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Liaoning Normal University
( 2016 届 )

本 科 生 毕 业 论 文 (设 计 )

题 学 专

目: 记忆策略在英语学习中的应用 院: 外国语学院 业: 英语(师范)

班级序号: 1 班 18 号 学 号: 20121154010155

学生姓名: XX 指导教师: XX

2016 年 5 月

The Application of Memory Strategy in English Learning
Li Qian

A Paper Submitted In Partial Fulfillment for the Requirements of the Degree of

BACHELOR OF ARTS

School of Foreign Languages LIAONING NORMAL UNIVERSITY May, 2016

每 段 缩进 5 格或 1 个制 表符(TAB) Memory is the most important factor in one’s intelligence,and most people get good 的 距 离。 中 文缩进 2 个 memory by means of proper training. Memory also plays an important part in English 字符。

英 文 摘 要 标 题 Abstract: (12pt, Arial,加粗,居中) 上空 2 行,下空 1 行

英文摘要正文 (12pt, Times New Roman)

Abstract

teaching. Thus nowadays many foreign language teachers unify memory strategy into the

process of English teaching and obtain the remarkable teaching effect. The application of memory strategy has been studied from different perspectives, for example, from psycholinguistics' perspective, the cognitive psychology perspective, and from the linguistics perspective. However, no matter what methods the teacher uses, the final goal is to help the students to use the appropriate memory strategy to improve the efficiency of English learning. By clarifying something about the content of memory theory, elaborating the memory effect of learning under different stages and the important factors of affecting memory, this paper aims to point out the classification of memory strategy, analyzing the memorization of vocabulary, sentence and discourse. It also discusses how the teachers apply memory strategy to teaching practice and unifies the characteristics of original teaching. Keywords: English learning; memory; memory strategy(注意:关键词 3-5 个,词与词之 间用分号分开,除专有名词外,其他单词首字母不大写)

摘要是论文内容的简要陈述,是一篇完整的、可以独立使用的短文,因而必须具有自含性,即:读 者即使不阅读论文的全文也可以从摘要中获得必要的、与论文等量的信息,以判断有无必要阅读全 文。 摘要一般应包括 (1)研究题目的选择理由和目的; (2)研究的方法或者过程; (3)研究的发现或者成果; (4)结论。 用英文撰写的本科论文应符合国际上对学位论文摘要的通行标准, 英文摘要长度:不超过350个单词,中文摘要应与英文摘要一致。

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记忆力是一个人的智力因素中最重要的部分, 大部分人的良好的记忆力是训练出来 的。同时,记忆在英语教学中起到很重要的作用,由此,现今许多外语教师在教课的过 程中利用记忆策略与英语教学相结合都得到了显著的教学效果。 很多国内外教育家从不 同角度提出了记忆策略的应用,例如,从心理语言学的角度,从认知心理学角度以及从 语言学的角度进行研究。然而,无论教师采用什么方式教学,最终目的都是希望帮助学 生使用合适的记忆策略提高英语学习效率。 本文通过简明阐述了记忆理论方面的内容, 以及论述不同个体在不同阶段学习的记 忆效果和影响学习者记忆效果的重要因素,指出记忆策略的分类,分析英语单词、句子 和语篇的记忆学习过程, 并探讨教师如何把记忆策略应用到教学实践中并与原教学特点 结合。

关键词:英语学习; 记忆; 记忆策略

中文摘要英语英文摘要在内容上完全一致。

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下空一行 每一章 序号和 标题的 字体用 Arial (中文 用黑体) 12 pt

Table of Contents

Table of Contents 居 中 ( Arial , 12pt ,加 粗) ;上空2行,下空1 行(1.5倍行距) (中文论文使用黑 体、小三、加粗) ,

I. INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................. 1 II. LITERATURE REVIEW .................................................................................... 2 2.1 The Concept of Memory................................................................................................ 2 2.2 Stages of Memory...........................................................................................................3 2.3 Standard Model of Memory............................................................................................4 2.4 Influences of Forgetting..................................................................................................5 III. THE APPLICATION OF MEMORY STRATEGY ...................................... 7

二级标 题、 Times New Roman、 12pt 不 加粗、 缩 进 3 个 字母,每 个单词 首字母 大写

3.1 Strategies of Memory.....................................................................................................7 3.1.1 The definition of memory strategy..........................................................................7 3.1.2 The classification of memory strategy....................................................................8 3.1.3 Strategies of memory for different individuals......................................................9 3.2 The Application of Memory Strategy for English Acquisition....................................10 3.2.1 The process of English acquisition........................................................................11 3.2.2 The memorization of English vocabulary..............................................................11 3.2.2.1 Pronouncing...............................................................................................11 3.2.2.2 Picture/Imagery..........................................................................................11 3.2.2.3 Word formation..........................................................................................12

三级标 3.2.3 The memorization of English sentence.................................................................12 题、 Times 3.2.3.1 Pure repetition: rote learning......................................................................12 New Roman、 3..2.3.2 Paring..........................................................................................................12 12pt, 不 3.2.3.3 Chunk construction.....................................................................................13 加粗、 缩 进 6 个 3.2.4 The Memorization of English Discourse...............................................................13 字母, 只 3.2.4.1 Method of loci.............................................................................................13 有第一 个单词 3.2.4.2 Organization................................................................................................14 首字母 3.2.4.3 Association..................................................................................................14 大写, 专 有 名 词IV. CONCLUSION ......................................................................................... ....... 15 除外

WORKS CITED........................................................................................................................16 ACKNOWLEGEMENTS.........................................................................................................18

目次页由论文的章节、附录等的序号、标题和页码组成,不必包括Abstract和中文摘要。
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用英文撰写的论文: ? (一级标题)的序号应用英文数字或者罗马数字,如ⅠⅡIII。 ? 如正文二级标题(节)及二级以下标题用阿拉伯数字编排序号,如3.1、3.1.2等,则 目次页应列出这些标题、序号、页码。 ? 如正文二级标题没有序号,则目次页不必列出这些标题。 用中文撰写的论文编码层次应依次使用:一、二……,1、2……,1) 、2)……,也可以使用1.1、 1.2、1.3的格式。 ? 章节的标题必须与正文中的标题相一致。 ? 目次间的行距为1.5倍行距,但同一目次换行时应为单倍行距。

? 每一章序号和标题的字体用 Arial(中文用黑体)12 pt,其余 的序号和标题用 Times New Roman 12 pt。章节必须逐级缩进, 页码必须右对齐。
如图1.1所示。 图1.1:目次页
Ⅷ CONCLUSION · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·180 8.1 Major Findings· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·180 8.1.1 Effects of input frequency · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·180 8.1.2 Effects of output frequency · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·181 8.1.3 Delayed effects · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·182 8.2 Implications · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·184

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I. INTRODUCTION Through the observation of the students’ language learning process, it is discovered that many students can not remember English words effectively. One reason is that they adopt a mechanical method to memorize the words or sentences. So if the students want to make a
段落首 行: 缩进 5格或1 个制表 符 (TAB) 的距离。 中文缩 进 2 个字 符。 正文行 距 : 1.5 倍, times new roman 12pt

great progress in learning foreign language, it is important for people to apply the appropriate strategies of memory in the learning process. In the past decades, many educational experts have done the researches about memory, including the individual memory system, the memory process as well as the memory rules. These efforts have facilitated the study of memory strategy and its advancement. Therefore, in chapter two, there is an introduction to the concept of memory, stages of memory, standard model of memory and influences of forgetting. Based on memory theory, chapter three elaborates something about memory strategies, including the development of memory strategy, the definition of memory strategy and the classification of memory strategy. There is also a part about strategies of memory for different individuals, which explains the specific methods that an individual could use to study, because everyone learns in a different way. Meanwhile, in the process of English acquisition, this paper illustrates a special language processing which is called “The Components of Language Processing” (Garman 137), and tries to find out how to unify memory strategy into English learning. As a foreign language teacher, it is important to teach the students how to use memory strategies to learn effectively. According to different characteristics of vocabulary, sentence and discourse, there are several memory strategies for each one to highlight the actual application of them in English learning process and tackle students' memorization problem. Therefore, the application of memory strategy in the foreign language learning will be presented in the last part.
英文:正文用Times New Roman 12 pt(中文部分使用宋体小四号) 。 ? 章节标题:字型:英文用Arial 加粗(中文论文使用黑体字型) , 字号:英文用 12pt(中文字号小四) 。 ? 章节题目、图表、附录中的文字以及页码的字体可根据需要调整大小,一般用Arial 加粗或者(中文)黑体。 ? 段落首行:缩进5格或1个制表符(TAB)的距离。中文缩进2个字符。 ? 正文行距:1.5倍。

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论文正文第二页起 加页眉。Times New Roman 小五

The Application of Memory Strategy in English Learning

II. LITERATURE REVIEW As what has been pointed out in many materials, memory and language learning have long been the interest of psychologists and psycholinguists, but it still remains a comparatively worthy explored area. Many researchers have made their contribution and their constructive researches to pave the way for the present thesis. This part will deal with the basic study of memory.

2.1 The Concept of Memory Cognitive psychology has made substantial contributions to the theory of learning and instruction. It presents that human learning is a complex activity, when they are learning they receive, store, integrate, retrieve, and use vast amounts of information. Though memory seems to be understood easily, there are too many definitions for memory. Different psychologists in different times defined it from different points of view. “Memory is the ability to recover information about past events or knowledge and it deals with the process of recovering information about past events or knowledge” (Reber 265). According to Chen Xianchun, “the process of memory can be divided into four links: memorization, retention, recall and recognition. People will remember first and then recall”(126).Memorization and retention are to remember. Recognition or reproduction is to recall. Cognitive reconstruction also indicates that memory is the main storage mechanism of human cognitive system and is a skill whose performance depends on application, on practice, and on regular training. Everyone has a first-class memory; and everyone can train and improve its efficiency. In short, memory has to do with recalling and using the retention of information over time. As memory has a great influence on difficulties in English learning, such as the long-term retention of words, the forgetting of words etc, many efforts have been expanded at identifying a variety of ways of English learning. Memory for English not only involves the memory of pronunciation and spelling, but also involves the memory of meanings, collocations and uses in different contexts. Therefore, in the following parts, memory theory will be introduced in detail.
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The Application of Memory Strategy in English Learning

2.2 Stages of Memory Psychologists consider memory as the process by which people encode, store, and retrieve information. These three stages are not only essential to the process of memory of English knowledge, but also important to the efficiency of memorizing English. Encoding refers to learning the material in the first place, taking information from the environment and storing it in long-term memory. It also refers to acquiring new arrangements of knowledge by using the existing knowledge. Encoding is an important part in the process of learning. In this aspect, the teacher could strengthen the consciousness of students’ memory by using consciousness and unconsciousness to achieve the teaching aim. Storage is keeping the material until it is needed. At this stage, the more orderly the information is stored, the easier it is for people to retrieve. The more accurate and complete the information, the better the chance of retrieval will be. There are two conditions to decide how well the information is stored: intensity and frequency. Intensity is related to the vividness of the information and the meaningfulness of the information and the emotion and association in the learner's mind. For instance, it usually takes little time to remember colorful things; it is also easy to remember the content that makes you feel happy. Frequency refers to the times of the information representation. The more frequently one experience with something, the better it s memory.
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The Application of Memory Strategy in English Learning

III. The APPLICATION OF MEMORY STRATEGY During the process of English learning, an overall goal for students is to develop automatic strategy use, as this increases efficiency when learning and studying. While in English teaching, teachers pay attention to what memory strategies to choose and they also should know how to apply them for different learners flexibly. In this chapter, the thesis will present the definitions of memory strategy, its classification and strategies for different individuals. Most important, the application of memory strategy in learning vocabulary, sentence and discourse will be discussed.

3.1 Strategies of Memory Memory theory lays down theoretical foundation for the content of how to teach the techniques, principles and methods of memorization, and memory strategy has been studied for a significant progress. Following are the introduction of memory strategy, including the definition and classification of it. 3.1.1 Definitions of memory strategy Memory strategy mainly refers to the cognitive activity and the behavioral activity which
三级标题、 human intend to enhance the memory operational effect under the conscious control. The 上下不空 cognitive psychology research thought the differences of individual memory may greatly sum 行

up to the different memory strategies and how individuals use them. They will directly influence the speed and the quality of one’s memory.
Flavell and his colleagues concluded three stages for the development of memory strategy: 1. People have no strategy; 2.People can not apply the strategy initiatively at first, but after the induction, they can use the memory strategy; 3.People can use the strategy initiatively. Therefore, at early points in the acquisition of memory strategies, children use a strategy when adults instruct them to use the strategy but they do not generate the strategies spontaneously. It shows dramatic improvement when children can effectively use memory strategies. The deliberate tactics for remembering develop over a lengthy period that spans the elementary and middle school years. When they are fully acquired, strategies are applied spontaneously in a wide array of task settings.

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The Application of Memory Strategy in English Learning

IV. CONCLUSION This paper is a tentative study on the application of memory strategy in the learning of English. In theory, major theories of memory provide a solid theoretical foundation for this study. On the basis of these theories, there is a study of memory strategies and examples are exploited to illustrate the application of the major memory strategies in the study of English words, sentence and discourse. According to the above analysis and research, teachers would consciously adopt different memory theories and techniques to train and instruct students in the process of English teaching, which will greatly shorten the cognitive process from words to sentences then to the discourse. Language learning is the encoding and decoding process of two languages and the internalization of two different cultures. Good memory is essential to English learning. It seems that reciting English words, sentences and discourse is foolish but actually is most effective. Enhancing students' memory ability becomes one of important teaching goals. Trained by scientific memory methods, most students will arrive at surprising achievement during a period time. However, not every memory strategy is effective to all learners. It depends on different learners using different memory techniques and different teachers adopting different memory strategies to instruct their students. Thus, it becomes necessary for the English teachers to learn some basic memory theories and techniques. The study of application of memory strategy can make contributions to English learning in China. When using the memory strategy, the learners must elaborate new information to an unusual extent. That is to say, the memory strategy enhances learning by facilitating positive transfer from existing knowledge to the acquisition of new knowledge. The combination of memory strategy with English learning may play an important role in class, but we must recognize that the use of memory strategy is one skill that must be developed by the learners. The effectiveness of memory strategy depends on the expertise and ability of the learners tested. A distinct set of skills may have to be developed in teachers both for training students to use memory techniques and for creating special techniques. Teachers

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居中, Arial, 12pt, Learning 上空 The Application of Memory Strategy in English 两行,下空一行

MLA “参考文献”格式范例 WORKS CITED Ashcraft, M.H. Human memory and cognition (2nd ed.). New York: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1989.
引用同一 作者的多 个 作 品 时,用横 线代替作 者名.同一 年份的加

Bower. G.H. A selective review of organizational factors in memory. New York: Academic Press, 1972. Faulkner, William. Absalom, Absalom! New York: The Modern Library, 1936. —— The Sound and the Fury. Middlesex: Penguin, 1964. Dornyei, Z. The Psychology of the Language Learner: Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2005. Garman, M. Psycholinguistics. Peking: Peking University Press, 2002. S1avin, R.E. Educational Psychology: Theory & Practice. Beijing: Peking University Press, 2004.
Stewart, Donald C. “What Is an English Major, and What Should It Be?” College Composition and Communication 40 (1989): 188-202.

a,b,c

Thompson, I. Memory in Language Learning. New York: Prentice Hall, 1987. 注:英文的书名和期刊斜体。 文献数目要不少于 20 个,最好选取新近出版和发表了。
编撰的书籍(Edited book)若是一位编撰者用 ed;多位用 eds MLA: Kerckhove, Derrick de, and Charles J. Lumsden, eds. The Alphabet and the Brain: The Lateralization of Writing. Berlin Springer-Verlag, 1988. 翻译的书籍(Translated book) MLA: Lacan, Jacques. Ecrits: A Selection. Trans. Alan Sheridan. New York: Norton, 1977. 注意在此规范里,翻译者的名和姓不需要改变次序。

为编写方便英文作品排在前面,中文作品放在后面

蔡世文.联想思维在外语词汇教学中的运用.河南职业技术师范学院学报,2002. 陈贤纯.外语阅读教学与心理学.北京:语言文化大学出版社,1998.

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The Application of Memory Strategy in English Learning

桂诗春.记忆和英语学习.外语界,2003,(3):25-27. 高文.建构主义学习的特征.外国教育资料,1999,(1). 韩志伟.记忆策略研究综述.上海教育科研,2001,(12):66-68. 王影.科学运用记忆规律帮助学生提高学习效率.中国科教创刊,2008,(5):125-127. 欣茨曼.学习与记忆心理学(韩进之等译).沈阳:辽宁科学技术出版社,1986. 杨治良等.记忆心理学.上海:华东师范大学出版社,1999.

注:汉语的标点和括号都要在英文输入状态下输入。

参考文献页留有页眉。

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

注:致谢页没有页眉。

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文献引用: 文献引用必须注明出处,这直接反映论文作者对所涉领域的把握和治学态度。文献引用应遵照下列 规范: ? 引用规范:按专业方向的不同一般分为MLA(the Modern Language Association,人文 科学常用)和APA(the American Psychological Association,社会科学常用)两类, 区别在于次序、大小写、缩写、标点等细节上。英语专业学位论文撰写人应该根据MLA的 要求,格式上做到前后一致。 ? 引文出处:使用括号夹注的方法(一般不使用脚注或者尾注) 。正文中,括号夹注放 在句末标点以内,但不得放在引文的引号以内(见图3.1) 。引语段(block quotation) 的括号夹注不属于单句,因而不得将其放在句末的标点以内(见图3.2) 。 图3.1:括号夹注在正文中的使用方法 不规范: Her idea is further confirmed that Her idea is further confirmed that “people think her odd and that nobody “people think her odd and that nobody loves and admires her” (Fountain 33). loves and admires her.” (Fountain 33) Her idea is further confirmed that “people think her odd and that nobody loves and admires her (Fountain 33).”

规范:

图 3.2:括号标注在引语段中的使用方法
constantly as a source of consolation, Wordsworth projected his hunger for a peace of mind into the river image … Thou wanderer through the woods, How often has my spirit turned to thee! (156) In the Romantic poet’s mind, the Wye, an indicator of the nurturing nature as opposed to the bustling worldly life, also embodies his nostalgia for the remote past as “These water

括号内表示页码 的数字应置于引 文之外

直接引语都必须标明页码,以便读者查找。

在任何情况下(即使引语仅仅只有一个单词) : ? 句末、小句末的句号和逗号都必须放在引号之内(无论单引号还是双引号) , ? 冒号(“:”)和分号(“;”)都必须放在引号之外, ? 引文是疑问句则问号应放在引号之内,否则问号(“?”)应放在引号之外。 ? 三行或以上的引语作为独立的引语段(block quotation) 。 ? 引语段可以用单倍行距,但其首行和末行应与正文空1.5行。 ? 引语段左右两边均应较正文缩进5格或1个制表符(TAB)的距离。 ? 如果引语段原为一自然段,则其首行应进一步缩进4至5格或1个制表符的距离。 ? 引语段的段首和段尾不得使用引号。 ? 引语段的字体必须与正文相同。 ? 正文中的中文引文应提供英文译文。
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规范:

图3.4:双引号与其它标点的位置 不规范: A silver dome concealed the A silver dome concealed the robot’s “brain.” robot’s “brain”. 错误: Hakuta (1976) found two types of error in the subjects’ article usage and he termed them “error of omission” and “error of commission”. 错误: Where does Whitman speak of “the meaning of poems?”

正确: Hakuta (1976) found two types of error in the subjects’ article usage and he termed them “error of omission” and “error of commission.” 正确: Where does Whitman speak of “the meaning of poems”?

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