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(一)定义 1)在复合句中(一个句子的某一成分由句子承当),修饰某一名词或代词从句叫定语从句或 形容词从句;在句中起定语的作用. 2)被定语从句修饰的词叫做先行词 antecedent 1) The manwho lives next to us is a policeman. 先行词关系代词定语从句 2) You must do everything that I do. 先行词关系代词定语从句 (二):关系代词的作用; 1.连接主句和从句。 2.代表被修饰的先行词。 3.在定语从句做一个句子成分。 eg. This is the roomwhich I lived in last year. 先行词关系代词定语从句 (三):定语从句中有关系代词 who, whom, whose, which, that, as. 关系副词 when, where, why 等引导定语从句。 (四):用关系代词还是用关系副词 关系代词起代词的作用, 关系副词起副词的作用, 因此同样的先行词, 选用什么样的关系词, 要由它在定语从句中担任的逻辑作用来决定。 词行 who Whom That Which As Whose=of whom\of which When=at\in\on\during which Where=at\in\to which Why=for which that 在口语中可以 代替关系副词 先行词 人 人 人&物 物 物 人&物 时间 地点 原因 以上三者 充当成分 主、宾、表 宾 主、宾、表 主、宾、表 主、宾 定语 状 状 状 状

关 系 代 词

关 系 副 词

表语:是谓语的一部分,它位于系动词如 be 之后,说明主语身份,特征,属性或 状态。一般由名词,代词,形容词,副词,不定式,介词短语等充当。 在句中修饰名词或代词的成分叫定语。 This is the place wherewe work.(vi.) (关系词所做的成分关键是有从句中的动词来决定的) This is the place which we visited. (vt. ) 做主语 The trees which are on the school campus have lost their leaves. 做宾语 The student whom we saw just now is the best runner in our school.

1. 2. 3.

做表语 Jack is no longer the lazy boy that he used to be. 做定语 She has a brother whose name I can’t remember. 做状语 The school where he studied is in Shenzhen. 在定语从句中,that 和 which 用来指代物。 eg:This is the story that /which we wrote for our storytelling contest. 在定语从句中,who 用来指代人。 eg:I am going to see a friend who has just come back from the UK. 当 who 在定语从句中做宾语时,可以用 whom 来取代,且 whom 比 who 更正式。 eg:I don’t know the name of the teacher who/whom I saw in the computer room theother day. 当关系代词在定语从句中做宾语时,who,whom,which 和 that 可以被省略。 eg:He likes all the birthday presents(that/which)his friends gave him. Whose 用来表示所属,它既可指人也可指物。 eg:I sat next to a girl whose name was Diane.

4. 5.

The club whose members are music fans meet in the school garden every Saturdayafternoon. (五):限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别 1.二者差异比较 限制定语从句紧跟先行词, 同先行词之间一般不加逗号, 仅修饰先行词, 可以由关系代词. 关 系副词或 that 来引导。非限制性定语从句仅作补充或说明,用逗号与主句隔开,既可修饰先 行词,又可修饰整个主句,不可用 that 引导。



从句与先行词的关 从句是先行词不可缺少的定语, 如 从句只是对先行词的 系 果省去, 主句的意思就会不完整或 附加说明,如果省去 , 不明确。 主句的意思仍然清楚 或完整 标 点 关 系 代 词 修饰 从句和主句之间不用逗号分开 从句和主句之间通常 用逗号分开

指人 who (that) whom 指人 who (作主语) 指物 which (that) whom(做宾语) 人和物 whose 指物 which 关系代词在从句中作宾语时可以 人和物的 whose 省去 关系代词一般不可省 从句只修饰一个名词或代词 可以修饰一个名词或 代词也可修饰整个主 句


定语从句译在被修饰词的前面 限制性

定语从句通常被译成 另一个独立的句子 非限制性 有逗号 先行词是唯一的,定 语从句可有可无。 不可用 that ,why。关 系词一律不省。 名词或代词,也可以 使整个句子

形式上 内容上 关系词 先行词

无逗号 先行词不是唯一的 可用 that ,why.作宾语可以省略 名词或代词




(六)关系代词 that 和 which 的区别 <1>. 只能用 that 的情况 (1) 如果先行词是 all, much, anything, something, nothing, everything, little, none ,few.等不 定代词,关系代词一般只用 that,不用 which。例如: All the people that are present burst into tears. Everything that we saw was interesting. I’m interested in everything that I don’t know. All that is needed is a supply of oil. (2) 如果先等词被 all ,little none any, only, few, much, no, some, very 等词修饰, 关系代词常 用 that,不用 which. 例如:I read all the books that you gave to me. This is the only money that I have in my pocket. All the money that was collected was given to the Hope Project. (3) 如果先行词被序数词、形容词最高级修饰或者先行词是最高级时,关系代词常用 that, 不用 which。 This is the first book that was written in English. This is the last factory that I visited. This is the best film that I have ever seen. This is the funniest thing that I ever heard. (4) 如果先等词被 the only ,the very , the same ,the last 修饰, 关系代词常用 that,不用 which. This is the only book that I really like. He was the only person in the office that was invited to the ball. (5) 先行词有两个,一个指人,一个指物,关系代词应该用 that。而不用 who, which. 例如: The boy and the dog that are in the picture are very lovely. He talked about the teachers and schools that he had visited. (6)who ,which 开头的特殊疑问句中,关系代词用 that. Who is the person that is standing there? Which of us that knows English doesn’t know this? which of the novel do you like best?

(8) 先行词是奇数词或是序数词时,关系代词用 that . Yesterday I caught two fish. Now you can see the two that are still alive in the basin of water. (9) 当主句“ there be “开头时,关系代词要用 that 引导的定语从句修饰该句型的主语。 There are four desks in the middle of the office that are used for the teachers. 当先行词是 way、moment、time 等时用 that,且常省略。

Who 做先行词时,引导定语从句用 that;
<2>.只能用 which 的情况 1) 非限制性定语从句中,不能用关系代词 that,作宾语用的关系代词也不能省略。如: There are about seven million people taking part in the election, most of whom、are well educated. Bei jing , which is china’s capital, is rich in culture. 2)those/that +名词后的定语从句用 which 引导。不能用关系代词 that。 That pen which he took is mine. A shop should keep those goods which sells well. 3)介词后只用 which This is the room in which he lived. I don’t know the man to whom you talked. The chair on which he is sitting is made of wood. (4) which 还有一种特殊用法,它可以引导从句修饰前面的整个主句,代替主句所表示的 整体概念或部分概念。 在这种从句中, which 可以作主语, 也可以作宾语或表语, 不用 that.. 例如: He succeeded in the competition, which made his parents very happy. (5)先行词是 that 时,关系代词要用 which. What’s that which flashed in the sky just now? (6) 关系代词后面有插入语时,益用关系代词 which. Here is the English grammar book which, as I have told you, will help to improve your English. <3>.只用 who, whom.而不用 that 的情况 (1)如果先行词是 anyone, anybody, everyone, everybody, someone, somebody,those, ones 等 时,关系代词应该用 who 或 whom,不用 which .that。例如: Is there anyone here who will go with you? People all like those who have good manners. (2)当先行词是指人的集合名词时,如果作这个名词着眼于集体的整体,关系代词用 which;若是指集体中的各个成员,则用 who。 Mr. Smith came to visit my family, who were watching TV then. Our class, which is a very good one, was praised again at the meeting. (5) 当先行词是一个限定性的表示人的特定名词时,常用 who The aunt/uncle who came to see us last week is my brother’s sister. 补充当先行词为 by the time ,any time , the way, every time, the first time ,the last time 时, 关

系词不用 when 而用 that.或省略 This is the last time that I shall give you a lesson. The first time I saw him was in 1980 By the time he was 14 he had learned advanced mathematics 但如果 time 前无修饰语,关系词用 that when 均可 3. 当先行词为 way 时,关系词用 in which ,that, 或省略. This is the way that/ in which / 不加 he smiles. one of the… 与 the one of the … 做先行词时谓语不一致。 Li Bai is one of the greatest poets that have lived in China. Li Bai is the one of the greatest poets that has lived in China. (九)As 与 which 是有区别的 A) 相同之处: 都可以用来引导非限制性定语从句,指代前面的主句所表达的内容。which 可做宾语或表语 He failed once more in the match, which was a great pity. He succeeded in the composition, which made his parents very happy. B)区别: 1)as 引导的非限制性定语从句位置较灵活,可以位于主句前面.中间或后面,一般用逗 号与主句隔开,但 which 所引导的非限制性定语从句只能放在主句之后。例如: 1) As we all know, Galileo’s theory of falling objects is right. = Galileo’s theory of falling objects, as we all know, is right = Galileo’s theory of falling objects is right, as we all know. 2) As is expected, the England team won the football match. 3) The earth runs around the sun, as is known by everyone. 4) He was late again, which made me unhappy 2.) as 有“如” 、“正如”、“像”、“正像”的含义,which 没有。后面的谓语动词 多是 see, know, expect, say, mention, report 等。 Our team won the game, which made us happy. As is known to all, Taiwan is part of China. 3.) as 在引导限制性定语从句多与 such 或 the same 连用, 可以代替先行词是人或物的名词。 the same…as such….as This is the same story as he told me. I hope to get such a book as he is using 4).as 也可单独使用,引导非限制性定语从句,作用相当于 which。可代表一个句子。例如: The elephant’s nose is like a snake, as anybody can see. 5).as 做主语时, 其后必跟系动词,而 which 无此限制 The meeting was put off, as was what we wanted. He was murdered,as seemed true. 补充 put away v.放好,整理好 ,抛弃 put on v 穿上 put up v.举起,进行, 提供,表现出, 建造, 提名, 推举 put off v.推迟, 拖延, 脱掉 put into v.使进入, 把...翻译成 put down v.放下, 拒绝, 记下, 制止 put out v.放出, 生产, 消除, 打扰 put in 插话

系动词 1)状态系动词 be 2)持续系动词 keep, rest, remain, stay, lie, stand, 3)表像系动词 seem, appear, look, 4)感官系动词 feel, smell, sound, taste, 5)变化系动词 become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come, run. 6)终止系动词 prove, turn out 6)the same …as 与 the same ..that 的区别: 前者修饰的是原物同样的 而后者修饰的就是先行词 This is thesame watch as I lost.这和我丢的那一只手表是一样的。 This is the same watch that I lost.着就是我丢的那一只手表。 1. Nearly all the streets are in straight lines, ________ from east to west. Those ________ run from north to south are called avenues. A. running; that B. run; who C. running; who D. run; that 2. This is the case ________ he’s had all his money stolen. A. when B. where C. that D. on which 3. Mr. Smith will pay a visit to Beijing this autumn, ________ we will enjoy the Olympic Games in 2008. A. where B. when C. which D. how 4. The artist will not paint people or animals but he will paint anything ________ . A. that the little girl asks him B. the little girl asks him to C. for the little girl to ask him D. what the little girl asks him 5. —How did you get in touch with the travel agent, Robin? —Oh, that’s easy. I surfed the Internet and then called one ________ the telephone number is provided. A. which B. in which C. of which D. whose 6. October 15 th is my birthday, ________ I will never forget. A. when B. that C. what D. which 7. The treatment will continue until the patient reaches the point ________ he can walk correctly and safely. A. when B. where C. which D. whose 8. There are several research centers in China ________ a certain disease called Bird Flu is being studied. A. which B. where C. when D. what 9. I hope that the little ________ I have been able to do does good to them all. A. which B. what C. that D. when 10. The time is not far away ________ modern communications will become widespread in China’s vast countryside. A. as B. when C. until D. before 11. ________ is known to everybody, Taiwan is a part of China. We must unify it. A. It B. As C. Which D. What 12. I shall never forget the day ________ Shen Zhou V was launched, ________ has a great effect on my life. A. when, which B. that, which C. which, that D. when, that

13. The bread my wife makes is much better than ________ you can buy at a store. A. that which B. one that C. that of which D. this of which 14. There is no such place ________ you dream of in all this world. A. that B. what C. which D. as 15. The people, ________ had been damaged by the flood, were given help by the Red Cross. A. all whose homes B. all of whose homes C. all their homes D. all of their homes 16. The humans are destroying nature day by day, ________ of course, will cause severe punishment from it sooner or later. A. who B. when C. on which D. which 17. Is this research center ________ you visited the modern equipment last year? A. where B. that C. the one that D. the one where 18. Some pictures of the river brought the days back to the old ________ they swam in it. A. when B. that C. who D. where 19. The man showed us so heavy a stone ________ no man can lift. A. that B. as C. which D. and 20. He stayed there for quite a long time, during ________ time he learned much spoken English. A. that B. this C. which D. same 21. He bought the car for more than $20, 000, ______ his father was angry. A. about that B. with asC. when D. with which 22.I have two grammars, ______are of great use. A. all of which B. either of which C. both of that D. both of which 23. Last summer we visited the West Lake, ______Hangzhou is famous in the world. A. for which B. for that C. in which D. what 24.I shall never forget those years _______ I lived on the farm with the farmers, _______ has a great effect on my life. A. when; who B. that; which C. which; that D. when; which, 25. This machine, ______for many years, is still working perfectly. A. after which I have looked B. which I have looked after C. that I have looked afterD. I have looked after 26.The reason ______he didn't come was ______he was ill. A. why; that B.that;why C. for that;that D.for which;what 答案与解析: 1. A. 主语与 run(延伸)是主动关系,所以用现在分词。Those 指街道,所以不用 who 而用 that 来引导定语从句。 2. B. 因为在此题中 where 引导定语从句,表示“在这种种况下”,与 in which 相当。 3. A. 因为先行词是 Beijing 而不是 this autumn 所以用 where 引导定语从句。 4. B. 答案 B 是省略了关系代词 that 的定语从句, 另外, to 后还省略了动词原形 paint。 5. C. 因为 of which 引导定语从句,并在从句中作定语。Of which the telephone

number = whose telephone number。 6. D. 因为这是个非限制性定语从句,先行词是前面一句话的内容。 7. B. 因为表示“阶段、程度、地步”的 the point 在定语从句中作地点状语,所以用 where 引导定语从句。 8. B. 因为先行词是 research centers 并在定语从句中作状语,所以用 where。 9. C. 因为当先行词是表示事物的 all, little, few, much, anything, everything, nothing 等时,多用 that 引导定语从句。 10. 因为先行词是 the time,且在定语从句中作状语,所以用 when 引导。此题的先行 词与定语从句被主句谓语分开了,要善于辨别。 11. B. 先行词是 Taiwan is a part of China 整个主句,一般由 as 或 which 引导定语从 句,但 which 引导的定语从句只能放在主句之后,另外,as 有“正如”之意,而 which 没有, 所以用 as。 顺便说说, 原句改为: It is known to everybody that Taiwan is?= What is known to everybody is that Taiwan is? 12. A. 两空都是考查定语从句,先行词分别是 the day 和 Shen Zhou V was launched, the day 在定语从句中作状语,用 when 引导;后句是非限制性定语从句,不能用 that, 要用 which。 13. A. 因为替代不可数名词 (the bread) 只能用 that, 排除 B 和 D; 又因为先行词 that (the bread) 在定语从句中作 buy 的宾语,用 which,所以选 A。 14. D. 当定语从句的先行词前有 such, so, as 等词语时,由 as 引导,并且 as 在定语从 句中作主语或宾语, as 在此题中作 dream of 的宾语。 注意: 在表示 “如此?以致?” 的 such /so?that?结构中,that 不作任何句子成份。 15. B. 考查非限制性定语从句,all of whose homes = all of their homes 他们所有的 房子。 16. D. 因为先行词是前面整个句子,且在从句中作主语,所以用 which。of course 是 插入语。 17. D. 将疑问句改为陈述句:this research center is?显然缺少先行词,必须加上代 词 the one 来作先行词,又因定语从句不缺主语或宾语,所以用关系副词 where。 假若在 this 后加 the,就选 where,请想想这是为什么。 18. A. 因为先行词是 the days,并在定语从句中作状语。 19. B. 当先行词前有 so 时,用 as 引导定语从句,as 在从句中作主语或宾语。假若在 lift 后加上 it,答案就是 that 了,请想想这是为什么。 20. C. 因前后均的句子,必须要选连词,排除 B 和 D;又因在介词后不能用 that 来引 导定语从句,所以选 C。during which time 在那段时间里。 22. A. for which 引导定语从句,使用介词 for,是来自于从句中的固定短语 be famous for "以……..而闻名". 23. A. for which 引导定语从句,使用介词 for,是来自于从句中的固定短语 be famous for "以……..而闻名". 24. D. years 是表示时间的名词,用 when 引导定语从句,是因为 when 在从句中作时间状 语.第二个空选用 which,引导一个非限制性定语从句. 25. B. which I have looked after 构成一个非限制性定语从句. 26. A. The reason why… was that….已成为一种固定句型,这一句中的 why 和 that 不

能随意换位,也不能将 that 改成 because,尽管 that 这个词在译文中可能有 “因为”的含 义。

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