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Members of sentence(句子成分与结构)_图文

--Members of Sentence

Members of Sentence
主语
谓语

Subject
Predicate

宾语

Object Predicative
Attribute Adverbial Appositive

宾语补足语 Object Complement

表语
定语 状语 同位语

I met my best friend Tom at the station yesterday. ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ ↓ 主 谓 定 宾 同 状 语 语 语 语 位 语 语

Subject
1. 主语:是一个句子的主干部分之一,主语表 明是“什么人” , “ 什么事”.通常由名词, 代词,动词不定式, 动名词, 主语从句来充当. 1.Lucy likes her new bike. 2.We work hard. 3.To learn a foreign language is not easy. 4.Playing football after school is great fun. 5.What he has said is true.

Predicate
2.谓语:说明主语做什么或怎么样。通常由 动词充当.动词常分为实义动词,连系动词, 情态动词和助动词.
1.They work very hard. 2.Tom feels much better now. (系动词:表示状态,后面往往接形容词 seem, get, is, am, are, sound, smell, look, become)

情态动词和助动词不能单独充当谓语, 必须和实义动词或系动词一起构成谓语.


They can speak English well.
They are playing over there.

Object
3.宾语:动作行为的对象,说明主语做什么。 一般放在及物动词或介词后面.由名词, 代词, 动词不定式, 动名词和宾语从句构成.
1.We study English. 2.I saw him yesterday.

3.He wanted to have a pen.
4.She likes playing basketball.

5.Our teacher said that he would go there.
△双宾语:指人的是间接宾语,指物的是直接宾语。

He gave me two books. (give, buy, bring, lend, offer, send, show, teach, tell, ask...)

Object Complement
4. 宾补:补充说明宾语。 (宾语和宾补之间有逻辑上的主谓关系) 宾语+ 宾补叫复合宾语,复合宾语有以 下几种类型:

1. 名词(代词)+ 不定式 2. 名词(代词)+ 分 词

3. 名词(代词)+ 名 词
4. 名词 (代词)+ 形容词

1. 名词(代词)+ 不定式
John asked me to help him.

2.名词(代词)+ 分词
(现在分词表示主动,过去分词表示被动) I found him standing at the gate . He spoke loudly in order to make himself heard.

3.名词(代词)+ 名词
(作宾补的表示独一无二的职位前不加the.) They made him captain of the ship.

4.名词(代词)+ 形容词
We must keep the room clean.

Predicative
5. 表语:跟在连系动词后面的词语或 从句,用来说明主语的身份,特征,状态. My sister is a nurse.
The trees turn green. The flower is beautiful . To see is to believe . The book is what I need.

Attribute
6.定语:用来修饰名词或代词的词.形容词, 形容词性物主代词,名词,不定式,现在分词, 过去分词,介词短语,从句等. 1.This is a red car. 2.The building is their teaching building. 3.The woman doctor is my wife. 4.I have something to tell you. 5.The girl standing under the tree is his daughter. 6.His spoken language is good. 7.The man in front of the gate is Mr. Li. 8.Do you know the man who spoke just now?

Adverbial
7.状语:说明动作或状态特征. 用来修饰动 词,形容词,副词或整个句子.可表示时间,地点, 原因,结果,目的,方式,伴随,条件,程度,让步等.
You are quite right. They often draw in the park. We came here in order to learn English. If it rains tomorrow, we will stay at home.

Appositive
8.同位语:在由两个或两个以上的语法单位 组成的结构中,如果其中的前项与后项的所 指相同,句法功能也相同,这种结构被称为 同位结构,其中的后项被称为前项的同位语。

1.Your classmate Vicky and I have the same favorite singers. 2.Do you like this job, teaching English?

请说出下列斜体部分的句子成分
1.He seems to know something about it. Predicate 2.The theory is very convincing. Predicative 3.To drink unboiled water is anything but safe. Subject 4.Please notice the words below. Attribute 5.Temperature can be measured easily. Adverbial 6.There is nothing wrong with the watch. Attribute 7.He sent me a letter. Object 9. We found the container empty. Object Complement 13.That’s all that I want to say. Attribute 14.He has two children, a boy and a girl. Appositive

简单句的五种基本句型

(simple sentence)
1. 主语+谓语(不及物动词)(S+Vi)
He came. She dances. 2. 主语+谓语(及物动词)+宾语 (S+Vt+O) I saw her. They like watching TV.

3. 主语+ 谓语+ 间接宾语+直接宾语 (S+Vt+IO+DO) (IO indirect) I gave her a book. She showed her friends all the pictures.

4. 主语+连系动词+表语(S+V+P)
I am a student. She looks very young.

5. 主语+谓语+宾语+宾补(S+Vt+O+OC)
We call our headmaster a wise man. I asked Mary to help me.

请说出下列句子类型。
? 1.Summer is coming. S+Vi ? 2.They won’t let me go. S+V+O+C ? 3.He showed me a new TV set. S+V+IO+DO S+V+O ? 4.She knows what to do. ? 5.The weather is very cold. S+V+P

Sentence patterns Simple sentence 简单句 Compound sentence 并列句

We help them and they help us.
Complex sentence 复合句 He said that he would visit you.

Types 1. Declarative sentence 陈述句 My bag is pink. 2. Interrogative sentence 疑问句 What colour is your bag? 3. Imperative sentence 祈使句 Let’s begin. 4. Exclamatory sentence 感叹句 What a fine day it is today!

Parts of speech 词类 / 词性
名词 noun (n.) ~人和事物的名称

代词 pronoun (pron.)
形容词adjective (adj.) 数词numeral (num.) 动词 verb (v.) 副词 adverb [adv.]

~代替名词的词
~修饰名词的词 ~表示多少和第几的词 ~表示动作和状态 ~修饰动词 ,形容词和副词的词

冠词article (art.) 连词conjunction (conj.)

~说明名词所指的人或物 ~连接词、短语和句子的词

介词 preposition(prep.)~表示名词与其它词的关系 感叹词interjection (inter.) ~表示感情的词