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www.pk4444.com:[名校联盟]浙江省温州市第十一中学高一化学《硫及含硫化合物的相互转化》课件_图文

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硫与含硫化合物的相互转化

哪些地方或哪些物质中含 硫或硫的化合物?

自然界中不同价态硫元素间的转化
大气

H2S 氧化
部分硫
火 山 爆 发

阳光 O2

H2SO3 微生物 H2SO4 还原
地表

S H2S

石膏(CaSO4· 2O) 2H 芒硝(Na2SO4· 2O) 10H
受空气中氧气、水等作用
辰 砂

S

与砷铁汞锑 等元素化合

含硫 矿物

黄 铁 矿

地下

雄 雌 黄 黄

辉 锑 矿

硫单质的化性
1、跟金属反应:能跟大多数金属反应 Fe+S=FeS (黑色) 变价金属为低价 2Cu+S=Cu2S (黑色) Hg+S=HgS 2Ag+S=Ag2S(黑色、银器变黑) 2、跟非金属反应
点燃 S+O2==SO2

3、跟其他物质反应 ①S跟碱反应 可用于清除硫 3S+6NaOH=2Na2S+Na2SO3+3H2O ②S跟强氧化剂反应 S+2H2SO4(浓)=3SO2↑+2H2O
硫是一种比较活泼的非金属单质
既可表现氧化性,又可表现还原性

二、硫化氢的性质
1.物理性质:常温下是无色、有臭鸡蛋 气味的气体,密度比空气大,1体积水 溶解2.6体积H2S。有剧毒! 2.制备:FeS+H2SO4=FeSO4+H2S↑

完成教材94页转化方程式。指出各反 应的类型(如果是氧化还原反应请同学 指出氧化剂和还原剂)
S + Hg == Hg S △ Na2SO3+H2SO4(浓)=Na2SO4+ SO2 ↑+H2O 2Na2SO3 FeS H2S + + + O2 == == = S 2Na2SO4 FeSO4 + + H2S ↑

H2SO4 Cl2

2HCl

你知道哪些含硫化合物,按化合价对它们进行分类
-2
0 +4 +6

S
FeS
H2S

S
S

S
SO2 H2SO3 Na2SO3

S
SO3
H2SO4

Na2SO4
BaSO4

最高价(+6)只有氧化性,最低价 如果从化合价的角度来考虑,物质什 (-2)只具有还原性; 中间价(0、+ 么时候具有氧化性或者还原性? 4)既具有氧化性,又具有还原性。

【整理与归纳】

FeS

+Fe

+O2

Na2SO3
+HCl

Na2SO4
+O2 +NaOH

+HCl

H2S

+O2 +Hg

S

+O2

SO2
+H2O +O2

SO3
+H2O

HgS

H2SO3

H2SO4
+Ba2+

高价氧低价还,中间价态两边兼

BaSO4 水平方向反应:氧化还原--向右氧化,向左还原 竖直方向反应:非氧化还原反应。

练习

1.下列转化需要加入氧化剂才能实现的是( AC ) A.H2S C.S SO2 SO2 B. H2SO4 D. SO32SO2 SO2

2、硫酸在下列用途或反应中各表现的性质是:
A、强酸性 B、难挥发性 C、吸水性 D、脱水性 E、强氧化性 AE (1)实验室制SO2气体________; (2)干燥H2、SO2等气体________; C (3)用铝槽车装运浓硫酸________; E (4)清洗镀件表面氧化物________; A (5)浓硫酸使湿润石蕊试纸变红, 后来又变黑______ AD

3、下列关于硫的叙述中,正确的是[ D

]

A、硫的非金属较强,故只能以化合态存在于自然界中 B、能与Cu、Fe、O2等物质反应,S作氧化剂 C、硫燃烧得SO3 ,可以制得硫酸 D、S与Cu反应生成Cu2S ,而 不能生成CuS


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