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语法:名词性从句(学生版)


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学员编号: 学员姓名: 课 题 年 级: 辅导科目:英语 名词性从句的讲解 课 时 数:3 学科教师:

教学目标

掌握高考名词性从句的考点

教学内容

上节课回顾 课前预测

名词性从句 课前预测:
1.It now appears ______ they are in need of help. A. that B. which C. what D. how 2.It is good news ______ they will arrive in a few days. A. which B. what C. that D. how 3.It ______ Joe drives badly. A. thought that B. thinks that C. is thought that D. is thought that 4.It ______ he is late for class. A. may that B. might that C. may be that D. might be what 5.This is ______ she was born. A. where B. which C. that D. what 6.The question is ______ we can?t go there today. A. that B. what C. which D. when 7.The question is ______ it is worth doing. A. if B. whether C. which D. what 8.The reason he has made such great progress is _______ he has never wasted his time. A. because B. why C. that D. what 9.My suggestion is ______ we should turn the land into rice fields. A. what B. that C. which D. where 10.His proposal is that the dam ______ at the foot of the mountain. A. build B. will build C. be built D. will be built 11.My advice is that he ______ regular house. A. keep B. would keep C. keeps D. kept
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12.______ knows the truth will tell you about it. A. Who that B. Whoever C. Whom that D. That who 13.We all know the truth _____ the earth goes round the sun. A. that B. which C. what D. whether 14.We heard the news ______ our team had won. A. which B. that C. what D. where 15.The problem ______ it is right or wrong has not yet been decided. A. which B. that C. whether D. if 16.You must do well ______ the teacher asks you to do. A. which B. what C. that D. where

模块学习

名词性从句
一. 概念: 在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词从句 (Noun Clauses) 。 名词从句的功能相当于名词词组, 它在复合 句中能担任主语、宾语、表语、同位语、介词宾语等,因此根据它在句中不同的语法功能,名词从句又可分别称为主 语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。 二 、引导名词性从句的连接词 连接词:that, whether, if (不充当从句的任何成分) 连接代词:what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose, which. 连接副词:when, where, how, why 主语从句 主语从句是在复合句中充当主语的从句,通常放在主句谓语动词之前或由形式主语 it 代替,而本身放在句子末尾。 1. It 作形式主语和 it 引导强调句的比较 It 作形式主语代替主语从句,主要是为了平衡句子结构,主语从句的连接词没有变化。而 it 引导的强调句则是对 句子某一部分进行强调,无论强调的是什么成分,都可用连词 that。被强调部分指人是也可用 who/whom。例如: It is a pity that you didn?t go to see the film. It doesn?t interest me whether you succeed or not. It is in the morning that the murder took place. It is John that broke the window. 2. 用 it 作形式主语的结构 (1) It is + 名词 + 从句 It is a fact that … It is an honor that It is common knowledge that (2) It is + 形容词 + 从句 It is natural that… It is strange that… (3) It is + 不及物动词 + 从句 It seems that… It happened that… It appears that…
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事实是… …非常荣幸 …是常识 很自然… 奇怪的是… 似乎… 碰巧… 似乎…

(4) It + 过去分词 + 从句 It is reported that… It has been proved that… It is said that…

据报道… 已证实… 据说…

3. what 与 that 在引导主语从句时的区别 what 引导主语从句时在句时在从句中充当句子成分,如主语.宾语.表语,而 that 则不然。例如: 1) What you said yesterday is right. 2) That she is still alive is a consolation. It is a consolation that she is still alive.

练习:
1. _____ as much as one-fifth of all timber harvested is not used. A. The estimate B. The estimated C. They are estimated D. It is estimated that 2. _____ some mammals came to live in the sea is not known. A. Which B. Since C. Although D. How 3. _____ we have achieved is attributed to the guidance of our parents. A. Whoever B. Whatever C. However D. That 4. _____ wealthy does not necessarily mean that a man is greedy. A. For the reason that he is B. Just because he is C. The reason of being D. That he is 5. Although ___ happened in this developed country sounds like science fiction, it could occur elsewhere in the world. A. which B. what C. how D. it 6. _____ she had forgotten to take her notebook. A. That occurred to her B. She occurred that C. To her that occurred D. It occurred to her that 7. I am sure that _____ she said is wrong. A. which B. all C. this D. what 8. We lost our way in the forest, and ____ made matters worse was that it was getting dark. A. that B. which C. it D. what 9. _____ or not is still uncertain. A. He?s coming B. If he is coming C. That coming D. Whether he?s coming 10. _____ a spoonful of soil can tell us so much about the structure and early history of the moon. A. Remarkable B. Quite remarkably C. It is remarkable that D. It is remarkable fact that 宾语从句 宾语从句就是在复合句中作宾语的名词性从句,通常放在主句谓语动词 (及物动词) 或介词之后。 1. 作动词的宾语 (1) 由 that 引导的宾语从句(that 通常可以省略), 例如: I heard that be joined the army. (2) 由 what, whether (if) 引导的宾语从句,例如: She did not know what had happened. I wonder whether you can change this note for me.
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(3) 动词+间接宾语+宾语从句。例如: She told me that she would accept my invitation. 2. 作介词的宾语,例如: Our success depends upon how well we can cooperate with one another. 3. 作形容词的宾语,例如: I am afraid (that) I?ve made a mistake. 注意:that 引导的从句常跟在下列形容词后作宾语: anxious, aware, certain, confident, convinced, determined, glad, proud, surprised, worried, sorry, thankful, ashamed, disappointed, annoyed, pleased, hurt, satisfied, content 等。也可以将此类词后的 that 从句的看作原因状语从句。 4. it 可以作为形式宾语 it 不仅可以作为形式主语,还可以作为形式宾语而真正的宾语 that 从句则放在句尾,特别是在带复合宾语的句 子中。 例如: We heard it that she would get married next month. 5. 后边不能直接跟 that 从句的动词 这类动词有 allow, refuse, let, like, cause, force, admire, condemn, celebrate, dislike, love, help, take, forgive 等。这类词 后可以用不定式或动名词作宾语,但不可以用 that 引导的宾语从句。如: I admire their winning the match. I admire that they won the match. 6. 不可用 that 从句作直接宾语的动词 有些动词不可用于“动词+间接宾语+that 从句“结构中, 常见的有 envy, order, accuse, refuse, impress, forgive, blame, denounce, advise, congratulate 等。例如: He impressed the manager as an honest man. He impressed the manager that he was an honest man. 7. 否定的转移 若主句谓语动词为 think, consider, suppose, believe, expect, fancy, guess, imagine 等,其后的宾语从句若含有否 定意义,一般要把否定词转移到主句谓语上,从句谓语用肯定式。例如: I don?t think this dress fits you well. 我认为这件衣服不适合你穿。 练习: 1.I wonder _______. A. whether or not I?ll catch the last bus B. if or not I?ll catch the last bus C. that I?ll catch the last bus or not D. that I?ll catch the last bus 2.We all thought ______ a pity that we had missed the lesson. A. so B. such C. it 3.I took ______ for granted that they were not coming. A. that B. this C. it 4.I heard ______ said that he had great concern for his classmates. A. and B. that C. was 5.I wish I ______ to the football match last night. A. went B. go C. should go
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D. that D. so D. it D. had gone

表语从句 表语从句在复合句中作表语的名词性从句,放在系动词之后,一般结构是“主语+连系动词+表语从句”。 可以接表语从句的连系动词有 be, look, remain, seem 等。引导表语从句的 that 常可省略。另外,常用的还有 the reason is that… 和 It is because 等结构。例如: 1) The question is whether we can make good preparation in such a short time. 2) This is why we can?t get the support of the people. 3) But the fact remains that we are behind the other classes. 4) The reason he is late for school is that he missed the early bus.

练习: 1. The question is ________ we will have our sports meet next week. A. that B. if C. when D. whether 2.The reason why he failed is ________he was too careless. A. because B. that C. for D. because of 3.The problem is _________to take the place of Ted。 A. who can we get B. what we can get C. who we can get D. that we can get 4. What I want to know is ______ he likes the gift given by us. A. that B. if C. whether D.不填 5. The reason is_________ I missed the bus. A. that B. when C. why D. what 6. The reason why he hasn?t come is ___________. A. because his mother is ill B. because of his mother?s being ill C. that his mother is ill D. for his mother is ill 7.That is ______ Lu Xun once lived. A. what B. where C. that D. why 8._______your father wants to know is________ getting on with your studies. A. What; how are you B. That;how you are C. How;that you are D. What;how you are 9. America was __________was first called “India” by Columbus. A. what B. where C. the place D. there where 10. China is becoming stronger and stronger. It is no longer_________ . A. what it used to be B. what it was used to being C. what it used to being D. what it was used to be 11. The energy is ________ makes the cells able to do their work. A. that B. which C. what D. such 同位语从句 同位语从句就是在复合句中作名词的同位语的名词性从句。 1. 同位语从句的功能 同位语从句对于名词进一步解释,说明名词的具体内容,一般由 that 引导,例如: 1) The king?s decision that the prisoner would be set free surprised all the people. 2) The order that all the soldiers should stay still is given by the general. 2. 同位语在句子中的位置
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同位语从句有时可以不紧跟在它所说明的名词后面,而是被别的词隔开。例如: He got the news from Mary that the sports meeting was put off. 3. 同位语从句与定语从句的区别 (1) 定语从句中的 that 既代替先行词,同时以在从句中作某个成分(主语或宾语) ,而同位语从句中的 that 是连词, 只起连接主句与从句的作用,不充当句中任何成分。 (2) 定语从句是形容词性的,其功能是修饰先行词,对先行词加以限定,描述定的性质或特征;同位语从句是名词性 的,其功能是对名词进行补充说明。例如: 例如: The news that he told me is that Tom would go abroad next year.(他告诉我的消息是汤姆明年将出国。 ) (第一个 that 引导的从句是定语从句,that 在从句中作宾语) The news that Tom would go abroad is told by him.(汤姆将出国的消息是他讲的。 ) (同位语从句,that 在句中不 作任何成分)

练习: 1. Some researchers believe that there is no doubt____ a cure for AIDS will be found. A. which B. that C. what D. whether 2.A warm thought suddenly came to me ____ I might use the pocket money to buy some flowers for my mother's birthday. A. if B. when C. that D. which 3. Nobody believed his reason for being absent from the class ________ he had to meet his uncle at the airport. A. why B. that C. where D. because 4. Along with the letter was his promise _______ he would visit me this coming Christmas. A. which B. that C. what D. whether 5. Danby left a word with my secretary ____________ he would call again in the afternoon. A. who B. that C. as D. which 6. I?ve heard a whisper _____ David and Heather are heading for marriage. A. what B. which C. who D. that 名词性从句回顾与总结( 一、名词性从句包括____________, _____________, _____________, _____________。 (12 ?) 名词性从句的从属连词主要有 ___________, ________, _________, 其中 ________, 无词义,在句中不担任成

分; ________ 有词义,但在句中也不担任成分。连接代词 ___________, ________, _________, __________ , __________ ,有词义,并在句中担任 ___________, ________, _________, 或 ___________ 等成分。连接副词 ___________, ________, _________, __________,有词义,并在句中担任__________的成分。 二、用 it 作形式主语的句子主要有那些情况?(写出四种情况并各举一例) (4 ?) ______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 三、哪两种情况下,引导宾语从句的 that 不能省略?(4 ?) _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 四、哪些情况下,只能用 whether,不能用 if 表示“是否”?(至少写出五种情况并举例说明。 ) (10 ?) _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________
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_____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 五、哪些情况下,名词性从句的谓语要用虚拟语气?(10 ?) 一个坚持:____________,两个命令:____________,、____________, 三条建议:____________,、____________,、____________, 四项要求:____________,____________,、____________,____________, 六、请从意义和结构上分析定语从句和同位语从句之间的区别。 (4 ?) _______________________________________________________________________________ 七、because 引导的表语从句的句型是_______________________________________, 当主语是 reason 时, 表语从句的 引导词用___________。 (4 ?) 八、名词性从句中, that 和 what 的区别是什么?(4 ?) ____________________________________________________ 九、名词性从句中的 that 不可省略的情况有哪些?(5?) _____________________________________________________________________________

基础练习 一 1. ____ we need more practice is quite clear. A. When B. What C. That D. / 2.___this material can be used in our factory has not been studied yet. A. Which B. What C. That D. Whether 3.I've made a promise ___anyone can give an answer to it, I will give him a present. A. who B. whom C. which D. that 4.___will take part in the contest will be annouced at tomorrow's meeting. A. Who B. That C. Which D. That 5. ___knows the truth about it will tell you. A. Who that B. That C. Whoever D. That who 6. It worried her a bit ___ her hair was turning grey. A.while B. that C. if D. for 7. He didn't live up to ___had been expected of him. A.what B. that C. which D. all what 8.___a pity you missed the lecture made by Professor Qian. A. That's B. It's C. There's D. What's 9. ___that not all government officials are honest. A. It seems to me B. My believing is C. In my opinion, I believe D. I think in my mind 10. The victim told the police that it was too dark to tell who the thief was, but ___the plumber as he hadn't been working in the building for days. A.that it must have been B. that it couldn't have been C. it may have been D. which it might have been 11. This is just ___they are mistaken. A. when B. what C. where D. which 12. The motor car has brought many benefits. It allows us to travel ___we like, in comfort. A. what B. to which C. that D. where 13. ___ I was free that evening. A. It happened to me B. It happened that
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C. That happened D. It is happened that 14. It is suggested that the experiment ______under low temperature. A.makes B. is made C. should be made D. will be made 15. ___still needs to be discussed. A. How is the plan to be carried out B. How the plan is to be carried out C. Why is the plan carried out D. Why the plan carried out 16.___is unknown to us all. A. Where did she put it B. Where she put it C. That where she put D. In which she put it 17. ___nothing to do with us. A. What he did is B. What he has done is C. What did he do has D. What he has done has 18. The trouble is ___ we are short of hands. A.what B. that C. how D. why 19. It was ___he talked to his friends ___made us believe his remarks. A.what...what B. how ...that C. that ...what D. that...that 20.___he said was more than ___he did. A. As ,what B. What, that C. As, as D. What, what 21. Energy is ___ makes things work. A.what B. something C. anything D. that 22. ___ I can't understand is ___he wants to change his mind. 1. That, that B. Which, how C. What, what D. What, why 23. Is it possible ___he misunderstood ___ I said? A. that, that B. what, what C. what, that D. that, what 24. The problem is ___will go . A.that B. when C. who D. whoever 25. We were warned ___ the journey would be dangerous as the heavy rain might cause rockslide. A.whether B. if C. how D. that 26. The reason why I have to go is ___ if I don't. A.that she will be disappointed B.Because she will be disappointed C.On account of her being disappointed D.That she will be disappointing 27. It was ___he worked hard that he succeeded. A.because B. since C. as D. for 28. Is this ___? A.you are looking for B. that you are looking for C. what are you looking for D. what you are looking for 29. I'll certainly tell my students ___pleased I am with what they have achieved. A.that how B. how C. what D. however 30. That is ___ I had to take the risk of being washed away. A.why B. reason why C. how D. what 31. The fact ___in the past few years proves that our Party's policy is correct. A.that great achievement was made B.which great achievements were made C.What have been made
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D.That great achievements have been made 32. They have no idea at all ____. A.where he has gone B. which place he has gone C. where did he go D. where has he gone 33. He had his own very definite ideas ___. Which is improper? A.of how each scene should look B. about how each scene should look C. how each scene should look D. of that each scene should look 34. His suggestion ___to see the art exhibition interested every one of us. A.that we go B. which we should go C. that we would go D. when we should go 35. We measure an earthquake's strength by ___ scientists have names the Richter Scale. A.that B. which C.\ D. what 36. The output of the wheat in Chongming County is three times ___ it was a decade ago. A.than B. what C. as D. that 37.___do you think will teach us maths next term? A. Whom B. Who C. What D. That 38. I will give this dictionary to ___wants to have it . A.whomever B. whoever C. whom D. whatever 39. Do ___you think is right ___difficulties you may have. A.what, however B. that, whatever C. whatever, whoever D. what, whatever 40. These photographs will show you ___. A.what does our village look like B. what our village looks like C. how does our village look like D. how our village looks like 41.The most common way we have of showing other people ___are more important is by making ourselves smaller than they are. A.who B./ C. that D. they 42.___think of their plan, no one can deny that they are bold and have much imagination. A. Whatever we may B. No matter how we may C. Much as we may D. If we may 43.The teachers in my school would like to answer ___ worry the students. A.all the questions they think B. whatever questions they think C. any questions they think D. whatever questions they think that 名词性从句典型错误例析 一. 找出下列句子中的错误,并总结出规律: 1. Can you tell me how many students are therein your class? 2. I don't know where has he gone. 3. The owner of the shop came to see what the matter was. 规律一:名词从句中须使用陈述语序! 4. We suggested that we would go to the cinema. 5. My idea is that we must do our homework first. 6. His proposal that we went there on foot is acceptable. 规律二:注意虚拟语气的使用!
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7. If we will have a meeting hasn't been decided yet. 8. It depends on if the weather is suitable for us to do it. 9. The question is if he himself will be present at the meeting. 10. He asked me if I could go with him or not. 规律三:4 种情况只能用 whether : (1)位于句子开头; (2)前面有介词; (3)引导表语从句; (4)与 or not 连用。

1. I think that worthwhile that we spent so much money on these books. 2. That is hard to decide when and where we will held our sports meeting. 3. Everybody considers it impossible which he wants to finish the job in such a short time. 4. It doesn?t matter that you will come or not. 规律四:主语从句和宾语从句在适当的情况下可以借助 “it” 而后置。 二.名词从句与定语从句的主要区别 1. 成分上的区别: 名词从句和定语从句分别在句中充当什么样的成分? 1. How the prisoner escaped remains a mystery. 2. I wonder whether/if he is fit for the job. 3. The problem is who will be equal to the task. 4. He had no idea whether we could overcome the present difficulties or not. 5. I visited the country which/that had been bombed by the US-led NATO (美国为首的北约) a month before. 6. I shall never forget the years when I lived in the countryside with the farmers, which has a great effect on my life. 7. In the office I never seem to have time until after 5:30 pm., by which time many people have gone home. 8. I had never seen such a good film as I watched last night. 结论一: 名词从句充当句子的主要成分; 定于从句充当句子的修饰成分。 2. 关于 that: that 在名词从句和定语从句中各起什么作用? 1. He pretended (that) he didn?t see me. 2. That she lost her necklace on the way home made her so worried. 3. It is necessary that we should learn a second language. 4. It is said that he works hard at English. 5. The school that my sister studies at is far from here. 6. The first request that he made was to ask for freedom. 7. It was said that that was all that he said. 8. Is this the house that you have bought yourself? 结论二: 名词从句中的 that 只起引导词的作用,无任何意义。 定语从句中的 that 在从句中充当主语或宾语,有时可以与 which 互换。不会出现在名词从句中的关 系词: as, 且 when, where 等不能与 in/on/at which 互换。 不会出现在定语从句中的关系词: whether,
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if, what, how 3. 名词从句与定语从句的一些对应关系: 练习: 1. He has done what he can to help me. --He has done _______ he can to help me. 2. What I want to say has nothing to do with it. --_______ I want to say has nothing to do with it. 3. Whoever breaks the law is to be punished. _______ breaks the law is to be punished. 4. He will give the dictionary to whoever needs if most. He will give the dictionary to ________needs it most. 5. We?ll remember whomever we turned to for help. We?ll remember _______we turned to for help. 6. They will do whatever he wants them to do. They will do _______he wants them to do. 7. I?ll read whichever book you give me. I?ll read ____ of the books _____ you give me. 4. 其余问题: 1.误:I don't know if he comes back this month. 正:I don't know if he will come back this month. 2.误:I have no idea what had happened when I was away. 正:I have no idea what happened when I was away. 3.误:The reason is because he is ill. 正:The reason is that he is ill. 4.误:Who leaves last turns off the light. 正:Whoever leaves last turns off the light

课堂总结
1、请回顾本节课所讲的重点知识。 2、请把存在疑惑的地方提出来。

过关小测试

考试时间: 得 分:

分钟

41. Excuse me, could you tell me ___? A.who is that gentleman B. whom was that gentleman C. who that gentleman is D. whom that gentleman was
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42. Could you tell me ___you have bought this fur coat? A.who B. whom C. to whom D. for whom 43. We haven't heard from Jane for a long time. What do you suppose ___her? A.was happened to B. to happen to C. has happened to D. having happened to 44. Are you sure ___? A.whether she is honest B. that she is honesty C. she is honest D. is she honest 45. He kept looking at the girl, wondering ___ A.where he has seen her before B. where had he seen her before? C. where he had seen her before? D. where he had seen her before. 46. He often thinks of ___he can do more for the four modernizations. A.what B. how C. that D. which 47. Take ___much you want and ___you want to . A.however, when B. whenever, how C. however, whoever D. however, whenever 48. He made ___he wouldn't change his mind. A.that quite clear B. it quite clear that C. quite clear D. how clear that 49. I don't think _____. A.that he came to the concert yesterday true B.True that he came to the concert yesterday C.It that he came to the concert yesterday true D.It true that he came to the concert yesterday 50. The officer commanded that the wounded ___to hospital as soon as possible. A.would be sent B. be sent C. send D. should send 51. The emperor ordered that the wonderful cloth ___for him at once. A.to be woven B. be woven C. should weave D. would be woven 52. They required that I ___ at 8:00 a.m. A.arrived B. would arrive C. were arriving D. should arrive 53. The government proposes that something ___to get rid of air pollution. A.will be done B. is done C. should do D. be done 54. They suggested that she ___ a working plan. A.must take B. make C. made D. would make 55. He is very brave. I wish I ___his courage. A.had B. have C. had had D. would have 56. His silence suggested that he ___ our plan. A.Should not agree B. did not agree to C. not agree to D. would not agree with 57. Two little boys lost their way in a big city, and ___made things worse was that it began to rain heavily. A.it B. what C. which D. that 58. I wish I ___yesterday's lecture. A.were able to attend B. had been able to attend C. attended D. could attend 59. Ask him how much___. A.did it cost B. cost it C. it cost D. it costed
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60.___both of them should be employed needs ___. A.If...considering B. What ...to consider C. That ...to consider D. Whether ...considering 61. Have you seen Li Ming recently? I wonder ___with his studies. A.how is he getting along B. that he gets along well C. what he is getting along D. if he is getting along well 62. Tom killed the cat. I'll ask him why ___. A.he did that B. did he do that C. he did D. he has done so 63. ___to the old is of great comfort to them. A. Little can I do B. What I can do little C. The little of which I can do D. The little I can do 64. I know nothing about her but ___she is from Canada. A.how B. when C. that D. why 65. ___we eat for breakfast has a great effect on our health, many students skip breakfast for various reasons. A. Though B. In spite of that C. Although what D. Despite those 66. The teacher said that the sun ___in the east and ___in the west. A.rose, set B. rises , sets C. raises, sets D. raised, set 67. Galileo concluded that heavy objects and light objects ___at the same speed. A.fell B. fall C. falling D. fallen 68. He has come, but I didn't know that he ___until yesterday. A.is coming B. will come C. was coming D. wasn't coming 69. He ran back into the room to see if he___ anything behind. A.has forgotten B. had forgotten C. has left D. had left 70. I did ___I could ___the orphan. A.that, take care of B. and , take care of C. what, to take care of D. what, take care of 71. He wondered ___. A.whether I knew Mary and where did she go B.Whether I knew Mary and where did she had gone C.Whether I knew Mary, where she went D.Whether did I know Mary and where did she go 72. George said that he ___. A.arrived at the station by noon. B. would arrive at the station till noon C. was to arrive at the station till noon D. would arrive at the station by noon 73. A story goes ___Elizabeth I of England like nothing more than being surrounded by clever and qualified noblemen at court. A.when B. where C. what D. that 74. I doubt ___we will win the match. A.whether B. that C. what D./ 75. I don't doubt ___it is true. A.whether B. if C. that D. what 76. The fact ___he has a fine collection of works of art shows no sign ___he has a good sense of art. A.that...that B. that...which C. which...which D. which...that 77. Quite a lot of skyscrapers have sprung up ___was a farmland decades ago. A.where B. what C. that D. which 78. ____should be done well.
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A. Whatever that is worth doing B. Whichever that is worth doing C. Whatever is worth doing D. Whichever is worth doing 79. Is this factory ___his grandfather worked ten years ago? A.the one B. where C. what D. the one that 80. It is pretty well understood ___controls the flow of carbon dioxide in and out the atmosphere today. A.that B. when C. what D. they
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