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1. Introduction

一级标题,左顶格,Times New Roman, 三号,粗体。

Over the last several decades, linguists have put a great emphasis on the research of text linguistics. The theory of cohesion, first proposed by Halliday and Hasan in Cohesion in English in 1976, accounts for the relationship between cohesion and coherence. Despite the fact that Halliday’s point of view has encountered much criticism from other linguists such as Van Dijk (1977), Widdowson (1978, 1979), Brown and Yule (1983). Denials on the issue, conversely, stimulate linguists to make greater efforts to improve it. Foreign researchers (Halliday and Hasan 1985a, 1985b; Schiffrin 1987; Hubbard 1989) and Chinese linguists (Hu Zhuanglin 1994; Zhang Delu, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003b; Zhang Delu and Liu Rushan 2003a; Zhu Yongsheng 1995, 1996a, 1996b, 1997; Zhu Yongsheng and Yan Shiqing 2001) are among those who contribute greatly in the field. …… Contrastive transition, under the heading of transition, has been set into the coherence-based theory framework by linguists (Halliday 1976, 1985a, 1985b; Mann and Thompson 1986; Schiffrin 1987; Fraser 1990). Contrastive transition refers to lexical items that signal contrastive coherence relation between adjacent text spans. Contrastive transition has been studied as functional words by grammarians, and viewed as cohesive device by systemic-functional linguists. Nevertheless, the functions of contrastive transition require further discussion. In this paper, they are explored in the light of Halliday’s theory of three metafunctions of language. Pragmatic and cognitive principles—Austin and Searl’s speech act theory, Sperber and Wilson’s theory of relevance—are applied to the issue as well, particularly to the interpersonal and textual functions. …….




2. A survey of the study of contrastive transition

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二级标题,四号,粗 体。

2.1 The issue of cohesion and coherence
2.1.1 The theory of cohesion

三级标题,小四号,粗体。 以下级别的标题,字体大小 同正文。

The past several decades have seen a phenomenal growth in interest in text linguistics. Linguists endeavor to make some contribution towards it, and among them systemic-functional linguists—Halliday and Hasan—are distinguished for their publication of Cohesion in English in 1976. Cohesion has been extensively studied in English by researchers such as Halliday and Hasan (1976, 1985a, 1985b), Schiffrin (1987),and Hubbard (1989). In China, Hu Zhuanglin (1994), Zhang Delu (1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003), Zhang Delu and Liu Rushan (2003), Zhu Yongsheng (1995, 1996a, 1996b, 1997), Zhu Yongsheng and Yan Shiqing (2001) have made great achievements in the field. The theory of cohesion, first proposed by Halliday and Hasan, accounts for the relationship between the different elements of a text so as to enable the reader or listener to derive meaning from the text. Without cohesion a text may be fragmented and lose its meaning. Cohesion makes a text consistent, so that ideas are easily followed. ……
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Traditionally seen as one of the four basic skills of second language (L2)* learning, writing always occupies an important position in language teaching and

* To be consistent with the literature of second language writing (L2 writing), the current study uses second language as a general term embracing both second language and foreign language.


testing. As is reviewed in Spolsky (1995), essay writing was one of the two test formats during the pre-scientific period of language testing, the other being translation.

In the 1920s, a new type of 再使用该缩写则不需说明。 tests—objective tests—made its debut in the United States. During this period, priority was given to objectivity. Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), for instance, adopted the form of error correction to test writing ability. In recent years, however, with Bachman’s (1990) advocacy for communicative competence and accordingly for communicative language testing, writing again becomes a vital part in various tests. A survey of the internationally recognized proficiency tests lends support to the significance of writing to 尾注标记 L2 learners. The TOEFL Internet-based test (TOEFL IBT), to be unleashed worldwide in 2006, features two writing tasks: one integrated and one
尾注标记 independent.1 The writing section accounts for 25% of the total score. International

English Language Testing System (IELTS), also assigns two writing tasks: an analysis of a chart, or a table or others and a composition about an argument. Michigan2
尾注标记 English Language Assessment Battery (MELAB), a test to measure proficiency in

advanced-level language skills for admission to English-medium colleges and universities,3 also has composition as one of its three-part test. …… The modern world requires both the ability to concentrate on one thing and the ability to attend to more than one thing at a time: “Ideally, each individual would cultivate a repertoire of styles of attention, appropriate to different situations, and would learn how to embed activities and types of attention one within another” (Bateson 1987: 97). ……

注意: 注意: 正文中引用的文献,要与正文后面 References 里面的条目一致: 里面的条目一致 的条目一致: 正文中引用的文献,要在 References 里面一

条一条列出 正文里没有出现的文献,不要放在 References 里面

空一行(小四号) 尾注内容

Times New Roman 小四号,加粗,居中


See http://www.ets.org/Media/Tests/TOEFL/pdf/TOEFL_Tips.pdf. See http://www.ielts-test.com/writing.htm. See http://www.lsa.umich.edu/eli/testing.htm.







Baker, Mona. (1992). In Other Words. London: Routledge. Campbell, Stuart. (1998). Translation into the Second Language. London and New York: Longman. Leech, Geoffrey. (2001). "The Role of Frequency in ELT". <http://www.lancaster.ac.uk/fass/ doc_library/linguistics/leechg/leech_2001.pdf>. Levinson, Stephen C. (1983). Pragmatics. London: Cambridge University Press. Sinclair, John. (1991). Corpus Concordance Collocation. London: Oxford University Press. Widdowson, H. G. (1990). Aspects of Language Teaching. London: Oxford University Press. Cai, S. (蔡思果) (1972).《翻译研究》 。台北:台湾大地出版社。 --- (蔡思果) (2000).《翻译新究》 。北京:北京对外翻译出版公司。 Chen, J.(陈嘉) (1982).《英国文学史》 。北京:北京商务印书馆。 He, G.(何刚强) (2005).《英汉口笔译技艺》 。上海:复旦大学出版社。 He, Y. & Cai, J.(何玉英、蔡金亭) (2005).《应用语言学》 。上海:上海外语教育出版社。 He, Z.(何兆熊) (2000).《新编语用学概要》 。上海:上海外语教育出版社。 Huang, C.(黄次栋) (1984). 语用学与语用失误, 《外国语》第 1 期,13-18 页。 Jiang, Q. & He, G.(姜倩、何刚强) (2008).《翻译概论》 。上海:上海外语教育出版社。 Qian, G.(钱歌川) (1972).《翻译的技巧》 。台北:台湾开明书店。 Qian, Z.(钱钟书) (1981).《林纾的翻译》 北京:北京商务出版社。 。 Shan, Q.(单其昌) (1990).《汉英翻译技巧》 。北京:外语教学与研究出版社。 Sun, W. & Wang, E.(孙万彪、王恩铭) (2006).《高级翻译教程》 。上海:上海外国语出版社。 Yang, H., Gui, S. & Yang, F.(杨惠中、桂诗春、杨达复) (2005).《基于CLEC语料库的中国学 习者英语分析》 。上海:上海外语教育出版社。 Zeng, D. & Tao, Y.(曾道明、陶友兰) (2006).《研究生英语英汉互译教程》 。上海:复旦大学 出版社。 Zhao, R.(赵蓉晖) (2005).《社会语言学》 。上海:上海外语教育出版社。 Zhao, Y.(赵永新) (1995).《语言对比研究与对外汉语教学》 。北京:北京华语教学出版社。



Discourse Comprehension Test (see 5.2) From 2004 Postgraduate Entrance Exam in China Time Limit: 40 minutes Note: The bold-faced parts are omitted in Type A

Passage 1 Hunting for a job late last year, lawyer Gant Redmon stumbled across Career Builder, a job database on the Internet. He searched it with no success but was attracted by the site’s “personal search agent”. It’s an interactive feature that lets visitors key in job criteria such as location, title, and salary, then E-mails them when a matching position is posted in the database. Redmon chose the keywords legal, intellectual property, and Washington, D.C. Three weeks later, he got his first notification of an opening. “I struck gold,” says Redmon, who E-mailed his résumé to the employer and won a position as in-house counsel for a company. With thousands of career-related sites on the Internet, finding promising openings can be time-consuming and inefficient. Search agents reduce the need for repeated visits to the databases. But although a search agent worked for Redmon, career experts see drawbacks. Narrowing your criteria, for example, may work against you: “Every time you answer a question you eliminate a possibility,” says one expert. …


对参考文献中的网上文献,有时需要手动换行,以增强美观。 对参考文献中的网上文献,有时需要手动换行,以增强美观。例如下条文献的 第二行,词与词之间的间隔太大,视觉效果不够好: 第二行,词与词之间的间隔太大,视觉效果不够好: Zhong, W. “An Overview of Translation in China: Practice and Theory” [J/OL]. Translation Journal Vol. 7. Retrieved 6 April 2006. <http://accurapid.com/journal/24china.htm>.
经过尝试,找出最佳的换行之处。如在此处 手工换行,略作加工,则效果如下:

Zhong, W. “An Overview of Translation in China: Practice and Theory” [J/OL]. Translation Journal Vol. 7. Retrieved 6 April 2006. <http://accurapid.com/ journal/24china.htm>.

注意:一定要先排序,再作人工换行等加工。 注意


在撰写致谢词时, 在撰写致谢词时,以下表达方式可作参考
(1) I would like to acknowledge my indebtedness to … (2) I should like to acknowledge with deep gratitude the assistance and guidance given to me by … (3) I gratefully acknowledge the help of … (4) I want to acknowledge the invaluable help of Mr. X, who has been my constant consultant in my writing of this essay. If there are any errors, they are not his, but all mine. (5) I would like to thank Mr. Y for his suggestions on my writing of the earlier draft. (6) I would extend my sincere thanks to my tutor … (7) I would like to take this opportunity to thank … (8) I especially appreciate the guidance of … (9) I wish to express my special appreciation of Mr. W’s help … (10) I am also indebted to the following for permission to reproduce the copy-right materials: … (11) I have a real debt of gratitude to … (12) Likewise I am grateful to … (13) Most particularly, I must thank … (14) I am in debt to … (15) My gratitude also goes to … (16) My heartfelt thanks are also due to … (17) My work also owes much to … for his encouragement and great help. (18) A real debt is owed to Mrs. X for her valuable help in my writing of the thesis. (19) My grateful thanks to all of you, most of all to … (20) The author is deeply indebted to … (21) The author’s special thanks should be given to … (22) This thesis would not have been possible without the support and assistance that I received from …


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