔步,神气十足地走 [18]toff:n.有钱人,花花公子 [19]flush:v.惊起,从隐蔽处赶出 [20]squall:vi.狂风吹袭;狂叫,狂吹 n.尖叫声 补充背景材料: Gosford Park: 《高斯福德庄园》是一部电影的片名,又译作《迷雾庄园》 ,故事发生在 30 年 代的英国,高斯福德庄园名流云集。富有的庄园主威廉?麦考德和妻子西尔维娅邀请了一些 朋友举办狩猎会。客人包括西尔维娅的姨妈康斯坦丝伯爵夫人,西尔维娅的姐夫安东尼?梅 瑞蒂斯,大明星艾维?诺威鲁,以及美国电影制片人莫里斯?魏斯曼——他来英国为他的下一 部“陈查里”电影作准备。 热闹的庄园里还有一群人, 他们构成了与上流社会相对的另一个群体。 这是庄园以及各位来 宾的仆人侍从。男管家詹宁斯统管男仆,不过他的工作可不轻松,这其中有几个令人头疼的 “特殊人” :英俊潇洒的帕克斯自小在孤儿院长大,性格孤僻,我行我素;魏斯曼的侍从亨 利也搅得庄园颇为不安。 女管家威尔森太太则指挥着一干女仆, 其中最突出的是年轻活泼的 艾丽丝。 伯爵夫人的女仆玛丽是个天真的女孩, 她好奇地观察着这座庄园里的各色人等, 逐渐发 现原来上流社会和仆人的世界之间并没有截然分离的界线, 相反, 这两个世界由于种种复杂 的关系产生了千丝万缕的联系,庄园轻松闲适的气氛下其实埋藏着令人不安的因子。 麦考德先生的富有使不少人都得依附于他, 其中包括伯爵夫人和梅瑞蒂斯。 但麦考德似 乎并不受欢迎,女厨克劳福特太太就对他颇有怨词。性格乖戾的伯爵夫人亦不招人喜欢。西 尔维娅表面上高贵优雅,其实她已经有了外遇。梅瑞蒂斯曾经是战争英雄,但如今已破产, 正急切地需要麦考德为他投资。 亨利是个投机分子, 他来到庄园后立刻就开始追逐上流社会 的富婆,另一方面也不忘与女仆们调情。帕克斯由于种种原因成了众人瞩目的对象之后,自

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 然对亨利的放纵十分不满。女仆艾丽丝则与麦考德先生关系暧昧?? 麦考德先生的死把庄园带入了惊恐的气氛中: 他被人谋杀在书房里。 庄园里的不少人似 乎都有杀人的动机,这起案件一时间扑朔迷离。警察局的探长汤普森奉命前来调查,但这个 装模作样的家伙看起来没多大本事,或许他们真需要一位“陈查里”来侦破这起谋杀案?? the Deer Hunter:同样是一部电影,可译为《猎鹿人》《猎鹿者》《越战猎鹿人》等,剧情: 、 、 宾夕法尼亚州三个年轻的钢铁工人迈克尔(Michael) ,史蒂文(Steven)和尼克(Nick) ,在 越南战争时来到了越南。在离开美国时,史蒂文与已怀孕的安吉拉(Angela)结了婚,他们 的婚礼也是这三个年轻人的告别聚会。婚礼结束后,三个人一同去打猎,迈克尔以神奇的枪 法击中了一头雄鹿,但他仍神情抑郁,因为在他心中这就等于在拿生命做赌注。在战场上, 他们三人没过多久就都成了越南士兵的俘虏,越南士兵逼迫他们用左轮手枪玩俄罗斯轮盘 赌,尼克被吓得半死,迈克尔却很镇定,他还乘机抢了越南士兵的枪,与同伴一同逃出了俘 虏营,但逃出后大家又失散了。迈克尔和史蒂文回到了美国,史蒂文终身残废,住在疗养院 中不愿回家,迈克尔虽然无恙,但精神上已不复当年,他与尼克的女朋友琳达同居。当迈克 尔得知尼克还活着,并且住在西贡时,他来到了越南并找到了尼克,但此时的尼克已麻木不 仁,尼克在迈克尔面前玩俄罗斯轮盘赌,这一次他饮弹而亡。 《猎鹿人》 是反思越战的经典之一, 影片并没有下大笔墨去描绘战争的惨烈场面和宏大气势, 而是将重点放在表现战争对人内心造成的影响与创伤, 以和平年代的亲情友情反衬出战争对 人异化的恐怖可憎。德尼罗、斯特里普和沃肯等几位主要演员在片中的表现可圈可点,他们 精准却不夸张的表演很好地诠释出战争给人带来的悲哀。值得一提的是片中另一位演员约 翰·卡泽勒,他在未拍摄完前因患骨癌去世,没有看到《猎鹿人》最终的辉煌成就,也未能 与未婚妻梅丽尔·斯特里普结为百年之好,相当令人遗憾。不过值得欣慰的是,这位神情忧 郁的演员却为影迷留下了 5 部记忆深刻的影片,除了本片,其余分别是:科波拉的《教父 1、 2》与《对话》 ,以及西德尼·吕美特的《炎热午后》 (Dog Day Afternoon, 1975) 。 TEXT 10

Ominous
Feb 23rd 2006 From The Economist print edition FOR most of the past three years, the highly pathogenic bird flu k________① as H5N1 has been found mainly in Asia. Suddenly it has arrived in many countries in Europe, triggering widespread alarm. The detection of the virus in wild birds across Europe is certainly a cause for concern, particularly to Europe's poultry farmers▲, who are rightfully worried that the presence of the virus in wild birds will increase the risk to their flocks. However, in the m_________② of a European debate about the benefits of vaccinating chickens and whether or not poultry should be brought indoors, there is a danger that far more significant events elsewhere will be ★ overlooked[1]. In particular, most attention should be f________③ on the fact that bird flu is now widespread in the poultry flocks of two nations in Africa—Egypt and Nigeria—and in India. And on the fact that, in Nigeria, the disease is continuing to spread despite great efforts undertaken by the

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong government. An outbreak in Afghanistan also appears to be inevitable. Arguably, these matter much more than the (also inevitable) arrival of the disease in Europe▲. Poor countries with large rural populations are in a far weaker position to handle, and ★stamp out[2], outbreaks of bird flu in poultry, through both ★culling[3] and the prevention of the movement of animals in the surrounding areas. In Africa and India, chickens and ducks are far more likely to be found ★roaming[4] in people's backyards, where they can mingle with humans, other d________④ animals and wildlife, thus spreading the disease. In Europe, by c_______⑤, most poultry are kept in regulated commercial farms. The opening up of a new African front for the bird-flu virus▲ is a problem because eradication there will be tremendously difficult. There is a high risk that the disease will spread to other countries on the continent and it could easily become endemic—as it has in Asia. This offers the virus huge new scope to mutate▲ and become a disease that can pass between humans. The virus is certainly mutating—genetic changes have already affected its biological behaviour, although apparently not yet its transmission between humans. Experts are unsure as to how much, and what kind, of genetic changes would be required for the virus to become a global health threat. N_____⑥ do they know how long this process might take. But to ★dwell on[5] the increased risk of a pandemic of influenza is to miss a serious point about the direct risks posed by the loss of a large numbers of chickens and ducks across Africa. For some time, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation has been warning that if avian flu gets out of c_______⑦ in Africa, it will have a devastating impact on the livelihoods of millions of people. Poultry is a vital source of protein. For example, it provides almost 50% of the protein in the diet of Egyptians. The spread of a disease that is highly lethal to poultry, and requires culling, could have a ★dire[6] nutritional impact, there as elsewhere▲. Africa would also have to contend with huge economic losses. People who ★scratch out[7] a living in poor African nations simply cannot a_______⑧ to lose their chickens. Most of the world's poor live in rural areas and depend on agriculture. In Africa, rather a lot of these poor people depend heavily on their poultry. It is easy to see why some believe that bird flu could turn out to be primarily a development—rather than just a health—issue for the whole African continent. No game of chicken What can be done? It is clear that the movement and trade of poultry is making a big contribution to the spread of the virus. That trade needs tighter regulation, as does the movement of live birds from countries with H5N1 infections. In such places trade should be suspended u_______⑨ flocks have been cleaned up. In addition, Nigeria and surrounding countries need serious public-education campaigns about the danger of contact with dead birds. When outbreaks o______⑩, governments should immediately offer realistic compensation to farmers for birds lost to disease and culling▲. Without this, poor farmers will be tempted to hide bird-flu outbreaks and continue to sell poultry

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong that should be culled. Farming practices that mix poultry species in farms or live animal markets are a danger too, and must be addressed—although that might take longer. The effort would be helped if those in the poultry industry and governments in poultry-exporting nations would stop simply pointing to the risks posed by wild birds and start paying more attention to the movement of animals, products and people from infected to un-infected regions and countries. Unusually for a complex problem with international ★ramifications[8], money is available to make a serious attempt at tackling it▲—$1.9 billion was pledged by the world's wealthier nations last month in Beijing. There is no excuse for delay, unless we want more dead people to follow lots more dead ducks. ☆★注释☆★ [1]overlook vt.(1)俯瞰,俯视 The house on the hill overlooks the village. 从小山上的房子可以俯视村庄。 (2)忽略;没注意;漏看 You have overlooked several of the mistakes in this work. 你忽略了这个工作中的几个错误。 The secretary is very careful and never overlooks any little points. 秘书是个很细心的人她从不忽视细节。 [2]stamp out 扑灭,踩灭;毁灭,根除 =do away with; eradicate [3]cull vt.挑出老弱或劣质动物杀死:Every year the groups of seals that live off our coasts are culled because they eat too much fish. 每年居住在我们海岸边的海豹群都被人挑出一部分杀 死,因为他们吃掉太多的鱼。 [4]roam vi.& vt. 游荡;闲逛 The visitors roamed around the town.这些来访者在城里游逛。 [5]dwell on vt.细想,说得过于详细: Don't dwell so much on your past.过去的事不必再长篇大 论了。 [6]dire adj.(1)迫切的,重大的(指需要;危险) :be in dire need of food 极需食物 (2)可怕的: a dire warning 可怕的预兆 [7]scratch a living =to scrape a living (收入)勉强足以糊口 [8]ramification n.(通常复数)分支,支派(尤指看法、规律等)(网状组织的)分支,支流, ; 分叉:the ramifications of a business/of a railway system 商店分号/铁路系统分支

不祥之兆(全文)
过去的近三年中,H5N1 型高致病性禽流感主要出现在亚洲,如今已波及许多欧洲国家,为 我们敲响了疫情广泛流行的警钟。 从途经欧洲的野生禽类体内检测出的禽流感病毒肯定让人 们感到担忧, 尤其是对于欧洲家禽养殖农户而言更是如此。 这些农户担心野生禽类携带的病 毒将危及到他们的家禽,这种担心无可厚非。不过,在关于给鸡注射疫苗到底有没有用以及 应不应该对家禽实行圈养的这场争论中, 欧洲人可能会忽视别的一些极为重要的事情, 这很 危险。

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 需要特别指出的是,目前禽流感疫情在非洲的两个国家——埃及和尼日利亚——以及印度家 禽中已经蔓延开来,而且在尼日利亚,虽然政府已全力以赴,但疫情仍在不断地扩散。阿富 汗发生疫情暴发流行似乎也在所难免。人们对此应当予以高度重视。 也许可以这么说,相比疫情进入欧洲(同样不可避免)而言,这些更至关紧要。贫穷国家农 村人口多,对家禽中暴发的禽流感疫情处置和扑灭能力,都远远弱于欧洲国家,无论是通过 控制和阻止周边地区内动物的流动。在非洲和印度,人们的院子里来回走动的鸡、鸭随处可 见,它们与人群、其他家畜以及野生动物密切接触后,疫情遂得以传播。而在欧洲,大多数 家禽都养殖在管控严格的经济农场中。 禽流感病毒新近侵入非洲为人们提出了一个难题,因为那里的人要想根除疫情将非常困难。 疫情很可能会蔓延到欧洲其他国家,而且会跟亚洲一样,无疑将导致地方性流行,从而增加 了病毒变异的可能性,人畜禽流感就会变成人与人之间传播的疾病。的确,禽流感病毒正在 发生变异——很显然,基因上的改变尚未引起病毒在人间传播,但已经对病毒的生物学特性 产生影响。 至于病毒变异为人间传播类型从而威胁人类健康, 其基因到底需要改变多少和发 生何种改变,有关专家还难以确定,也无从知晓这种变异到底需要多长时间。 但是,过分关注禽流感大流行的危险,就会无法认识到非洲大陆丧失大批鸡、鸭所带来的直 接威胁。联合国粮农组织曾一度发出警告,非洲禽流感疫情一旦失控,数百万人的生计将遭 到灭顶之灾。家禽是蛋白质的重要来源,比如埃及人饮食中摄取的蛋白质 50%来自家禽。不 论在哪里,一种对家禽极具毁灭性的疫病流行,必然导致家禽(染病的以及可疑病禽)被大 范围捕杀,从而可能引发严重的营养问题。此外,非洲还必须应付巨大的经济损伤。对非洲 穷国中靠养鸡勉强糊口的人们来说,鸡没了,这日子就完全过不下去了。世界上大多数穷人 居住在农村,以农为生,而非洲这些人中一多半又主要依靠家禽养殖维持生计。所以不难理 解,为什么有人认为,禽流感所引发的不仅仅是健康问题,更主要的还是发展问题。 别拿鸡当儿戏 如何是好呢?显而易见, 家禽的流动和交易对禽流感病毒的播散起到了很大作用。 我们必须 对禽类交易以及来自 H5N1 病毒感染疫区国家的活禽流动进行严格管控。 在病禽尚未彻底扑 杀之前,这些地区应当停止禽类交易。 此外,尼日利亚及其周边国家要认真开展教育活动,让民众认识到接触死禽的危险性。各国 政府在疫情暴发时, 应当立即向农民提供相应补偿, 以弥补因家禽染病以及大范围扑杀给他 们造成的损失。 若非如此, 穷苦的农民就会冒险隐情不报, 继续售卖那些本应被扑杀的家禽。 同时,农民习惯在农场或者活禽交易市场将不同禽类混养混卖,这也很危险,必须处理妥当 ——尽管也许这需要更长时间。 如果禽类产业人士和家禽输出国政府不再只强调野生禽类的 危害,而开始高度重视动物、禽类产品以及人群在有疫情和无疫情国家及地区之间的流动, 上述疫情防控措施才会不至于白费力气。 异乎寻常地是,为了认真解决一个如此纷繁复杂的国际性问题,所需资金已然到位——上个 月世界一些富裕国家在北京承诺将拨款 19 亿美元。我们没有任何理由拖延下去,除非希望 在死了很多鸭子之后再死去更多的人。

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 完形填空答案(以原文为准,请自行辨析) : ①known ②midst ③focused ④domestic ⑤contrast ⑥Nor ⑦control ⑧afford ⑨until ⑩ occur TEXT 11

A calibrated provocation
Mar 2nd 2006 | BEIJING From The Economist print edition But China has not fallen into the trap. (1)IN THE elaborate ★fiction[1] that governs relations across the Taiwan Strait, there exists in Taiwan a body called the National Unification Council, whose notional aim is to advise the president on how the island and the mainland are to u_______①, an aim which China and Taiwan notionally share. The body has been inactive for six years. But when President Chen Shui-bian appeared to scrap it this week, he caused anger in China, and worry in America. Mr Chen has been weakened by scandals in his party but has two years l______② in office. Appealing to Taiwanese nationalism is one way to rally support. Hence the appeal of scrapping a body that is supposed to advise him on unification. But Mr Chen does not want to provoke China into a military response. So (2)his decision was judiciously worded. The council, he said, had “ceased to f________③” and its guidelines had “ceased to apply” This phrasing suggests the . possibility of a future revival. The careful wording was also partly intended to pacify America, which has been trying to persuade Mr Chen not to ★rock the boat[1] since late January, when he signalled his intention to take this step. A spokesman for the State Department said America would “continue to hold President Chen by his commitments not to take unilateral moves”. He also said it was America's understanding that Mr Chen had not formally a_________④ the council. (3)For all its fulminations, however, China does not seem keen to escalate this particular dispute. President Hu Jintao accused Mr Chen of taking a “dangerous step” towards i__________⑤. But officials have not threatened to ★invoke[3] an anti-s________⑥ law passed by China's legislature a year ago. That authorised military action against Taiwan in the event of (4)undefined “major incidents” ★entailing[4] the island's independence from China. The law has been described by Taiwanese officials as a threat to the s________⑦ quo and, indeed, a primary justification for Mr Chen's decision. A bigger worry for Chinese leaders is that Mr Chen might ★renege on[5] other pledges not to amend the island's constitution. He may suggest that China is a separate country. W______⑧, he may change Taiwan's official name (the Republic of China). China does not officially accept this name for Taiwan, but much prefers it to the Republic of Taiwan. Given the distinct possibility that the opposition Kuomintang (KMT) will reclaim Taiwan's presidency in 2008, Mr Chen might (5)

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong feel tempted to risk a dramatic ★gesture[6] in order to rally support for his party. But as Mr Chen noted this week, any constitutional reform would, under rules introduced last year, require approval by three-quarters of the legislature as w_____⑨ as a referendum. With the KMT and its supporters—who favour keeping on good terms with China and keeping the council—controlling a majority of parliament's seats, this would make it hard to introduce an amendment China strongly disliked. Mr Chen wants a constitutional referendum next year, but has not so far proposed any changes that would ★rile[7] the Chinese. (6)An escalation of rhetoric can be expected in the next few days as China's legislature holds its annual meeting, starting on March 6th. Nationalistic outbursts from the Communist Party-picked delegates have become part of the ritual. Unlike the meeting last year at which the anti-secession law was adopted, the focus of this year's agenda will be domestic: in particular a new five-year economic plan which is aimed at reducing a growing g_____⑩ between rich and poor. But just to be sure that Taiwan stays in line, the meeting will surely engage in another of its annual rituals, a hefty increase in military spending. NOTES: (参考书: 《朗文现代英汉双解词典》 ) [1]fiction n.杜撰;虚构;幻象:His account of the crime was a complete fiction.他所讲述 的那件罪行完全是虚构的。 [2]rock the boat 从中捣乱, 使事情恶化: leader of the party asked Tony not to rock the The boat until after the election.党的领袖要别在选举前提出异议,免令情况恶化。 [3]invoke vt.使生效,援用:to invoke the powers of the law to present a crime.借助法律力 量防止罪案 [4]entail:.vt. 承担,伴随,需要(施加或要求使成为必要的附属物或结果)an investment that entailed high risk.一项需承担高风险的投资 [5]renege:v.(on)背心,违约:You said you’d come—you can’t renege now!你说过 要来——你现在不能失信。 [6]gesture n.表达,姿态:Some countries give rare animals to important foreign visitors as a gesture of friendship.有些国家把稀有动物送给重要的外宾以示友好。 [7]rile vt.恼怒,激怒热火:It riles me when he won’t stop whistling.他不停地吹口哨,把 我给惹火了。 参考译文

精准的挑衅
但是中国大陆并没有上当。 左右台湾海峡两岸关系的因素非常复杂,但又虚无缥缈,其中在台湾有一个名叫“国家统一 委员会”的机构,其意图旨在就如何实现台岛和大陆的统一向“总统”建言献策,而从理论 上讲,实现统一也是北京和台湾的共同意图。六年来,该机构一直无所作为。不过,当陈水 扁“总统”本周宣布将其废止之际,北京感到大为恼怒,美国方面也是忧心忡忡。

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 陈水扁因其党内丑闻而渐次式微,可他还有两年任期。拿台湾人的民族独立主义作文章,是 一种赢取民众支持的办法,所以陈水扁才谋求废止这一被认为是劝其统一的机构。不过,陈 水扁不希望激惹北京动武,因此宣布决定时很讲究措辞。他说,国统会已“终止运作” ,其 纲领已“终止适用” 。这种说法暗示了将来重新恢复国统会的可能性。 从一定程度上看, 措辞谨慎也是为了让美国放心。 自从一月底发现陈水扁有意采取行动以来, 美国一直试图说服陈水扁避免让事态恶化。美国务院一位发言人说,美国会“继续敦促陈水 扁信守不采取单边行动的承诺” 。他还说,美国已经了解到陈水扁并未正式废除国统会。 然而,北京尽管对此举进行了严词指责,但它似乎并不急于让这一特殊的矛盾升级。胡锦涛 主席指责陈水扁朝台独又迈入了“危险的一步” ,但是官方并没有威胁要援用一年前中国立 法机关制定的《反国家分裂法》 。该法规定,一旦发生将会导致台湾从中国分裂出去的“重 大事变” ,国家有权采取武力行动。台湾官方认为,此项法律是对台海现状的威胁,而且事 实上也成为陈水扁此举的主要托词。 令北京领导人感到更为担忧的是, 陈水扁可能违背不修改台湾宪法的其他承诺, 他也许会说 中国是一个分裂的国家,更糟糕的是他说不定会更改台湾的官方名称(中华民国) 。北京虽 未正式承认台湾是“中华民国” ,但比起“台湾共和国” ,它宁愿承认前者。若反对党国民党 2008 年执政台湾确有可能,陈水扁为了赢得民众对本党的支持,就会不惜冒险采取激烈手 段。 不过正如陈水扁本周所强调, 按照去年通过的规定要求, 任何宪法改革都需要立法会四分之 三的委员和全民投票同意。 由于国民党及其支持者——他们赞同与北京保持良好关系和维持 国统会——在“议会”中占大多数席位,北京坚决反对的宪改很难得以实施。陈水扁是想在 明年举行一次宪法公投,但是目前还不会改变现状,免得惹恼北京。 在接下来的几天里, 随着 3 月 6 日中国立法机关年会的召开, 北京在措辞方面将进一步严厉。 在这一例会中, 中共遴选的会议代表必然会发出一些爱国主义呼声。 不同于去年那次通过 《反 分裂国家法》的会议,此次会议议程的重点在国内,尤其是旨在缩小日益拉大的贫富差距的 新五年经济规划。不过,为确保台湾不会捣乱,此次会议肯定会遵照另一惯例,继续加大国 防投入。 填空答案 ①unite 统一 ②left 剩下 ③function 运转 ④abolished 废除,阿扁玩的就是废除和终止的文字游戏. ⑤independence 独立,阿扁痴心妄想 ⑥secession 坚决反对"分裂"祖国 ⑦status 与 quo 一起,"现状" ⑧Worse 更为糟糕的是 ⑨well "as well as"也

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong ⑩gap 鸿沟,这里说的是贫富"差距" TEXT 12

Not science fiction
Feb 23rd 2006 From The Economist print edition THE recent stem-cell scandal in South Korea may have made front-page news across the world, but (1)few readers are likely to bet that a literary novel set in a laboratory and based on scientific research might end up being a ★page-turner[1]. Readers of“Intuition”however, will , battle with themselves over whether to savour Allegra Goodman's exquisite ★filleting[2] of character, as the scientists are themselves dissected like their experimental mice, or to rush ★ headlong[3] to find out what h________① next. In an under-funded Harvard laboratory, the ★dogged[4], unglamorous ★slog[5] towards finding a cure for cancer is u_______② way. Suddenly one research assistant's experiment ★ bears [6]fruit. After mice infected with human breast-cancer cells are injected with Cliff's R-7 virus, their tumours melt away in 60% of the population. But are Cliff's results too good to be true? (2)The question of whether the R-7 results were ★fiddled[7] powers the remainder of the book. Ms Goodman follows the good novelist's ★credo[8] that plot ★proceeds from[9] character; and(3) follows the good scientist's credo that objective truth is inexorably ★coloured[10] she by whoever ★stands[11] to lose or gain by it. All the researchers in “Intuition” are sympathetic, and they are all ★ screwed up[12]. Sandy, co-director of the lab, is a ★ charismatic[13] dynamo[14], but too enamoured with worldly glory. His brilliant, shy partner Marion has ★impeccable[15] research standards, but is undermined by chronic self-doubt. By contrast, Cliff is ★glibly[16] over-c_________③. Robin, R-7's ★whistle-blower[17] (also Cliff's former girlfriend), is a natural scientist, but her determination to uncover fraud may be driven by romantic disappointment. Robin is heeding her intuition, and “young researchers had their intuition ★tamped down[18] lest, like the ★sorcerer's[19] apprentice, they flood the lab with their conceits.” What a relief to find a novel that does not take place in the literary salons of London or New York. (4)Ms Goodman manages fully to inhabit another profession's world. Her characters so live and breathe on the page that they could get up and m_______④ you a cup of coffee while you finish another chapter. (5) writing is rich, so rich it would be easy to miss how skilful is the Her prose itself. Exciting and, for most, exotic as well, “Intuition” is a ★stunning[20] achievement. 参考译文(TRANSLATED BY CHENJILONG)

并非科幻小说
韩国最近发生的干细胞丑闻或许已成为世界各地的头条新闻, 不过几乎没有读者会相信, 一

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 本以实验室为背景、基于科学研究的小说到头来竟然让他们爱不释手。然而,读过《直觉》 这本书的人心里很矛盾, 小说里的科学家如同他们用作实验的小鼠一样被深刻剖析, 因而读 者们不知道是仔细品味一下阿列格拉?古德曼入木三分的人物描写呢,还是急于弄清接下来 会发生什么事情。 在哈佛大学一个资金不足的实验室里, 科学家们为了找到一种治疗癌症的方法, 正默默无闻、 坚持不懈地辛勤工作。突然,助理研究员克里夫的实验结出了果实。他用 R7 病毒注射染有 人乳腺癌细胞的小鼠后,60%小鼠的肿瘤消散了。可是,克里夫如此完美的研究结果是真实 的吗?R7 结果有没有被虚报?这一疑问让本书随后的内容更加扣人心弦。 古德曼夫人延续了优秀小说家所提倡的“情节因人物而生” ,也承继了优秀科学家所奉行的 “任何人都不能歪曲客观事实”《直觉》中的所有研究人员表面上一团和气,暗地里却都勾 。 心斗角。实验室副主管桑迪很有人格魅力,一心扑在工作上,但虚荣心太强。他的搭档马里 昂才华横溢,少言寡语,工作标准极高,但因为长期缺乏自信而萎靡不振。相比之下,克里 夫却有些圆滑世故和自命不凡。揭发 R7 秘密的罗宾(克里夫前女友)则是一位朴实的科学 家,不过她决心揭露骗局可能多少出于对爱情的失望。她重视直觉,而且, “年青研究者悄 悄地抑制了他们的直觉力量,生怕会像刚学巫术的人一样,让实验室充斥着自负和虚夸。 ” 能看到一本不是描写伦敦抑或纽约文学沙龙的小说, 真是一件让人舒心的事。 古德曼夫人完 全立足于另一种职业领域,刻画的人物栩栩如生,呼之欲出,甚至能在你每读完一个章节的 时候为你泡上一杯咖啡。古德曼著作颇丰,因此人们往往忽视了她的写作技巧。 《直觉》一 书动人心魄,而且对大多数人而言还颇具异国情调,实在令人为之侧目。

NOTES [1]page-turner n.【非正式用语】让人一页一页不停往下翻的书;引人入胜的书(一本非常有 趣的、令人兴奋或悬念四起的书,通常是指小说): “The book is a page-turner”(Frank Conroy) “这本书真是让人爱不释手”(弗兰克?康罗伊) [2]fillet v.切取(鱼、肉)净肉;切(鱼肉)成片 [3]headlong adj.&adv.=headfirst 头先向前的;轻举妄动地,匆匆忙忙地:He’s gone headfirst into trouble.他轻率地陷入麻烦中。 [4]dogged adj.顽强的,坚忍不拔的:She was not very clever, but by dogged efforts she learnt a good deal at school.她不怎么聪明,但努力不懈,在学校学到了很多东西。 [5]slog n.艰苦工作 (之期间) I always found school difficult: it was a hard slog.我总觉得求学不 : 易,读书是一桩苦事。 [6]bear v.产(作物、水果) :The young apple tree is bearing this year for the first time.这棵苹果 幼树今年首度结了果。 [7]fiddle v.虚报:to fiddle one’s income tax 虚报所得税 [8]credo n.信仰,信条:a credo of socialist principles 社会主义的信条 [9]proceed from (无被动)由??造成,产生自?? [10]colour vt.使(人,事件)带特殊的效果或感受;影响:Personal feelings coloured his judgement.个人的感情影响了他的判断。|a highly-coloured account of his difficulties 大加渲染 地描述他的种种困难

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong [11]stand v. to be in a position to gain or lose 有 (得失之) 机会; (得或失) If this new law 势将 : is passed, we stand to lose our tax advantage.如果这项新法律通过,我们势将失去我们在税赋 方面享受的利益。 [Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English] stand to do something: to be likely to do or have something: stand to gain/lose/win/make What do firms think they stand to gain by merging? After the oil spill, thousands of fishermen stand to lose their livelihoods. [12]screw up v.(常被动) (俚语)搞得乱七八糟;搅乱:Things are screwed up, as usual.事情 跟平常一样糟。Screw up one’s courage 鼓起勇气 [Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English] someone who is screwed up has a lot of emotional problems because of bad or unhappy experiences in the past. [13]charismatic adj.有气质的,有(政治)魅力的 [14]dynamo n.发电器,发电机: (比喻)Randolph is a real dynamo; he never stops working.鲁 道夫浑身都是劲,总是不停地工作。 [15]impeccable adj.=faultless 无瑕疵的 [16]glibly adv.油腔滑调地,流利而不真实地 [17]whistle-blower n. someone who tells people in authority or the public about dishonest or illegal practices at the place where they work 告密人,揭发者:What is disturbing is that it is typical of a new intolerance against whistlee-blowers that raises serious questions about free speech. [18]tamp down v. to press or push something down by lightly hitting it several times 捣实,拍紧, 砸紧:As well as surprise, she had heard irritation tamped down in Vitor's voice. [19]sorcerer n.巫师,魔法师,弄妖术者 [20]stunning adj.迷人的,极富魅力的,极美的,讨人喜欢的 完型填空答案及分析 ① happens:接下来会“发生”什么事,此处肯定是个动词。前面的 find out 暗示了“发生” 。 ② under:under way 是指 to have started to happen or be done, “正在进行中。 ” ③ confident:上一句中有 self-doubt 缺乏自信,而后转折 by contrast,对比分析知道该处应 说的是“过于自信” 。 ④ make: 此处应填动词, 而后面跟的是 a cup of coffee, 同时全句的意思是把人物给写活了, 能在你看完一章后“为你??一杯咖啡” ,注意介词“for” ,为??,而不是 to。 TEXT 13

Go forth and multiply
一往无前,生生不息 Mar 2nd 2006 From The Economist print edition WHAT makes for a successful invasion? Often, the answer is to have better weapons than the enemy. And, as it is with people, so it is with plants—at least, that is the conclusion of a p_______

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong ① published in ★Biology Letters[1] by Naomi Cappuccino, of Carleton University, and Thor Arnason, of the University of Ottawa, both in Canada. 怎样才能成功入侵?答案常常是:拥有比敌人更好的武器。人是这样,植物也是如此——至 少, 《生物书简》上发表的一篇论文是这么认为的,作者是来自加拿大加里敦大学的纳奥米? 卡普奇诺和渥太华大学的索尔?阿纳森。 The phenomenon of alien species ★popping up[2] in unexpected parts of the world has grown over the past few d________② as people and goods become more mobile and (1)?plant seeds and animal larvae have ★hitched[3] along for the ride?. Most such aliens blend into the ecosystem in which they arrive without too much fuss. (Indeed, many probably fail to establish themselves at all—but those failures, of course, are never noticed.) Occasionally, though, something ★goes bananas[4] and starts trying to take the place over, and an invasive species is born. Dr Cappuccino and Dr Arnason asked themselves w_______③. 过去的几十年,随着人和货物的流动日益频繁,植物种子和动物幼体也乘机“搭便车”四处 播散, 世界各地无意间出现了越来越多的外来物种。 这些外来物种大多数都轻而易举地融入 了所到之处的生态系统。 (事实上,许多物种可能还没有站稳脚跟——当然,人们从未注意 到这一点。 )不过,偶尔也有某些物种疯狂繁殖,开始企图占领原有物种的生长空间,一种 入侵物种就这样形成了。卡普奇诺和阿纳森对此感到百思不得其解。 One hypothesis is that aliens leave their predators b________④. Since the predators in their new homelands are not adapted to exploit them, they are able to reproduce unchecked. That is a nice idea, but it does not explain why only certain aliens become invasive. Dr Cappuccino and Dr Arnason suspected this might be because native predators are (2)?sometimes “pre-adapted” to the aliens' defences?, but in other cases they are not. 有人推想,外来物种摆脱了原先的掠食者,而在新的“家园” ,现有的掠食者又没有发现它 们也合口味,因此这些物种得以肆无忌惮地繁衍。这种观点好是好,不过没有解释为什么只 有特定的外来物种才具有入侵性。 卡普奇诺和阿纳森猜测, 这可能是因为土生土长的掠食者 对外来物种所具有的防御机制有时产生“预适应” ,有时又不产生。 To test this, they had first to establish a reliable list of invaders. That is not as easy as it sounds. As they observe, “although there are many lists of invasive species published by governmental agencies, inclusion of a given species in the lists (3)?may not be entirely free of political motivation?”. Instead, they polled established researchers in the field of alien species, asking each to list ten invasive species and, for c_________⑤, ten aliens that just ★rubbed along quietly with[5] their neighbours. The result was a list of 21 species widely agreed to be invasive and, for comparison, 18 non-invasive aliens. 为了证实这一猜测,他们必须首先列出一些已经确认的入侵物种。这可不是件轻松的事。正 如他们所说, “虽然政府部门公布了许多入侵物种名单,但是把指定物种归入此名单也许多 少有些出于政治上的考虑。 ”为此,他们调查了外来物种领域一些有名望的研究人员,请每 人举出 10 种入侵物种, 以及 10 种与本地物种能和睦共生的外来物种用于对照。 最后得到的 名单中包括 21 种被广泛认可的入侵物种和 18 种用于对照的非入侵性外来物种。 H________⑥ established these lists, they went to the library to find out what was known about

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong the plants' chemistry. Their aim was to find the most prominent chemical weapon in each plant, whether that weapon was directed against insects that might want to eat the plant, bacteria and fungi that might want to i_______⑦ it, or other plants that might compete for space, water, nutrients and light. Botanists know a lot about which sorts of compounds have what roles, so classifying constituent chemicals in this way was not too hard. 名单确定之后, 他们就到图书馆查询这些植物的化学性质, 旨在找出每种植物所拥有的作用 最为突出的“化学武器” 。这种“化学武器”的攻击对象包括可能吃掉该植物的昆虫,使其 感染的细菌和真菌以及与其竞争生长空间、水、养料和阳光的其它植物。植物学家对哪些化 合物有哪些作用都了如指掌,因此这样对化学物质进行分类并不太难。 The researchers then compared the chemical arsenals of their aliens with those of native North American plants, (4)?to see if superior (or, at least, unusual) weaponry was the explanation for the invaders' success.? Their hypothesis was that highly invasive species would have chemical weapons not found in native plants, and w________⑧ pests, parasites and other plants would therefore not have evolved any resistance to. The more benign aliens, by contrast, were predicted to have arsenals also found in at least some native species. 然后,为了弄清外来物种的成功入侵是否得益于“超级武器“ (或者至少是超常武器) ,这两 位研究人员将已知外来物种的“化学武器库”同北美土生土长的植物“化学武器库”进行了 比较。他们推断,具有高度入侵性的物种拥有土产植物所缺少的“化学武器” ,对这种化学 武器,害虫、寄生虫及其它植物都不能产生任何抵抗力。相比之下,入侵性较弱的外来物种 所具有的“武器库”可能至少同样存在于某些土产物种。 And so it proved. More than 40% of the invasive species had a chemical unknown to native plants; just over 10% of the non-invasive aliens had such a chemical. M_________⑨, when they looked at past studies on alien plants that had examined how much such plants suffer from the ★ depredations[6] of herbivorous insects, they found that the extent of the damage reported was significantly correlated with the number of native species with which that alien shared its principal chemical weapon. 猜测因而得到了证实。40%以上的入侵物种含有一种土产植物所没有的化学物质,仅 10%多 一点的非入侵外来物种含此物质。而且,他们在看了以前一些关于外来物种的研究(已经查 实这类植物受食草昆虫的损害程度)之后,发现损害程度与土产植物的数量密切相关,而外 来物种所含的主要“化学武器” 与这些土产植物相同。 For alien plants, then, the real secret of success—also as in human warfare—is surprise. (5) ?It is not that the chemicals concerned are more toxic in any general sense? (indeed, successful invaders are often rare in their own native habitats). R_______⑩, it is that the locals just don't see them coming. 那么,对于外来植物而言,其成功的真正秘诀——人的竞争也是如此——令人感到惊奇,它 不在于一般意义上所认为的那样具有毒性更强的化学物质 (的确, 入侵成功的外来物种在其 原有生长区域内往往很罕见) ,而是因为本地掠食者根本没有察觉它们的到来。

NOTES:

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong [1]Bilology Letters 《生物书简》杂志 [2]pop up =happen suddenly, arise 突然出现,突然发生 [3]hitch v.搭便车:He hitched across Europe.他搭便车横跨欧洲。/Let’s hitch a ride.让我们搭 一次便车。 [4]go bananas (口语)发疯,神经错乱 ▲辨析▲——top banana 与 go bananas top banana 本 指 喜 剧 的主 角 ( chief comic ) ,现 在 多 半 都 指 老 板或 上司 ( boss or supervisor ) 。 例如: He is a top banana in this corporation. (他是公司的老板。 ) 但是 go bananas 系指激动、 疯狂、 神魂颠倒 wild, crazy or excited ) banana 要用复数。 ( ( ) 例如: The drugs ( marijuana ) have made him go bananas. (毒品大麻使他神魂颠倒。 ) 此外, to drive ( someone ) bananas (或 nuts ) 意思也是使人发狂, 只是动词要用 drive, banana 也要用复数。 例如: He has driven his wife bananas ( nuts ) (他逼得他太太发疯。 ) [5]rub along (with) (跟某人) 关系维持得不错; 相处得不错: wife and I seem to rub along My (together) all right.我太太和似乎相处得还不错。 [6]depredation n.(常复数)抢夺,劫掠,蹂躏:The depredations of war/of the storm can still be seen several years after the event.战争/暴风雨蹂躏的痕迹,事后数年仍历历在目。 ★★BACKGROUND★★ 外来物种(Alien species)是指出现在其过去或现在的自然分布范围及扩散潜力以外(即在 其自然分布范围以外,在没有直接或间接的人类引入或照顾之下而不能存在)的物种、亚种 或以下的分类单元,包括其所有可能存活、继而繁殖的部分、配子或繁殖体。当外来物种在 自然或半自然生态系统或生境中建立了种群, 改变或威胁本地生物多样性的时候, 就成为外 来入侵种(Alien invasive species) 。外来物种在有的文件中也称之为非本地的(non-native) 、 非土著的(non-indigenous) 、外国的(foreign)或外地的(exotic)物种。 完型填空答案 ①paper ②decades ③why ④behind ⑤comparison ⑥having ⑦infect ⑧which ⑨Moreover ⑩Rather TEXT 14

Small country, big example
Mar 16th 2006 | PORTO-NOVO From The Economist print edition Still an unusual success for democracy—★fingers crossed[1] ON March 5th, Benin went to the polls for the fourth presidential election since multi-party democracy was introduced in 1990: no mean achievement in west Africa. Even more impressive was the fact that President Mathieu Kérékou did not ★stand for[2] re-election, nor did his great

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong rival, Nicéphore Soglo, who was president from 1991-96. Both have passed the constitution's age l_______① of 70. (1)That respect for the constitution goes admirably against Africa's trend for heads of state to change the law to stay even longer in office. Benin has fewer than 8m people. It is one of the p______② countries on earth. And yet, in Africa, it is also a democratic ★exemplar[3]. Many of Africa's former French colonies brought in multi-party democracy only when forced to by the French—in return for more aid—in June 1990. (2)Having abandoned Marxism, Mr Kérékou, Benin's president and military ruler, not only legalised opposition parties several months before then, but also ★stood down[4] after his electoral defeat to Mr Soglo in 1991. So Benin became the first African country where an incumbent ran for re-election, lost and graciously ★bowed out[5]. Since then, d_________③ has implanted itself strongly in the minds of Benin's citizens. “Our history is so terrible, with coups and years of problems, that now we all care about democracy very deeply,” says one of them. Still, the election did not go smoothly. Electoral materials, i_________④ voting forms, seals for ballot boxes and even the ★urns[6] themselves turned up late or not at all, causing most polling stations to open hours late. Although they all then stayed open for the regulation nine hours, election officials were often absent and many had not been properly trained. Mr Kérékou blamed the independent electoral commission, hinting that the errors were not accidental. (3)All the same, turnout was high. Provisional results suggest that Yayi Boni, a banker, is ahead and will be faced in a second round by Adrien Houngbédji, a former prime minister and long-time rival of Mr Kérékou. Several other more minor candidates have filed complaints about the election process with the constitutional court. It is, alas, possible that a second round may not take p______⑤. Mr Kérékou has talked ★ darkly[7] of following America's example in 2000 by taking months to verify the first-round results. His critics say he is stalling for time to handpick a favoured successor to run again if the first round is invalidated. (4)So far, however, his promise to give up power has to be taken ★at face value[8]. Benin's democracy-loving people should make him stick to his word: it could be the former general's greatest legacy. NOTES: (LONGMAN) 1.keep?fingers crossed 希望能成功,如愿 to hope that something will happen the way you want e.g. We'rekeepingourfingers crossedthat she's going to be OK.我们衷心希望她能一切都好。 Bingham is keeping his fingers crossed that Gray's withdrawal is the only one.宾厄姆希望除了格 雷没人会退出。 2. stand for (election)做??(委员会、议会)候选人 (British English)to try to become elected to a council, parliament etc [= run American English] e.g.She announced her intention to stand for Parliament.她宣布打算参加议会竞选。 3.exemplar 样板,模范,典范(exemplar of) a good or typical example

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong e.g. Milt's career is an exemplar of survival in difficult times.米尔特的生涯可谓逆境生存的典 范。 4.stand down 同意撤岗或停止竞选,给其他人机会;引退 to agree to leave your position or to stop trying to be elected, so that someone else can have a chance [= step down American English] 5.bow out 由??退出,从容引退;不反悔(bow out of) 1)to stop taking part in an activity, job etc, especially one that you have been doing for a long time e.g. Reeves thinks it is time for him to bow out of politics.里夫斯觉得是时候告别政治舞台了。 2)to not do something that you have promised or agreed to do [= get out of] e.g. You're not trying to bow out of this, are you?你不会说话不算话吧,啊? 6.urn 瓮,茶水壶,骨灰盒 7.darkly 悲伤地,生气地,胁迫地 in a sad, angry, or threatening way: e.g. Fred scowled darkly at her.弗雷德恶狠狠地看着她。 8. take something at face value 不考虑内在含义而接受某种条件或听信别人的话,信以为真 to accept a situation or accept what someone says, without thinking there may be a hidden meaning: e.g. You shouldn't always take his remarks at face value.你应该注意一下他的弦外之音。 [BACKGROUND]贝宁简况 位于西非中南部,东邻尼日利亚,西北、东北与布基纳法索、尼日尔交界,西与多哥接壤, 南濒大西洋。海岸线长 125 公里。沿海平原为热带雨林气候,常年气温在 20-34℃之间,最 高可达 42℃;中部和北部为热带草原气候,年平均温度 26-27℃。 16 世纪前后,贝宁出现许多小王国和酋长国。18 世纪阿波美王国鼎盛时期统一了南部和中 部。16 世纪后期,西方殖民者入侵贝宁,大肆进行奴隶贸易。1904 年,贝宁并入法属西非, 1913 年沦为法国殖民地。1958 年成为法兰西共同体内的“自治共和国” 。1960 年 8 月 1 日 独立,成立达荷美共和国。1972 年 10 月克雷库政变上台,宣布“走社会主义发展道路” 。 1975 年 11 月 30 日改国名为贝宁人民共和国。1990 年 3 月 1 日改为贝宁共和国,实行多 党制。1991 年 3 月,尼塞福尔?索格洛(Nicéphore SOGLO)在首次多党大选中获胜,当选总 统。1996 年 3 月,克雷库在换届选举中击败索格洛重新执政。

参考译文及填空参考答案

小国家,大典范 BY Chenjilong
这总算是一项了不起的民主成就——希望他们得偿所愿。 3 月 5 日,贝宁自从 1990 年实行多党制以来,举行了第四届投票选举总统——这一成就在 整个西部非洲是无与伦比的。令人印象尤为深刻的是,马蒂厄?克雷库并未参加此次换届选 举,其最主要对手、1991 年至 1996 年曾任总统的尼塞福尔?索格洛也没有。两人都已年逾

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 70,超过了宪法规定的最高竞选年龄。在非洲,国家领导人往往可以借助篡改法律来延长在 位时间。贝宁这两任总统严格遵守本国宪法,虽与此格格不入,却也令人肃然起敬。 贝宁的人口不到 800 万,是世界上最贫穷的国家之一,但也是非洲民主的典范。1990 年 6 月,迫于法国的压力,非洲许多前法属殖民地国家纷纷推行多党制民主政府,从而谋求更多 援助。克雷库,这位不再坚持马克思主义的贝宁总统兼武装部队统帅,不但承认了反对党派 的合法地位,并且在 1991 年选举时败给索格洛后甘愿离职。贝宁因而成为非洲首个在职元 首参加换届选举并失败、最后能从容引退的国家。从此,贝宁人民的心里深深地打上了民主 的印记。有的贝宁人说: “我们的国家曾经政变不断,问题层出不穷,简直不堪回首,我们 现在都深切盼望民主能带来一些变化。 ” 不过, 这次民主选举进行得并不太顺利。 选表、 投票箱封条、 票瓮等选举用材迟迟不能到位, 致使大多数投票站推迟开放。 这些投票站虽然按规定开放了 9 个钟头, 但是常常连选举监督 官员的人影儿都看不到, 而且许多人还未没有经过正规培训。 克雷库总统对独立选举委员会 进行了斥责,而且言下之意指出这类错误并不是偶然的。话说回来,参加投票的人还是很多 的。各省选票统计结果显示,银行家亚伊?波尼遥遥领先,可能会在下一轮选举中遭遇前总 理、克雷库总统的宿敌亚德里安?温贝吉。其他一些少数党候选人已就选举过程向宪法法院 提出了抗诉。 唉,也许下一轮压根都不会开始。克雷库总统已经声称要照搬美国 2000 年的选举模式、用 数月时间来核实第一轮投票结果。批评人士认为,克雷库这样做是故意拖延,他正在给自己 挑选称心如意的接班人,一旦认定第一轮选举结果无效,他的接班人就能上台了。不管怎么 说,目前对于克雷库承诺放权一事,人们表面上还是得相信。热爱民主的贝宁人民应当敦促 他信守承诺——这可是这位曾经的将军能给贝宁留下的最宝贵的财富了。 完形填空答案:1.limit 2.poorest 3.democracy 4.including 5.place TEXT 15

A text a day...
Mar 24th 2006 From The Economist print edition The medical uses of mobile phones show they can be good for your health

WHAT impact can mobile phones have on their users' health? Many people (A) the supposed ill effects caused by radiation from handsets and base stations1, despite the lack of credible evidence of any harm. But evidence for the beneficial effects of mobile phones on health is rather more abundant. Indeed, a systematic review (B) by Rifat Atun and his colleagues at Imperial College, London, ★ rounds up[1] 150 examples of the use of text-messaging in the delivery of health care. These uses (C) three categories: efficiency gains; public-health gains; and direct benefits to patients by incorporating

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong text-messaging into treatment regimes. The study, funded by Vodafone2, the world's largest mobile operator, was published this week. (1)Using ★texting[2] to boost efficiency is not rocket science, but big savings can be achieved. Several trials carried out in England have found that the use of text-messaging reminders reduces the number of missed appointments with family doctors by 26-39%, for example, and the number of missed hospital appointments by 33-50%. If such schemes were ★ rolled out[3] nationally, this would (D) annual savings of ?256m-364m. Text messages are also being used to remind patients about blood tests, clinics, scans and dental appointments. Similar schemes in America, Norway and Sweden have had equally satisfying results—though the use of text-message reminders in the Netherlands, where non-attendance rates are low, at 4%, had no effect other than to annoy patients. Text messages can also be a good way to disseminate public-health information, particularly to groups who are hard to reach by other means, such as teenagers, or in developing countries where other means of communication are unavailable. Text messages have been used in India to inform people about the World Health Organisation's strategy to control tuberculosis, for example, and in Kenya, Nigeria and Mali to provide information about HIV and malaria. In Iraq, text messages were used to support a campaign to vaccinate nearly 5m children against polio. Finally, there are the uses of text-messaging as part of a treatment regime. These involve sending reminders to patients to take their medicine at the right time, or to encourage compliance with exercise regimes or efforts to stop smoking. (2)The evidence for the effectiveness of such schemes is generally ★anecdotal[4], however, notes Dr Rifat. More quantitative research is needed—which is why his team also published three papers this week (E) the use of mobile phones in health care in more detail. One of these papers, written in conjunction with Victoria Franklin and Stephen Greene of the University of Dundee, in Scotland, reports the results of a trial in which diabetic teenagers' treatment was (F) with text messaging. Diabetes needs constant management, and requires patients to take an active role in their treatment by measuring blood-sugar levels and administering insulin injections. (3)The most effective form of therapy is an intensive regime in which patients adjust the dose of insulin depending on what they eat. This is more ★onerous[5] for the patient, but (G) a greater dietary variety. Previous studies have shown that intensive treatment is effective only with close supervision by doctors. Dr Franklin and her colleagues devised a system called Sweet Talk, which sends patients personalised text messages reminding them of the treatment goals they have set themselves, and allowing them to send questions to doctors. The Sweet Talk system was tested over a period of 18 months with teenage patients receiving both conventional and intensive diabetes treatment. A control group received conventional treatment and no text messages. The researchers found that the use of text-messaging significantly increased “self-efficacy”3 (the

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong effectiveness of treatment, measured by questionnaire). More importantly, among patients receiving intensive therapy, the level of haemoglobin HbA1c4—an indicator of blood-glucose and hence of glycaemic control—was 14% lower than for those in the control group. Since even a 10% decline in HbA1c level is (H) a reduction in complications such as eye and kidney problems, this is an impressive result. It suggests that texting can cheaply and effectively support intensive therapy among teenagers, who often demonstrate poor compliance5. Despite such promising results, Dr Rifat notes, many of the medical uses of text-messaging have not yet been __ (I) _ clinical trials, because they are so new. And even where the benefits are proven, the technology has not been systematically deployed on a large scale. But when it (J) improving outcomes and reducing costs, (4)text messages would seem to be just what the doctor ordered. [QUIZ] 1. Fill in each blank with an appropriate form of each following phrasal verb. One verb can only and must be chosen once. ①look at, ②subject to, ③allow for, ④carry out, ⑤associate with, ⑥worry about, ⑦back up, ⑧come to, ⑨fall into, ⑩translate into A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. 2. Translate the underlined sentences into Chinese. [NOTES](LONGMAN) 1. round up v.(赶往)监狱,围捕;归拢,聚集;五入以成整数 1) police or soldiers round up a particular group of people, they find them and force them to go if to prison e.g. Thousands of men were rounded up and jailed. 数以千计的人被围捕并关进监狱。 2)to find and gather together a group of people, animals or things e.g. See if you can round up a few friends to help you!我倒要看看你能找着几个朋友帮你。 His dog Nell started to round up the sheep.他的狗奈尔开始把羊朝一起赶。 3)to increase an exact figure to the nearest whole number (+to) e.g. A charge of 1.90 will be rounded up to 2, and one of 3.10 rounded down to 3. 把 1.90 英镑 的费用上调为整数 2 英镑, 把 3.10 英镑下调为整数 3 英镑.

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 2.text v.发送短信 to send someone a written message on a mobile phone 3.roll out v.推出,推开;发行,启动 to make a new product available for people to buy or use;=launch e.g. The company expects to roll out the new software in September.公司计划在 9 月份推出这 款新软件。 4.anecdotal adj.趣闻轶事的,个人见闻的 consisting of short stories based on someone’s personal experience e.g. His findings are based on anecdotal evidence rather than serious research.他的发现都是基 于传闻证据而非认真研究。 (anecdotal evidence 在心理学上称为“轶事证据” 即粗浅的证 , 据,经常以故事形式出现:比如“我记得那时??”“我听说??” , 。轶事是出了名的不准 确。也有人译为“传闻证据”“观察证据”“轶闻证据”等。 、 、 ) 5.onerous adj.(正式) (工作或责任)困难且令人焦虑的;累人的 work or a responsibility that is onerous is difficult and worrying or makes you tired. [TIPS & BACKGROUND] 1. 基站(Base station) :是指采用蜂窝方式组网的 GSM 移动通信系统、CDMA 移动通信系 统、数字集群通信系统、PHS 无线接入系统以及采用其他技术体制的无线电通信系统的基站 及其室外直放站。 基站所使用的频率必须已经国家或省级无线电管理机构批准; 使用的发射 设备必须具有国家无线电管理机构核发的《无线电发射设备型号核准证》 。 2. 沃达丰(Vodafone) :是跨国性的移动电话营办商。总部设在英国波克夏郡的纽布利 (Newbury)及德国的杜塞尔多夫。现时为世界上最大的流动通讯网络公司之一,在全球 27 个国家均有投资。在另外 14 个国家则与当地的移动电话营办商合作,联营移动电话网络。 截至 2004 年 12 月 31 日,沃达丰在全球拥有大约一亿五千一百八十万名用户。沃达丰使用 沃达丰集团作为名称,分别于伦敦证券交易所 (代号 VOD.L)及纽约证券交易所(代号 VOD) 上市。沃达丰(Vodafone)的名称结合了 Voice(语音)-Data(数据)-Fone(电话)三 个意思。 3. 自我效能感(self-efficacy) :即一个人对自己成功地完成某种任务、达到既定水平的确信 程度。 4. 糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c):是血红蛋白 A 组分的某些特殊分子部位和葡萄糖经过缓慢而不 可逆的非酶促反应结合而形成的, 当血液中葡萄糖浓度较高时, 人体所形成的糖化血红蛋白 含量也会相对较高。人体内红细胞的寿命一般为 120 天,在红细胞死亡前,血液中糖化血红 蛋白含量也会保持相对不变。 因此糖化血红蛋白水平反映的是在检测前 120 天内的平均血糖 水平,而与抽血时间,病人是否空腹,是否使用胰岛素等因素无关,是判定糖尿病长期控制 的良好指标。它反映 4~8 周的体内血糖的平均水平,并可能是造成糖尿病并发症的一个重 要原因。 5. 依从性(compliance) :是指患者执行医疗措施的程度,亦即患者执行医嘱的程度。患者 能完全按医嘱要求执行者称为依从性好,否则称为不依从性。

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong

每天一条短信……
(陈继龙 学译)

通过医学应用显示,手机可能有益于您的健康。 手机对使用者健康会产生什么样的影响呢?许多人担心手机手持装置及通信基站的辐射会 对身体有害,不过始终缺乏可靠依据,而关于手机对健康有益的证据却越来越多。的确,在 伦敦皇家学院里法特?亚顿及其同事撰写的一篇系统性综述中,就汇总了 150 条手机短信用 于提供医疗保健服务的事例。短信的这些用途可以分为三类,即提高工作效率、促进公共卫 生宣传以及通过将短信与治疗方案进行整合直接惠及病人。 本周公诸于众的此项研究是由世 界最大的移动电话运营商沃达丰资助的。 利用编发短信来提高工作效率并不是多么高深的科学,但是能节省大笔费用。比如,英国有 几项试验发现,短信提醒功能将同家庭医生的约会错过率降低了 26%到 39%,同医院的约 会错过率则减少了 33%到 50%。设若这种短信提醒系统能推广到全国,则相当于每年节省 2.56~3.64 亿英镑。 在提醒病人去验血、上诊所、做扫描以及预约牙医等方面,短信也正得到应用。在美国、挪 威和瑞典,一些类似的系统均已取得了令人满意的效果——不过在荷兰,由于无故缺席率本 来就较低(5%) ,所以短信提醒除了打扰患者之外,无任何效果。 手机短信也是传播公共卫生信息的一个好途径, 对那些通过其他方式难以传达到的人群, 比 如青少年,或者是在没有其他通信手段的发展中国家,更是如此。比如,印度已使用短信来 宣传国际卫生组织的结核病防控策略, 肯尼亚、 尼日利亚和马里也利用短信为人们提供艾滋 病和疟疾方面的讯息, 在伊拉克, 短信则被用来声援一项给将近 5 岁的儿童接种天花疫苗的 行动。 最后,手机短信还可作为治疗方案的一部分,发挥多种作用,其中包括提醒病人适时服药、 督促病人按要求进行锻炼以及劝阻患者吸烟。然而,里法特强调,有关这些作用效果的例证 一般都是道听途说来的(街谈巷议) ,尚需进一步定量研究——这也正是里法特研究小组本 周着眼于阐明手机对卫生保健的作用所发表的 3 篇论文的出发点, 其中有一篇是与苏格兰邓 迪大学的维多利亚?富兰克林和斯蒂芬?格林合作撰写的。 该文报告, 一项糖尿病青少年病人 试验结果表明,手机短信对治疗该病有辅助作用。 糖尿病需要持续性治疗,并要求患者在治疗过程中必须积极主动,如测量血糖浓度、注射胰 岛素。最有效的治疗形式就是进行强化治疗,即患者根据饮食调整胰岛素用量。这对患者而 言是有些勉为其难,但饮食上的多样性决定了别无选择。以前有研究显示,只有在医生密切 监控下,强化治疗才有效。富兰克林和他的同事们设计了一种“甜言蜜语”系统,此系统可 向患者发送个性化短信,叮嘱其记住既定治疗目标,如有疑问也可发信息给医生。 “甜言蜜 语”系统经过了 18 个月的检测,期间少年糖尿病患者同时接受一般性和强化治疗,并设立 对照组,即患者仅接受一般性治疗,而不给其发送短信。

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong 研究人员发现,应用短信显著提高了患者“自我效能感” (即治疗效果,问卷检测) 。更重要 的是,接受强化治疗的患者中,糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c) (一种血糖指标,用于监控血糖含 量)浓度比对照组低 14%。一般而言,糖化血红蛋白浓度下降 10%,就表明眼、肾等并发 症发生率降低, 因此这一试验结果令人瞩目, 它提示短信能够便宜有效地辅助少年患者强化 治疗,而这些患者在治疗中往往依从性很差。 里法特指出,结果虽然令人深受鼓舞,但短信的很多医疗用途由于太过新颖,还没有接受临 床试验,即便是已被证实的用途,也尚未得到系统性推广。但是,随着短信对改善治疗效果 和减少医疗费用的作用越来越突出,医生们也许将用短信来下医嘱。

[KEY TO QUIZ] A.worry about B.carried out C.fall into 分成,变成(如:The lecture series falls naturally into three parts. 该系列讲座可自 然分作三部分。 ) D.translate into 转化为 (如: wonder how your religious belief will translate into political action. I 我不知道你的宗教信仰如何转化为政治行动。 ) E.looking at 考虑(如:That's the way I look at it, too. 我也是这么想。 ) F.backed up 支持,援助(如:He drought along a file of document to back up his claim. 他随身 携带一卷宗文件以便证实索赔要求。 ) G.allows for 考虑到 (如: calculating profit, retailers must allow for breakage and spoilage. 计 In 算利润时,零售商们必须考虑到破碎和损坏情况。 ) H.associated with I.subjected to J.comes to TEXT 16

Like pearls falling into a jade plate
Mar 30th 2006 From The Economist print edition WHEN Wu Man arrived in New Haven1, Connecticut, from Beijing in 1990 she spoke no English and ★gambled on[1] surviving with the help of her pipa, a traditional lute-like Chinese instrument. She has succeeded (A) (triumph) , working her way from New York's Chinatown to Carnegie Hall2, where she gives her debut recital on April 6th. The pipa is a sonorous, four-stringed, pear-shaped instrument held upright on the lap. Its strings used to be silk but are now steel, which resonates better. The fake fingernails on Ms Wu's right hand ★pluck[2] the strings, while her left hand fingers the ★frets[3].(1) produces She

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《经济学家》读译参考 Translated & Edited by Chen Jilong an (B) (astonish) range of colours and moods from a 2,000-year-old instrument which produces a sound, observed a poet from the Tang dynasty, like “pearls falling into a jade plate”. Ms Wu is a ★virtuoso[4] interpreter of traditional music, creating (C) (haunt)exotic waves of sound with ★pizzicatos and tremolos[5] (the plucking of one string with all five fingers consecutively). But (D) (evoke) of dropping pearls soon fade to Jimi Hendrix3. During her time in America, (2) Wu has daringly expanded the pipa's range, playing jazz, bluegrass4 and Ms 5 Bollywood with eclectic instrumentalists—and inspiring (E) (number) works from prominent composers. The pipa can sound gently lyrical or (F) (aggress) modern, which is why, says Ms Wu, it attracts such composers as Terry Riley, Philip Glass, Tan Dun and Bright Sheng, all of whom have written for her. She was the first to partn

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