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一、名词分类 (NMET 1995 年)He gained his wealth by printing works of famous writers. 1. 多作不可数名词, art 如: (艺术) company , (陪伴) damage , (损坏) unemployment , (失业) ,health(健康) ,harm(损害/伤害) ,eyesight(视力) ,furniture(家具) , progress(进步) ,scenery(风景) ,equipment(设备) ,nature(自然) ,literature (文学) ,luggage/baggage(行李) ,advice(忠告) ,enthusiasm(热情) ,violence(暴 力,暴行) ,welfare(福利) ,work(工作) ,unrest(动乱) ,thunder(雷) ,toast(吐 司) ,treatment(治疗,处理) ,tourism(旅游业) ,transport(交通运输) ,terror(恐 惧) ,staff(全体职工) ,homework;housework,luck,music,weather,fun,soup, pressure(压力) ,insurance(保险) ,garbage(垃圾) ,laughter,traffic,trade, life(生活) ,stress(压力) ,management,tension(矛盾;对立) ,thinking(思维) , training(训练,培训) ,wildlife,wisdom,global warming。 2. 复数形式出现的名词, congratulations, 如: cheers, rags, means, news, goods, greens,irons,arms,manners,lines,belongings,ashes,glasses,greetings, jeans,series(系列) ,scissors(剪刀) ,trousers,affairs(事务) ,vegetables, beddings(寝具) 。 3. 可与不定冠词连用的名词,如:a pleasure/fortune/honor/help/shock/shame /surprise/comfort/inspiration/danger/horror/reality/tendency /invitation/introduction/satisfaction/success/failure/experience/beauty/cloth/service/glory/ pity/pr-ivilege/advantage/loan ( 贷 款 ) /fund/pension ( 养 老 金 ) /increase/decrease/memory ( 记 忆 力 ) ( 倾 向 )

/rise/drop/fall/relief/interest/hit/coincidence ( 巧 合 ) /reputation ( 名 声 ) /favorite/bargain,deal(成交) 。 4. 常与定冠词连用的名词或短语 (06 山东)21. For him the stage is just a means of making a living.

再如:the media(媒体) ,the weather,the atmosphere,the universe,the sun/ moon, the press (新闻界) the public, , the Internet, the army, the navy, the country (side) ,the bush,the air,in the morning,in the daytime,in the end, (not) in the least,in/by the way,on the whole,at the same time,at the(very)moment, go to the cinema/theatre,the other day,the old,on/to the contrary,on the point of,on the edge of;the masses(群众) 。 5. 前与不定冠词后与 of 连用的名词 area,audience,atmosphere,average, boycott(抵制) ,collection,command,knowledge,history,altitude(海拔) , height/depth/width/length,time,period,training,loss,vocabulary,mixture, salary,income,fine(罚款) ,scholarship(奖学金)(mis)understanding,score, , range,series,means,allowance(津贴) ,variety,sense,native,loan,fund(资 金) ;change,return,combination,taste(品味) ,matter,mixture,population(人 口) 。 6. 含有不定冠词的常用词组:have a look/walk/swim/quarrel/cold/chat/good time,once in a while(09) ,at a loss,for a while/time/moment,once upon a time, keep a diary(写日记) ,all of a sudden,tell a lie,do sb a favor,give sb a hand, at a mouthful,at a distance,as a matter of fact,give sb a lift(搭便车) ; drop sb a line(写短信) ,in a mess;in a dilemma;in a word,take…as an example。 7. 介词短语中的名词 ( 1 ) to one’s

knowledge/surprise/joy/satisfaction/disappointment/horror/some degree/extent (程度)/to the full(尽量地) ,to one’s taste(口味) ,to the best of one’s ability/knowledge,on a large scale(大规模) 。 (2)on purpose/time,on(the)average,on this occasion,on one’s arrival/ return/departure,on the other hand,on the spot/contrary/whole,on behalf of, on the committee/staff/ , radio/phone/Internet/screen


loan/display/show/sale/duty/ business/vacation/course(航线) 。 (3)in need/vain(徒劳)/deed/general/uniform/rags/turn(06)/tears/sight/ person (亲自) in the meantime/meanwhile; a hurry/mess/panic, detail/short/ ; in in particular/brief/conclusion/cash/bed/English;in the air/sky;in other words /reality/ public/secret/disgust/in one’s view/opinion/eyes,in terms of,in case(of) ; in search/memory/place/honor of,in the 21 century;in May/spring,in/harmony/ common/line/love with;in response to,in return for;in the event of(万一; 倘若) ;in order to/of,in any way(无论如何,在任何情况下) ,in no way(决不) 。 (4)by hand/bus/accident/coincidence/chance/design/mistake;by night/day/far; by the dozen/day/meter; (5)by birth/profession(6)from across/behind;from dawn until/till dark;from/now/then on,from…to,from side/time/generation to…(7) at will(随意,任意) ,at sight(一见) ,at any cost(不惜一切代价) ,at sea(不 知所措) at a distance , (隔一段距离) at present/random , (随意) /first/last/length, at night/midnight/dawn/dusk/noon/daybreak/sunrise/sunset/Easter/Christmas/lunch /home/most/ least,at a meeting/conference/concert/2 o’clock;at stake/war/peace /one’s best/worst,at one/a time/times/the same time/all times(near/close)at hand/at all;at sb’s expense(自费) ,at the age/bottom/beginning/end/mercy/edge/top/risk,at a profit(赢利)(8)against ; the sky; against time/the clock; against the current; against one’s will/the law/the wind,within one’s reach(09)。 (9)其他 above all;after all;apart from;beyond one’s power/expectations; within one’s reach,out of sight;for the good/sake/purpose of;for the most part, for the time being 暂时) for example, the point 切题) as usual, ( , to ( , like mad/crazy, in exchange for (交换) (07) ,at home(08) ,as a result/consequence。

off course(航线)/duty(值班)/the point(跑题) 7. 不定冠词+名词+介词 (1) visit a (or) /change/adjustment/monument/key/answer/reply/note/access/ attitude/trend/tendency trip/witness/comfort/solution/approach(手段;途径) /alternative/path/road etc to… (2)demand/need/desire/ticket/love/talent/gift/eye/ear/appetite(胃口) /change(转变)/liking/reputation enthusiasm(热情) ,responsibility/sympathy, respect/thirst etc for 动词短语(1)run for(竞选) ,charge for(收费,要价) ,be good for(有利于) , reach for(伸手去拿) ,pay for(花钱买) ,ask/answer/care/change/call(07) /fight/send/leave/start/look/make/stand for (2)arrive/come/call/fire/shoot/laugh/smile/knock at ( 3 ) agree appeal

/attach/adapt/adjust/drink/contribute/object/respond/reply/ relate/join/link/apply/apologize/give in/give way to(屈服;被取代) 动词+名词+介词+(其他) (1)make a study/summary/analysis/an outline of;make use of,make the most/best of;take advantage/notice/possession/charge/care/the place of。 (2)take part/pride/delight/sides in,bury oneself in…(专心致志于…) , spend…in/on;engage(sb)in;involve(sb)in(加入;参与) (3)pay attention to;pay a visit to;devote one’s energies/time to;set a fire to,limit sth to;sentence sb to。 (4)fix one’s eyes/attention/thought/energies on/upon, busy oneself with; concern oneself with/about(对……感兴趣) ,announce/explain sth to sb;charge sb with;accuse sb of;rob/inform/warn/remind sb of;compare…to/with,put sth into practice/force/effect,put sth to(good)use,find fault with(挑毛病) , set light to(点燃) ,pick holes in(挑毛病) ,give birth to(生育) 。

(5)comment/agree/go/keep/insist/decide/settle(选定)hit/call on ( 6 ) come/arise ( 产 生 ) /benefit/evolve ( 进 化 )

/escape/free/die/keep/learn/hear /date/suffer/prevent,prohibit/stop…from, 。 3. 动词+介词+名/代词+介词+其他 turn/apply to sb/sth for sth ; apologize to sb for ;

debate/argue/negotiate/quarrel with sb about/over sth,agree/compromise(妥协) with sb on sth。 4. 动词+介词(副词) approve of(赞成) ,add up/to;add up to;act/work/serve as;answer for; allow for(考虑到) ,break in/out/up/down/off;burst into/out;begin/start/(up) with;believe in;call in/at/on(upon)/for;catch on,cheat sb(out)of sth, consist in/of;clear up;do up/about/with;deal with;depend/rely/count on; die of/from/for/out/away;draw up/near;drink to;drop in on/at…;fall behind; get away with/from;get in/up/down/on/off;give off/up;give out(05)go in for; go for 适用,go against(违背) ,go with/over/about;hold up/on(to)/out;keep up/off;lead to,lie in,look for/up/after into;look down on;look up to(尊 敬) ;look back(on) ;look forward to;make up/for,make sense(of) ;put/set aside ( 忽 视 ; 积 蓄 ) 留 拨 ( 08 ) put away/back/out/up/in/off/on/up with ; take ; ; after/apart/away/back/down/in/off/on/over/to (开始喜欢; 养成习惯) take up ; (06) , happen to,become of(发生) ,keep to,fit in(适合) (09) 。 be+形容词/过去介词/介词 1. bored/content/honest/generous/concerned/lined/filled/mixed/friendly/ covered/loaded/occupied/patient/satisfied/popular/familiar with 2. be independent/free/accused/proud/full/fond/forgetful/afraid/aware(意 识) ,ashamed(耻辱)of…


3. be sensitive/accustomed/used(习惯的)/addicted/married/engaged/exposed opposed/equal/parallel/relevant/harmful/similar/familiar/senior/junior/super ior/inferior/opposite/kind/rude/good/friendly/polite/loyal/thankful/grateful /allergic(过敏;变应)/convenient(方便) (08)to… 4. be curious/enthusiastic/mad/crazy/particular/mistaken/modest(谦虚的) / cautious(谨慎的)honest/hopeful/ignorant about 5. be bad/good/famous/fit/suitable/thankful/grateful/appropriate for 6. be based on;be freed of/from 零冠词常用短语:day and night,husband and wife,father and son,pen and ink, master and servant;life and death face to face;shoulder to shoulder;side by side,step by step,from top to bottom;from beginning to end,at midnight,in/to/at/from work,out of mind, catch sight of ,come to light,give rise to,give birth to,watch TV,in case of fire,come to power,leave/take office(就任;执政) ,in office(任职) ,hold office(担任职务) ;head office(总部) ,run for office/give and take,bring sb back to life,supply and demand,cause and effect;from bad to worse,back and forth,heart and soul,safe and sound,day after/by day,hour and hour,here and there,now and then(again) ,little by little,step by step;by and by(不久; 很快) 动词+名/代词+介词+名/代词 present sb with sth;present sth to sb;provide sb with sth;provide sth for sb;supply sb with sth;supply sth to /for sb;inspire sb with sth;inspire sth in sb 后跟不定式作宾语的动词 agree,afford,arrange,attempt,bother,claim,hesitate,consent(同意) , decide,determine,demand,offer,promise,guarantee,undertake,tend,trouble,

seek/manage(2010),volunteer to do sth。 后跟带 to 的不定式作补语的动词 advise/allow/ask/beg/cause/encourage/expect/forbid/force/get/intend/invi te/like/love/order/persuade/prefer/require/teach/tell/urge/want/warn/wish/th ink/wait for, vote for/call on/appeal to/call for/arrange for sb to do 后跟动名词作宾语的动词或短语 admit/allow/avoid/advise/advocate/appreciate/consider/deny/delay/enjoy/e scape/fancy/finish/involve/forbid/imagine/keep/mind/miss/pardon/suggest/risk /put off/ keep on/can’t help/resist,feel like,insist on/get down to/pay attention to/have difficulty/trouble ( in ) get/accustomed/used to , set about , devote … to ; , lead/object/stick to;can’t stand (for) ;go about(忙于;继续) ,look forward to。

虚拟语气 1. 下列单词及其转化词用于名词性从句中(主从,宾从,表从,同位从句)使用动 词用(should)+动词原形 advise/advocate/suggest demand/request/require/desire/urge/insist/recommend 2. wish/would rather 后跟从句用虚拟,动词时态退一级 3. It is(high/about)time that 从句中用虚拟 4. It is important/necessary/natural/strange that S+(should)+动词原形 倒装结构 1. 副词:here/there/up/down/in/out(表地点的介词短语提前,全倒装) 。 2. 否定词(短语)提前使用助动词部分倒装。 not,never,seldom,rarely,hardly,scarcely,not until,neither…nor,no way,no sooner…than;hardly/scarcely…when,by no means,on no account;in/ under no circumstances(决不) ;at no time,on no condition;in no case。

与反身代词连用的结构 by oneself 独自 in oneself 在本质上 to oneself 独自享用

for oneself 亲自;absent/be/behave/come to/busy/boast/devote/concern/ enjoy/dress/find/help/introduce/make/seat/occupy/teach/congratulate/throw/fo rget/qualify oneself (使自己胜任…) /involve oneself (参与) in…/accustom oneself to doing sth。 如:I’m forgetting myself. I haven’t offered you a drink yet. 我有点不成体统。 易考 it 习惯归纳: forget it(没有关系;别提了;休想,闭嘴) make it(成功;及时赶到) go for it(努力争取) ; that/this is it got it(知道/明白)

catch it(受到惩罚) like/love/appreciate/prefer/hate/dislike it;

被动语态及主动表被动的情形 1. 常见被动结构: be hurt/get ruined; sell well; handle well 易操作)cut/dry/open/close easily; ( , be easy to do;sth needs /wants/requires doing sth. 3. 系 动 词

feel/look/sound/taste/smell/appear/seem/go/come/wear/prove/turn/ stay/become/fall/grow+adj+n;run。 4. 介短表被动, under control/treatment/repair/discussion/construction; 如: beyond/belief/one’s reach/control/hope;for sale/rent;in print/sight/use;on sale/show/display/trial;out of sight/control/one’s reach。 5. 表被动的形容词, be accessible/admirable/attractive/available/chang如: eable/enjoyable/familiar (to sb) popular , (with sb) /fragile/honorable/outspoken

/portable/unbearable/unbelievable/welcome/reliable/dependable/respectable/af forda -ble/countable/dependable/acceptable(07)/adorable 6. 表被动的动词 serve as,run out of;give out;come out(被出版) ;come true(被实现) 引导三大从句的连词分类 1. 定语从句 关系代词:who,whom,whose(2010),that,which(09) ,as; 关系副词:when,where,why 2. 状语从句 (1)时状 when,as,while,before,after,as soon as,the moment/minute/instant, immediately,directly,till,until,not until,the first/second/last/next time; another/next time; instantly, hardly/scarcely…when, sooner…then, no every/each time; (ever)since (2)地状:where(09) (3)原状:because,since,now that,as,when(既然) ,seeing that(鉴于) , in that(因为) 。 (4)条状:if(09),unless(2010) ,suppose,supposing,provided,providing, as long as,once(一旦) 。 (5)让状从 although, though,as,no matter what/when/where/who/how, what/where/however,even if(though) (6)结果状从:so/such……that (7)目的状从:so that(09) ,in case,for fear that,such that (8)方式状从: how/as if (thought) ,as (9)比较状从 than,as/so…as;the+比较级;the 比较级 3. 名词从句 3. 连词 that,whether (if) ,连接代词 who(ever) (07) ,which(ever) (06) ,

what(ever) (05/08/2010) ,连接副词 when,where,how,why 同义词联想分类(动词或短语) include=take in 包含/括 employ/take on(雇佣) forgive/excuse/pardon maintain/keep up consume/use up;run out of explode/set off(vt)/go off(vi) abandon/desert handle vt./deal with/cope with consider/think about arrest(吸引)/attract/appeal to gain/put on 增加 omit/leave out gain/put on 增加 succeed/pay off/make it violate/break doubt/suspect(相信) begin with/end with accommodate/put up(提供住宿) clarify/make clear continue/go on(with) persuade/get round/talk…into approve/grant 同意/批准 depress/cast down(使…沮丧) calculate/figure out ( 计 算 )

acknowledge/admit(承认) put/turn out(熄灭)vt/go out vi examine/look at(over) explain/account for assume(承担)/undertake agree to/approve of/stand for realize vt/come true(vi) exhaust/tire(wear)out stop(停止)/leave off refer to/speak of/mention 提(说)起 know well/be familiar with reward/pay off 回报;有好结果 charge(指控)/accuse ring back/call back stress/emphasize classify/sort out(分类) donate/give away 捐赠 despise/look down on raise/put up(forward)提出 betray/give away 暴露(身份) ruin/destroy/damage turn off(vt)/go out(关熄) consume/use up vt/give out vi(用完/耗尽) publish vt/bring out vt/come out

produce/turn out(生产) take/enter/go in for 参加(考试) sink/go down refuse/turn down prove/turn out(结果是) disgust/bore/turn off(使……厌烦) oppose/be(go)against come across/meet with get…across/be understood undertake/take on(承担) rob/hold up(抢劫) ignore/put aside(忽视) would/used to(过去)常常 abandon/give up approach/come up/draw near foresee/predict praise: speak (think) well/highly of die:pass away establish/set up investigate/look into 反义词联想分类: turn up/turn down give up/take up cry/laugh fall/rise ignore/pay no attention to/pass over

vi/release(发布) run out of vt/run out(vi) arrive/turn up(到达;露面) happen/come about(发生,产生) delay/hold up(耽搁;延迟) follow/chase/go after turn off/turn out(关掉,熄灭) overcome/get over go for/attack(袭击) overcome/get over go for/apply to(适用于) come true(vi)/realize(vt) matter/count figure in=include=take in/cover launch:send up mention:refer to symbolize:stand for cover/deal with(涉及) deposit/put down(放下) approach/come up(near)

put off/put forward marry/divorce pay off/come to nothing(毫无结果) put up/take down(余下) include/exclude(排除)

put on/take off praise/scold destroy/build

demand/supply rise/set(日落) admit/reject(拒收) dirty/clean

calculate/figure out(计算) appear/disappear adopt/desert(抛弃) earn/lose begin/end believe/doubt teach/learn comfort/disturb exist/die calm/disturb connect/separate waste/save float/sink forget/remember freeze/boil give/take plant/harvest hide/discover hurry/delay keep/desert link/part win/lose

attack/defend make up/divide into enlarge/reduce excite/calm borrow/lend damage/repair pick up/put down(放下) open/close lose/find destroy/rebuild gain(快)/lose(表)慢 fail/succeed follow/lead forgive/punish gain/lose go/come hate/love hit/miss join/part teach/learn join/separate offer/accept

offer/charge(要价) permit/forbid pollute/clean reach/leave separate/combine sit/stand waste/save wake/sleep hold on/ring off(挂断电话) collapse/stay up(挺住) 其它搭配: make /fight/push/one’s way try/do one’s best lose one’s life/sight change one’s mind take one’s time take one’s temperature put one’s heart(into) make up one’s mind lose one’s sight speak one’s mind 说心里话 辨析角度复习词汇 1. 差一冠词,意义不同: in charge of 负责 in possession of 占有 by sea 乘船 out of question 没问题

owe/pay play/work pull/push rain/wind settle(安定)/remove protect/damage unite/divide pardon/punish be in vain/pay off(be rewarded)

save one’s life use one’s head earn/make one’s living follow one’s example take one’s seat/place send one’s wishes set one’s mind(on) read one’s mind/thoughts(洞悉某人心思) beg one’s pardon

in the charge of 由……负责 in the possession of 为……所占有 by the sea 在海边 out of the question 不可能

at table 在吃饭 2. 有无介词,意义不同: answer 回答 search 对人、物或场所搜查 leave 离开某地

at the table 在桌边

answer for 对……负责、偿还 search for 搜寻人、物或场所 leave for 离开去某地 reach for 伸手去拿 enter for 报名参加 run for 竞选 stand for 代表,支持 prepare for 为……做准备

reach 到达 enter 进入 run 经营;跑 stand 站;忍受 pay 付钱、债给某人 3. 词序颠倒,意义不同: before long 不久以后 much too 非常,修饰形容词或副词

long before 很久以前

too much 太多,修饰名词,也可作名词短语用 turn in 上交;就寝(动词短语) hand in 上交(动词短语) work hard 努力工作(动词短语) from far 来自远方 in turn 按次序,轮流(介词短语) in hand 在手边(介词短语) hard work 艰难的工作(名词短语) far from 离得远;远非

if only 要是……就好了(常用虚拟语气) only if 只要(使用陈述语气) much as 尽管很 4. 是分是合,意义不同: so as to 以便(表目的) sometimes 有时 sometime 某个时候 everyday 日常的(形容词,作定语) altogether 总共,完全 so…as to 如此……以致(表结果) some times 几次 some time 一段时间 every day 每天(名词短语,作状语) all together 一道,一起 as much 和……一样多

everyone 每个人(指人,不可接 of 短语) every one 每一个(指人或物,可接 of 短语) none 没有(可指人或物,可接of 短语) no one 没有(指人,不可接of 短语) 5. 有无-ly 的副词不同:

(1)wide 宽 (2)deep 深 (3)high 高 (4)low 位置低 (5)close 靠近地 (6)hard 努力,使劲地

widely 广泛地 deeply 深深地 highly 高度地 lowly 地位卑微地 closely 密切地 hardly 几乎不