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英语本科毕业论文格式说明及模版


英语本科毕业论文格式说明
一.纸张打印格式 论文要求原则上使用激光打印。 纸张尺寸为: A4。 正文字号为: 英语 Times New Roman, 小四号,汉语宋体,小四号。行间距:2 倍行距。上边距为 2.54 厘米,下边距为

2.54 厘米,左边距为 3 厘米,右边距为 2.5 厘米,装订线在左侧。页角距下边
界 1.5 厘米,居中,插入页码。页码从摘要至目录的最后一页采用罗马字母排列:i,ii, iii。页码自正文开始用阿拉伯数字排列至论文结束,位于页底居中。一律采用左侧装订。 二.组成及排列顺序: 毕业论文由:A.封面;B.中文首页;C.英文首页;D.英文摘要;E.中文摘要;F.目录(英文) ; G.正文;H.致谢;I.参考文献;J.附录等,按上述顺序排列装订。 三.基本结构及内容要求 1. 封面:由学校统一印制 2. 中文首页:1)题目(一般不超过 25 个字,要简练准确,可分两行书写) ;2)所在学院及专 业名称;3)学生姓名、性别;4)指导教师姓名、职称;5)论文完成日期。汉语首页的具体 要求详见模板。 3. 英文首页:1)所在大学名称;2)论文题目;3)学位专业培养院/系/将获得学位;4)论文作 者姓名;5)学生所在年级、班级;6)导师姓名;7)毕业论文完成日期。英语封面的字体为 Times New Roman,全部大写,居中(具体要求详见模板) 。 4. 摘要:为论文内容的简短评述,不加注释和评论。它具有独立性和自含性。英语摘要一般不 少于 350 字。英语和汉语摘要必须对应。 “Abstract” 和“摘要” (二字作为标题)的字号为 小三,英文加粗,汉语黑体,居中排列。其它内容:英语为 Times New Roman,小四号,汉 语为宋体小四, 英语行距为 1.5 倍,汉语行距为 2 倍。其它要求详见模板。 5. 英汉摘要中的关键词(Key words) :选择 3-5 个词作为关键词,左对齐,隔一行排在摘要正 文下方。英文关键词之间使用逗号间隔,中文关键词之间使用分号间隔,最后一个关键词后

不使用标点符号。其它要求详见模板。 6. 目录:详细体例要求见模板。要求内容层次清晰,且要与正文各级标题一致,包括摘要、正 文、参考文献、致谢、附录等。各章节以 Chapter 开始,一级标题加粗,字体为 Times New Roman,小四,2 倍行距。其它要求见模板。 7. 正文 1) 正文中的格式应与英文目录中所列一致,标示出论文的各章节,按级别排列,如:

Chapter 1:,Chapter 2:,1.1,1.2,等, 各级标题数字或字母后要空一格。每一
章节要单独成页,具体详见模板。 2) 正文是论文的核心部分,占主要篇幅,字数不应少于 6 千。 3) 正文设页眉,标注“辽宁师范大学海华学院毕业论文” ,字体华文新魏,字号小五。 4) 文中引用他人资料要有标注(标注方式见范本) ,并在“Works Cited”部分中列出。 5) 正文要有论文的标题,加粗,字号小三,居中,每词首字母大写(虚词除外) ,段前 段后各空一行。各章标题字号为小四,加粗,每词首字母大写(虚词除外) ,段前空 一行。 6) 第二章以后各章题目顶格,另起一页开始。 7) 论文正文使用 2 倍行距,首行缩进 5 个英文空格,两端对齐。 8) 易错英文标点的使用详见范本。 9) 正文内中文引注格式说明: (1) 当引文超过四行时,不可再在文中使用引号引文。应该另起行,单独成段,左缩进 10 个英文空格的位置对齐开始打字,出处放在引文后。 (2) 少于两行的引文放在句中,引号后为出处,然后是句号。 (3) 文中标注汉语文献的方法: (作者的姓, 页码) ,比如: (王,87) ,括号中姓的后面要

空一格。如果引用同一人的多部作品,应使用(作者的姓,页码,出版年代)的方 法标注。如: (王,87,1950) 。如果引用作者同一年发表的多部作品,应在出版年 代后用小写字母排序。如: (王,87,1950a) 。如果引用文献中有重姓的作者,应在 标注时使用作者的全名。如: (王力,87) 8. 论文后应附参考文献 “Works Cited” (不少于 8 个, 其中英文文献不少于 3 个) , “Works Cited” 字号小三,加粗,居中,段前段后各空一行。英文文献列在前面,中文文献列在后面。全部 用 2 倍行距。英文文献用 MLA 格式,字体为 Times New Roman,字号小四,靠左排列,按 文献作者姓氏的字母表顺序排列, 不加序号; 中文文献具体格式依据我国国家标准 GB7714-87 《文后参考文献著录规则》 ,字体为宋体,字号小四,靠左排列,顺序按文献作者姓氏的汉语 拼音字母排列,不加序号。 9. 致谢:"ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS"段前段后各空一行,字体 Times New Roman,字号小 三,加粗,全大写。致谢正文字体 Times New Roman,字号小四,2 倍行间距。主要内容是 对给与指导或协助完成毕业论文工作的组织和个人表示感谢。文字要简洁、实事求是、切忌 浮夸和庸俗之词。

XXXX 大学 XX 学院 毕 业 论 文
( 2009 届)



目 :

专 姓

业: 名:

指导教师:

完成日期: 2013 年

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LIAONING NORMAL UNIVERSITY HAIHUA COLLEGE

A STUDY ON THE FUNCTIONS OF ENGLISH INTONATION

A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE SCHOOL OF FOREIGN LANGUAGES IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF ARTS

BY ZHANG YANG

CLASS 01 GRADE 2009 ADVISOR: WANG YUWEN, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR

APRIL, 2013

Abstract

English intonation studies the pitch variations in utterances and other paralinguistic features such as stress and pause, which are all features of English in use. These features of English intonation are an important way of verbal communication, for they play a vital role in helping speakers' express true meanings and listeners understand what speakers want to convey. The changes of intonation can not only change the meaning of a sentence, but also facilitate the expressing of speakers' attitudes, feelings, emotions and moods better. Thus, participants of communication should know the importance of English intonation and learn to recognize the functions and meanings of different English intonations in order to achieve a highly successful and smooth communication. This paper discusses the attitudinal function, accentual function, and discourse function of English intonation, which may display its crucial influence in the attitudinal, accentual, and discourse aspects concretely. By analysing speech act theory in English linguistics, the author of this paper gives enough examples and analyse them in order to make a new generalization of the functions of English intonation. The whole paper is divided into four chapters. Chapter one, as a starting point of the study, is a brief introduction to the theme of the paper. The feasibility and necessity of the study on the functions of English intonation are also pointed out in this part. Chapter two mainly introduces the relevant terms and their concepts which can be usually seen in expressing English intonation. It also provides an analysis of the basic unit of English intonation and a general introduction to speech act theory, an English linguistic theory, which .paves the theoretical way for the following chapters. Chapter three illustrates the attitudinal function, accentual function, and discourse

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function of English intonation in detail. Plenty of examples are employed and analysed. Chapter four is a conclusion of the whole thesis, which illustrates the primary role of English intonation in verbal communication and the practical significance of this research, and emphasizes the feasibility and necessity of the study on the functions of English intonation again. Meanwhile, the limitations of the present paper and the direction of further research are also pointed out in this chapter.

Key words: speech act theory, English intonation, function

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英语语调研究主要涉及英语中音调的高低变化以及重音和停顿等其他超音 段特征,是英语在使用中所体现的特征。这些语调特征是言语表达的重要方式, 对说话人的表达和听话者的理解起着至关重要的作用。 语调的变化不仅能引起句 子意思的变化,还能更好地表达说话者的态度、感受和情绪。为了顺利实现成功 的交流, 交流的参与者都应该了解英语语调的重要性并且学会理解不同语调的功 能和意义。 本文主要运用了英语语言学理论中的言语行为理论重新概括英语语调的一 些功能,具体表现在情感态度的表达、重要信息的强调、以及在语篇中所体现的 功能等多个层面,即表态功能、重音功能、及语篇功能。结合言语行为理论,作 者举了一些例子并对例子进行分析,从而对英语语调的这些功能做了新的概括。 本文共分为四个部分。第一部分引言简要介绍了关于文章的研究主题和定位 以及研究目的, 说明英语语调功能研究的可行性和必要性。第二部分主要介绍英 语语调相关的术语及其概念, 指出英语语调分析的基本单位、构成和特点以及研 究中所用的相关语言学理论, 为后面章节的分析做理论铺垫。第三部分具体阐述 英语语调的表态功能、 重音功能和语篇功能并就每一类功能下的具体体现方式举 例加以分析。 第四部分结语对全文进行归纳和总结并揭示英语语调在话语交际中 的主要作用以及此项研究的现实意义, 再一次强调英语语调功能研究的可行性和 必要性,同时指出该论文存在的不足和今后的研究方向。
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关键词:言语行为理论;英语语调;功能

CONTENTS

Abstract ................................................................................................................................. 6 Chapter 1: Introduction .................................................................... 错误!未定义书签。 Chapter 2: Basic Knowledge of English Intonation and Theory for the Study ............ 11 2.1 Definition of Intonation, Tone and Stress .................................................. 11 2.2 Basic Unit of English Intonation Analysis ................................................. 14 2.3 Theory for the Study .................................................................................. 17 Chapter 3: The Functions of English Intonation ............................................................ 19 3.1 The Attitudinal Function of English Intonation ......... 错误!未定义书签。 3.2 The Accentual Function of English Intonation .......... 错误!未定义书签。 3.3 The Discourse Function of English Intonation .......... 错误!未定义书签。 Chapter 4: Conclusion ....................................................................................................... 20 Works Cited ...................................................................................... 错误!未定义书签。7 Acknowledgements .......................................................................................................... 258

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A Study on the Functions of English Intonation

Chapter 1: Introduction As we know, English is an intonation language, and intonation itself, which is a critical element in an oral communication, is considered to be the soul of an intonation language. No matter when we speak, what we say and what language we use, we can't avoid using the intonation. It can indicate speakers' attitudes, reflect various emotional expression and convey a variety of speakers' real intentions. Besides, it can also set up a social communicative context or background, and help people grasp the potential information or messages in an utterance or communication. In general, the intonation which helps speakers to transfer their real intentions or deliver information or messages effectively and precisely is always the signal of topic-shift or turning point of sentence meaning in an utterance. A complete mastery of the intonation of one language is the key to understanding speakers' real intentions in an oral communication. However, unfortunately, although English is the most widely used and studied language all over the world, the systematic study of its soul—English intonation—is normally ignored by large numbers of EFL (which is short for English as a Foreign Language) learners. For a very long time, they, the EFL learners, simply regard English intonation as a syntactic sentence type. Here take the rising tone in English intonation for example. When we use a rising tone in a sentence, most people prefer

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to think that it is only a way to change a declarative sentence into an interrogative, rather than think it may …(略去) Chapter 2: Basic Knowledge of English Intonation and Theory for the Study This chapter is mainly concerned with the basic knowledge of English intonation such as the definition of intonation, tone, stress and tone-unit, and related theoretical study—speech act theory, which serves as a framework of the present study. 2.1 Definition of Intonation, Tone and Stress In Oxford Advanced Learner's English-Chinese Dictionary (the 6th Edition), intonation refers to "the rise and fall of the voice in speaking, especially as this affects the meaning of what is being said"(927-928). In general, intonation means different things to different people who are in different working areas. Even in the linguistics itself, the term "intonation" may have been given a variety of denotations which range from the very broad sense to the very narrow sense. "In the broad sense, it covers not only pitch, but also stress and pause phenomena on a supra-segmental level, while in the narrow sense, it is restricted to the non-lexical manifestation of melody in speech, which is generally known as the rise and fall of the pitch in spoken language" (唐, 6). Intonation is the melody of speech. In studying intonation we study how the pitch of the voice rises and falls, and how speakers use this pitch variation to convey linguistic and pragmatic meaning. It also involves the study of the rhythm of speech, and the study of how the interplay of

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accented, stressed and unstressed syllable functions as a framework onto which the intonation patterns are attached (Well, 1). Intonation is a significant element of spoken English, and it is also one of the suprasegmental features which are phonemic features that appear above the level of the segments. Intonation makes speech meaningful, so it plays an important role in the conveyance of meaning in nearly every language, especially in a language like English, and it also makes English sound really English. Based on the various definitions of intonation, intonation in this present paper is mainly handled in the narrow sense. Thus, actually, intonation is the combination of stress and pitch changes. As we all know, English intonation is very different from intonations of other languages and also there are differences existing in the range of national and regional accents. Here the present author is going to deal with intonation in RP, which is short for Received Pronunciation. Tone is a distinguishing feature of tone language. In Oxford Advanced Learner's English-Chinese Dictionary (the 6th Edition), there are many versions of definition on the term "tone" according to different contexts when this word is used. But now we shall only pay attention to the definition of tone when we meet it in linguistics. In linguistics, especially in phonetics, tone refers to "the pitch (=how high or low a sound is) of a syllable in speaking" (1862). "Tones are pitch variations, which are caused by the differing rates of vibration of the vocal cords. Pitch variations can distinguish meaning just like phonemes; therefore, the tone is a suprasegmental feature. The meaning-distinctive function of

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the tone is especially important in what we call tone languages" (戴, 何, 30). "In tone language, tone is a feature of the lexicon, being described in terms of prescribed pitches for morphemes or word" (夏, 4). English has five basic tones, known as the falling tone, the rising tone, the falling-rising tone, the rising-falling tone, and the level tone. The falling tone which descends from a higher pitch to a lower one and the rising tone which is a movement from a lower pitch to a higher one are two basic intonation patterns in English, and then, when they go together sometimes, they can make a falling-rising tone or a rising-falling tone. Among the five basic tones, the falling tone, the rising tone and the falling-rising tone are frequently used by people. Each of these tones has different functions, that is, they convey different meaning, attitudes or intentions to the hearer. Generally speaking, the falling tone always indicates that what the speaker said is a straight-forward, matter-of-fact statement. It is regarded as more or less a sense of "neutrality" and it sends to the hearer a sense of "finality", while the rising tone conveys an impression that something more is to follow. The falling-rising tone is quite frequently seen in English. People use it very often because it has some rather special functions and it can express their feelings simply and exactly. Among many other possibilities, it usually conveys messages of "limited agreement" or "response with reservations". But the rising-falling tone is normally used to convey quite strong feelings of surprise, approval or disapproval. The level tone can be certainly used in English, but it maybe used in s rather restricted

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context (on single-syllable utterances) for it always conveys a feeling of saying something boring, uninteresting, regular or routine. …(略去) secondary, and zero. "The term 'primary stress' refers to the strong emphasis a speaker puts on the most important syllable of a particular word. Secondary stress refers to a less strong emphasis on the next most important syllable. Zero stress refers to any syllable that receives no stress, such syllables are called unstressed syllables" (王, 83, 2005). A primary stress is characterized by prominence which is achieved through the combination of factors such as loudness, length, pitch and quality, and the prominence of a secondary stress is weaker than that of the primary stress but stronger than that of the unstressed syllables, and the unstressed syllables can be defined by the absence of any prominence. On the contrary, sentence stress can be regarded as part of intonation. "Sentence stress refers to the relative force given to the components of a sentence" (戴, 何, 29). A word or some words which receive a strong accent in a sentence can be sentence stress. Stress is so important to English that it can make people communicate with each other well by using correct word and sentence stress in an utterance. 2.2 Basic Unit of English Intonation Analysis "For the purpose of analysing intonation, a unit generally greater in size than the syllable is needed, and this unit is called tone-unit" (Roach, 144). Other descriptions of tone-unit are tone group, intonation group, intonation contour, sense group, breath group, and so on. Because of tone-unit, utterance in connected speech are usually

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divided into several small parts, and these small parts can make the long speech easier for the speaker to speak and the hearer to understand. Thus, tone unit is the basic unit of English intonation analysis. A tone-unit may contain only one syllable which is in the smallest form of a tone-unit, such as "yes" and "no". So in fact, it would be wrong to say that it always consists of more than one syllable which can be seen very often in English. When a tone-unit contains several syllables, some of them must be stressed and the others are unstressed. The stress syllables are far more important than the unstressed syllables. "The stressed syllable of the last prominent word is usually a marker of the highest importance and has the focus stress. On this syllable, there takes place a change of pitch, either an upward or downward movement, or a combination of the two" (王, 200, 1996). A complete tone-unit can be divided into four different parts, known as the pre-head, the head, the nucleus and the tail. The pre-head is the intonation of the unstressed syllable before the head. It is composed of all the unstressed syllables in a tone-unit before the first stress syllable. The head is the intonation of the first full stressed syllable in a sentence. It is the stretch of an utterance extending from the first full stressed syllable up to but not including the tonic syllable. However, if there is no accented syllable before the nucleus, there cannot be a head. The nucleus, which can be also called tonic syllable or nuclear syllable, is the intonation of which emphasizes the last stressed syllable of the whole sentence. Nucleus is the most vital accented syllable in a tone-unit which can affect the meaning and function of the tone-unit in

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discourse by carrying a high degree of prominence or taking a major pitch change. It also carries the information focus of a tone-unit. The tail, if there is one, often happens between the tonic syllable and the end of the tone-unit. The tail which may contain one or more stressed or unstressed syllables is a part of a tone-unit following the nuclear syllable. It completes the list of tone-unit components. Among these four components of a tone-unit, only the nucleus, which is the most important element of a sentence, is necessary, obligatory and irreplaceable, while the pre-head, head and tail are optional and sometimes may be omitted. The nucleus must be still present even though the tone-unit is composed of a single syllable, such as "yes", "no", "why", and so on. "If we use brackets to indicate optional components which may be present or may be absent, we can summarize tone-unit structure as follows: (pre-head) (head) nucleus (tail), or more briefly, as (PH) (H) N (T)" (Roach, 147). The tone-units have their own boundaries, which means that where one tone-unit ends and another tone-unit begins, or where a tone-unit begins or ends and a pause follows. It is quite hard to determine a clear boundary to the tone-units. Since in simple and normal speeches, which speed is not too fast, the boundaries of the tone-units can be placed if there is a perceivable pitch-change or a slight pause after the nucleus. Nevertheless, in analysing natural speech, it becomes very difficult to identify the boundaries only depending on the phonetics and phonology. In this case, one has to use the knowledge of grammar and semantics to decide where the boundaries of the tone-units are.

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2.3 Theory for the Study Historically, a lot of linguists and scholars have made great contributions to the study of linguistics, especially in the range of pragmatics which refers to the study of how speakers of a language use sentences to achieve successful communication. Subsequently, many concepts and theories are formed to standardize specific language usage as a result of their studies. Among them, speech act theory, relevance theory, and context theory are the most popular ones which are mentioned widely by people. However, in this paper, only speech act theory is studied to support and explain some complicated but interesting language phenomena because of the complexity of the study. Speech act theory, which is one of the fundamental theories in linguistics and pragmatics, is very significant for students to use in their research papers. It is first proposed by John Langshaw Austin, a well-known British linguist and philosopher of ordinary language, in the late 50's of the 20th century. Austin's book How to Do Things with Words (1962) has a great effect on linguistics, especially on pragmatics. Later on, his ideas are spreaded, popularized and further evolved by an American philosopher—John Searle who is Austin's student and also makes important contributions to this field. "Speech act theory indicates an act of using language in specific circumstances with some objectives to be achieved. The basic view point is: any language communication states an intentional speech act and speech act is the minimal unit restrained by rules" (夏, 8-9). "It is a philosophical explanation of the nature of

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linguistic communication. It aims to answer the question 'What do we do when using language?'" (戴, 何, 87-88). Originally, Austin classifies utterances into two types according to whether the utterances can be verified. One is called constatives which are chiefly statements or assertions that either state facts or describe states. Thus, they are verifiable and quite easy to judge whether the sentences are true or false. While the other one is called performatives which are some sentences that don't state facts or describe states of affairs but are words to do actions. Therefore, they are unverifiable and difficult to make a clear decision of whether they are true or false. Later, Austin gives up his original research between constatives and performatives because of various reasons. However, he doesn't abandon his interests in linguistics. He set up another model to explain the way which we are performing actions when we are speaking. Depending on his new model, when speakers speak, they may be performing three acts at the same time, which are locutionary act, illocutionary act and perlocutionary act. "The term of 'locution' refers to uttering a sentence with non-ambiguous meaning and reference. 'Illocution' refers to using the utterance with a particular intention, and 'perlocution' the effect the utterance might have" (唐, 28). A locutionary act is the act of uttering words, phrases, clauses. It is the act of conveying literal meaning by means of syntax, lexicon and phonology. An illocutionary act is the act of expressing the speaker's intention; it is the act performed in saying something. A perlocutionary

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act is the act performed by or resulting from saying something; it is the consequence of, or the change brought about by the utterance; it is the act performed by saying something." (戴, 何, 89) These three notions play an important role in both linguistics and philosophy. Nevertheless, among these three components, the concept of an illocutionary act, which is Austin's main interest and also receives most attention of researchers, is the focus of the concept of a speech act because it reflects the speaker's intention. …(略去) Chapter 3: The Functions of English Intonation The basic concepts such as the definitions of intonation, tone, stress, tone-unit in the area of English intonation and related theoretical study—speech act theory— which serves as a framework of the present study have been all described in detail as above. Now the functions of English intonation will be discussed in this part which can be considered as the most significant section of this thesis. We can't imagine what our communication will be like if the speech in which every syllable was said on the same pitch level without any pause or change, which may be like the speech produced by a "mechanical speech" device. Therefore, we can see that English intonation, which plays a vital role in a speech, makes it easier for a listener to understand what a speaker tries to convey. There have been studies on the functions of English intonation from various angles such as attitudinal, accentual, expressive, informational, grammatical, semantic, contextual, discourse and so on. Some functions may be representative and popular

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while some else may turn out to be specific and cannot be popularized. Inevitably, there will be some overlaps in these functions because sometimes it's hard to draw a very clear line between any two functions. Here the present author just attempts to analyse those commonly acknowledged functions of English intonation, namely, attitudinal, accentual, and discourse functions, from the perspective of speech act theory, and tries to help language learners and users get a better understanding of the functions of English intonation, and then enhances a more successful and smooth communication. …(略去) Chapter 4: Conclusion Intonation, which is a combination of stress and pitch variations in the narrow sense, is a dominant factor in verbal communication for it helps speakers express their attitudes, feelings, emotions, thoughts, etc, and distinguish between direct and indirect speech acts. It also can signal the intentional force of an utterance in a given context. Since it is well known that English is an intonation language, it is quite necessary to learn English intonation well in order to use English naturally and effectively. Historically, many scholars have made great contributions to the study of the functions of English intonation. Although the history of study on the functions of English intonation is comparatively shorter, there have been many phoneticians and linguists who made contributions to this area. Despite the diversity of their studies, they together have provided a somewhat complete picture of the study on the functions of English intonation, which covers attitudinal, accentual, expressive,

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informational, grammatical, semantic, contextual, discourse aspects with varied focus. Their studies have laid a solid foundation for the research of English intonation, here especially the functions of English intonation. The whole paper consists of four chapters. Chapter one is a brief introduction to the whole paper, which includes the theme of the paper, the research direction, the research background, the theoretical basis of the study, and the outline of the thesis, for they are quite necessary for the following chapters. The feasibility and necessity of study on the functions of English intonation are also pointed out in this part. Chapter two mainly introduces the relevant terms and their concepts which can be usually seen in expressing English intonation such as the definitions of intonation, tone, stress, and tone-unit. It also provides an analysis of the basic unit of English intonation and a general introduction to speech act theory in English linguistics, which paves the theoretical way for the following chapters. Chapter three is the most significant section of this paper, which illustrates the attitudinal function, accentual function, and discourse function of English intonation in detail. Plenty of examples are also employed and analysed. The last chapter, chapter four, is a conclusion of the whole thesis, which illustrates the major role of English intonation in verbal communication and the practical significance of this research, and emphasizes the feasibility and necessity of the study on the functions of English intonation again. Meanwhile, the limitations of the present paper and the direction of further research are also pointed out in this chapter. In this paper, the author mainly uses speech act theory which serves as a

21

framework of the present study to explain some language phenomena and discussed the functions of English intonation. Speech act theory mainly deals with direct and indirect speech acts. The basic viewpoint of speech act theory is that any language communication states an intentional speech act and speech act is the minimal unit restrained by rules. Therefore, speech act theory is mainly used to reflect attitudinal, accentual and discourse function of English intonation, which has been introduced in detail in chapter three. The research which studies the functions of English intonation may be fairly new. As might have been noticed, the present paper may have the following limitations. First, since linguistics, especially pragmatics, is rather a complex and profound discipline, it is hard to include all the theoretic aspects to support the theme in a detailed way within this paper. Second, as English intonation is such a complicated element in communication, it is almost impossible to connect one form of intonation with one particular function clearly. With the help of some scientific equipment, further researches in this aspect can be perfected. Third, since this study lacks the native environment in which the author can gather enough first-hand and natural sample sentences, paragraphs or texts, some of the examples used in this paper are not very typical or classic. Meanwhile, the analyses of the tones used in the examples are quite subjective. It would be more convincing and persuasive if the tones are analyzed by scientific equipment. Nevertheless, with a better understanding of the functions of English intonation, non-native English speakers will pay more attention to the art of the language itself.

22

And this would undoubtedly yield more productive theories and thoughts. For English intonation, especially that of the most prominent two types of RP and Standard American English, comparative study on their forms and functions will be extremely helpful to us Chinese EFL learners.

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Works Cited

Roach, Peter. English Phonetics and Phonology: A Practical Course (second edition). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991. Searle, John Rogers. Indirect speech acts. In P.Cole&J.Morgan(Eds.), Syntax and Semantics, Vol. 3: Speech Acts. New York: Academic Press, 1975. Wells, John Christopher. English Intonation: an Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University press, 2006. 戴炜栋, 何兆熊. 新编简明英语语言学教程[M]. 上海: 上海外语教育出版 社,2002. 唐莉. 从语用学角度看英国英语语调的功能[D]. 重庆: 四川大学, 2005. 夏华. 从语用学的角度研究英语语调的功能[D]. 杭州: 浙江大学, 2009. 王桂珍. 英语语音教程(第二版)[M]. 北京: 高等教育出版社, 2005. 王桂珍. 英语语音语调教程[M]. 北京: 高等教育出版社, 1996(2005 重印).

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like first to express my deepest gratitude to Associate Professor Wang Yuwen. Without her indulgence, patient support and inspiring encouragement, this study would not have been possible. I should also express my gratitude to all the faculty of the School of Foreign Languages at Liaoning Normal University Haihua College, in particular those who taught me and witnessed every tiny step of my progress during my undergraduate study. My ultimate thanks should be given to the School of Foreign Languages, which endowed me with knowledge, courage and love. What I acquired here will support me all the way through in future English learning.

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