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必修三 unit1 Learning about language_图文


Unit 1 Festivals around the world
Learning about language

Discovering useful words and expressions
1 Which of these words can become adjectives with the –ous or –al ending? Which can become nouns with the –(a)tion ending? Choose the correct ending for each word then write the new word. Use the dictionary to help you.

religion religious danger dangerous

season origin


production education celebration prediction

humour humourous produce courage courageous educate culture cultural nation national celebrate predict

2 Complete the passage below with the words and expressions in the box. as though, belief, celebration, Christians, custom, have fun with, origin, religious

Many people think that Christmas is a western celebration __________, but in fact it is really a worldwide holiday. Christmas actually as a ________ religious festival Christians around the world. Its celebrated by _________ ______ origin is around the 3rd or 4th century AD, custom of remembering Jesus’ birth when the _______ on December 25th first started. Today, of course, as though it many people celebrate Christmas __________ have fun with family, were just a holiday to ______________ belief rather than a holiday about a _______.

3 Complete each of the sentence with a suitable word or phrase from the box in its correct form. custom, admire, feast, harvest, trick, belief, starve, gather, gain, look forward to

1. Don’t _______________the look forward to day you stop suffering, because when it comes you know you’ll be dead. –Tennessee Williams 2. A dog _________ starving at his master’s gate predicts the ruin of the state. – William Blake 3. I would rather have a mind opened by wonder than one closed by ________. custom – Gerry Spence

4. ______ Gather you rosebuds while you may, old time is still a-flying, and this same flower that smiles today, tomorrow will be dying. – Robert Herrick 5. However big the fool, there is always admire him. a bigger fool to ________ – Nicolas Boileau-Despreaux 6. ______, Belief then, is the great guide of human life. – David Hume

7. Other people’s ________ harvests are always
the best _________, harvests but one’s own children are always the best children. –Unknown 8. There is no ______ feast on earth does not end in parting. –Unknown

9. Everyone has some ______ tricks they can do, but each has his own way of doing them. –Unknown gain ; 10. Those who can lose shall _____ those who wish for _____shall lose. gain --Unknown

Modal verbs

? 情态动词主要表达说话人的看法、态度 等。从用法上来说,有这样几个特点: 一是情态动词自身都有一定的意义, 但不能表示正在发生或已经发生的 事情,只表示期待或估计某事发生。 二是情态动词除ought和have外,后 面必须接不带to的不定式。 三是情态动词没有人称和数的变化, 也没有非谓语形式。

只作情态动词的: can/could, may/might,

ought to, must
可情态可实义的: need, dare/dared 可情态可助动词的: shall/should,

相当于情态动词的: have to, used to

1. must, can’t 1) must 表示必须、必要, must表示主观多一些 而have to则表示客观多一些。回答must引出 的问句时, 如果是否定的回答, 不能用mustn’t, 而要用needn’t或don’t have to。如: — Must we hand in our exercise books today? — Yes, you must. (No, you don’t have to.) 2) can’t在口语中代替mustn’t时,表示禁止 或不准。如: You can’t play football in the street.

3) must 表示推测时, 只能用于肯定句。 There must be something wrong with the computer. 这个电脑肯定出了问题。 You have worked hard all day. You must be tired.你努力学了一整天了,一定累了吧。 4) must +be doing/do 表示对现在的动作进行 肯定推测。如: 他现在一定在看小说。 He must be reading novels now. They have bought a new car. They must have a lot of money. 他们买了一辆新车, 他们一定很有钱。

5) must +have done 表示对过去发生的事情


They are playing basketball, they must have
finished their homework.

路是湿的, 昨天晚上一定下雨了。
The road is wet. It must have rained last night.

2. can, could 1) can /could 表示推测时, 只能用在否定句 或疑问句中。 It’s so late. Can Tom be reading? 这么晚了, 汤姆还在看书吗? It can’t be Mary. She has fallen ill. 这个人不可能是玛丽, 她生病了。 She couldn’t be telling lies. 她不可能在说谎。

2) can/could have done 对过去发生行为的可能


I saw him just now so he couldn’t have gone

The door was locked. She couldn’t have been at home.

3) can/could have done “本可以, 本来可能 已经” 用于肯定句中, 表示对过去发生的事情做出 的判断。 你本来可以考的更好。 You could have had a better mark.
3. may/might 1) may/might表示推测时, 只能用于陈述句, 表示对现在或将来要发生的动作把握不大。 她们明天可能会到这里来。 They may come here tomorrow.


They may be still waiting for us.
2) might 可用于指过去的行为或者表示可能性 更小。 他也许在作功课吧。 He might be doing his homework now. 我问他我是否可以离开。 I asked him if I might leave. I asked him ―May I leave now?‖

3) might/may have done, 表示对过去发生的动作

他可能去医务室了。 He may have gone to the clinic. 他可能已经从报纸上知道这个消息了。 He might have read about the news in the newspaper.

4. will/would
Will /Would you do…? 表请求, 意志, 愿望, 决心。 would 表过去反复发生的动作或某种倾向 “总是,总要” used to 表过去常常(现在已没有这种习惯) ―过去常常” used to 可与状态动词连用, would不可以 e.g. He used to be a quiet boy. ( √ ) He would be a quiet boy. ( × )

1) 表示请求、建议等, would比will委婉 客气。 Would you pass me the book? 2) 表示意志、愿望和决心。如: I will never do that again. They asked if we would do that again.

5. shall, should 1) 在一、三人称的疑问句中, shall用来 询问对方的意愿。如: Shall we begin our lesson? When shall he be able to leave the hospital? 2) 用于二、三人称的陈述句中, 表说话人 命令、警告、允诺等口吻。如:

He shall have the book when I finish reading. You shall do as I say. 3) should表示劝告、建议、命令, 其同义 词是 ought to; 在疑问句中, 通常用 should 代替 ought to。如: You should go to class right away.

4) should/ought to have done 过去应该
做的事情而没有做, 表责备。如:

— You should have written with a pen,
not a pencil. — Yes, I know I ought to have, but I had no pen to write with.

5) should / ought not to have done
过去不应该做的事情却做了, 表责备、 悔恨情感。如: I was really anxious about you. You shouldn’t have left home without a word.

I’m not feeling well in the stomach, I shouldn’t have eaten so much fried chicken just now. 6) needn’t have done 过去本不必做的 事情实际上却做了。如: You needn’t have told him that.

Practice 1
1. When you are very sure of something, you use must in positive sentences and cannot or can’t in negative sentences. e.g. You must be Jeanne. I’m Mathilde Loisel. We used to know each other very well. It can’t be true! I don’t believe it. 2. When you are quite sure about something, you use can. e.g. Attending a ball can be exciting.

3. When you think that something is possible, but you are not very sure, you use could, may or might. e.g.You could borrow some jewellery from your friend Jeanne, who is married to a rich man.

You may not know that the necklace I returned
is not the one that I had borrowed.

Don’t you have a friend who might lend you
some jewellery?

Practice 2:表示推测——情态动词的重要用法 1. You must be Mr Smith----I was told to expect you here. 2. He must have known what we wanted. 3. We may have read the same report. 4. He can’t have slept through all that noise. 5. There’s someone outside----who can it be? 6. What can they be doing? 7. These pills might help to cure your disease. 8. You could be right, I suppose.

情态动词 肯定的推测 对将来 + V. 常见must be + V. 对现在 对过去 + V. + have done + be doing


may, might

+ V. + have done + be doing 可以用not表示“可能不” + V. + be doing + V. + be doing + have done + have done

can’t, couldn’t

+V. + V.


can, could

Practice 3: Fill in the blanks.
1. I don’t know where she is, she _______ may be in Wuhan. must be marking 2. At this moment, our teacher ________________ our exam papers. 这时, 我们老师想必在批改试卷。 3. The road is wet. It ________________ must have rained last night. (rain) 4. Your mother ______________________ must have been looking for you. 你妈妈一定一直在找你。

5. Philip ________________________ may (might) have been hurt seriously in

the car accident.

6. ---Linda has gone to work, but her bicycle is
still here. may (might) have gone (go) by bus. ---She _____________________

can’t have found his car, for he came 7. Mike ________________ to work by bus this morning. 迈克一定还没有找回他的车, 因为早上他是 坐公共汽车来上班的。

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1.(10安徽32) Jack described his father, D who _______a brave boy many years ago, as a strong–willed man A. would be C. must be B. would have been D. must have been

D 2. (10湖南23) You ______ buy a gift, but

you can if you want to.
A. must C. have to B. mustn’t D. don’t have to

3. (10江西23) I have told you the truth. ______ A I keep repeating it? A. Must B. Can C. May D. Will

4. Some people who don’t like to talk

much are not necessarily shy; they ___ B
just be quiet people. (2009安徽卷) A. must C. should B. may D. would

5. One of the few things you ____ D say
about English people with certainty is that they talk a lot about the weather. (2009北京卷) A. need C. should B. must D. can

6. He did not regret saying what he did C it differently. but felt that he _____ (2009江苏卷) A. could express B. would express C. could have expressed D. must have expressed

7. — It’s the office! So you _____ A know eating is not allowed here. — Oh, sorry. (2009湖南卷) A. must B. will C. may D. need 8. What do you mean, there are only ten tickets? There _______ A be twelve. (2009 全国卷I) A. should B. would C. will D. shall

9. I can’t leave. She told me that I _____ B stay here until she comes back. (2009 全国卷II) A. can B. must C. will D. may 10. He must be helping the old man to water the flowers, _______? A (2009 陕西卷) A. is he B. isn’t he C. must he D. mustn’t he

11. It ____ C have been Tom that parked the car here, as he is the only one with a car. (2009上海卷) A. may C. must B. can D. should

12. ---- Will you go skating with me this winter vacation? ---- It _____ B . (2002上海) A. all depended B. all depends C. is all depended D. is all depending 解析: 答案B。It all depends 是“不确定”、 “看情况”的意思。

13. I failed in the final examination last term and only then _____ D the importance of studies. (2004重庆 ) A. I realized B. I had realized C. had I realized D. did I realize
解析: 答案为D. 句首为“only + 副词”时, 句子 要用部分倒装语序; 根据语境应为一般过去 时态。

14. ---- I would never come to this restaurant again. The food is terrible! ---- _______. ( 2004全国 ) B A. Nor am I B. Neither would I C. Same with me D. So do I 答案B。第一个句子使用了would, 用neither 表示附和的意义时, 助动词应与上文一致。

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1. Practise of WB P42 Ex. 1, Ex 2 and Ex 3. 2. Please find out 10 sentences with modal

verbs, and try to get their meanings.