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2012 新东方考研高级语法


省略:定语从句的省略&状语从句的省略 定语从句的省略: 一 、定语从句的回顾 定语从句两种连接词:关系代词&关系副词 关系代词:that、which、who 关系副词:when、where、why(一般不可省略) eg. Fruit that contains vitamin C can relieve a cold.(that 充当主语) eg. The man who we met yesterday is a famous psychologist. (who 充当宾语) eg. This is the right/very() book that you are looking for. (that 充当宾语) 关系代词在从句中只能充当主语或宾语 二、关系词充当宾语的时候:可以直接省略,而从句不发生任何形式的改变 三、关系词充当主语 (1)谓语结构为实词:关系代词进行省略,从句中实词要发生形式的改变。若原从句是主动语态,则动词直接变成 ing 形式,若 原从句谓语动词是被动语态,则可以直接保留过去的分词。 eg. Fruit that contains vitamin C can relieve a cold.= Fruit containing vitamin C can relieve a cold. eg. I have a dog which is called King.= I have a dog called King. (2)谓语结构为 be + 名词:可将 be 动词同时省略,将后面的名词和前面从句所修饰的名词构成同位语结构。 eg. I know YU Minhong who is the president of New Oriental School. = I know YU Minhong, the president of New Oriental School. 四、先行词为 the way,后边的关系代词可以使 that,in which 或者不加任何关系代词。 eg. I like the way you talk. 状语从句的省略: 一、主句和从句的助于保持一致,称为分词作状语。 (1)条件:状语从句,前后主语一致 (2)形式:分词作状语在句首+分词作状语在句后 (3)省略方式:省略从句的主语,关系词(可保留)+动词形式变化(主动语态-ing/被动语态-ed) (一)时间状语从句:when、after、as soon as eg. When the mouse saw the cat, it ran off = (when) Seeing the cat , the mouse ran off. (二)原因状语从句 eg. As she was very weak, she couldn’t move. = Being very weak , she couldn’t move. (三)条件状语从句 eg. If you work hard, you will succeed. = Working hard , you will succeed. eg. If we are united, we stand; if we divided, we fall. = United, we stand; divided, we fall. (四)让步状语从句 eg. Although he lived miles away, he attended the course. = Although living miles away=Living miles away (五)伴随状语从句 eg. He sat in the chair reading a newspaper. eg. He came in, followed by his wife. (六)方式状语从句 eg. He came as we expected. =He came as (he was) expected.

2012 新东方考研高级语法 (七)结果状语从句 eg. He fired and killed one of the passers-by. = He fired, killing one of the passers-by. 二、若前后主语不一致,则成为独立主格结构。 1、构成:分词短语的逻辑主语和句子主语不一致。独立结构只能作状语,多用于书面语言。 (1)名词/代词+分词(现在分词&过去分词) eg. The boy ran quickly, his father following.(表伴随情况,父亲主动跟随) eg. He lay on his back, his hands acrossed under his head.(one’s hands be acrossed) (2)名词/代词+形容词 eg. They started home, theirs minds full of plans for increasing production. eg. He was silent for a moment, his lips tight. (3)名词/代词+副词 eg. He put on his socks, wrong side out.(表示补充说明) eg. The war over, all the Chinese people’s volunteers came back to China. (4)名词/代词+介词(短语) eg. She came in, a baby in her arms. eg. He went off, gun in hand. 2、句中的作用 (1)表示时间 eg. His homework done, Jim decided to go and see the play. = After his homework was done, he decided to go and see the play. (2)表示原因 eg. The last bus having gone, we had to walk home. =Because the last bus having gone, we had to walk home. (3)表示原因 eg. (with) Weather permitting, we’ll go for outing tomorrow. =If weather permitting, we’ll go for outing tomorrow. (4)表示伴随情况 eg. They walked though the forest, (with) an old hunter leading the way. (5)表示补充说明 eg. He lived in a wooden house with two rooms, one being a bedroom and the other being an office. =He lived in a wooden house with two rooms, one was a bedroom, the other was an office. 3、独立主格的变化 在带有逻辑主语的分词及其短语前加“with”

【1】if 引导的虚拟语气(与事实相反,过去&现在&将来) if—如果(可能发生&不可能发生) If it rains tomorrow, I will stay at home.(主将从现) (1)表示与过去事实相反时,从句中应使用 had+过去分词,主句中用 would,could,might +have+过去分词 eg. If you had got there earlier, you would have caught the bus. (2)表示与现在事实相反时,从句中所有的 be 都有 were,动词都要用过去式,主句中用 would,could,might +动词原形 eg. If there were no air, people would die. eg. If I had wings, I would fly over the sea to see you. (3)表示与将来事实相反时,从句中 be 变成 were,动词变成 should+动词原形,主句中用 would,could,might +动词原形 eg. If it were Sunday tomorrow, we would not have an examination. 错综虚拟语气:eg. If you had followed my advice yesterday, you would know how to do it now.

2012 新东方考研高级语法 倒装形式的虚拟语气:从句中出现助动词 do 或 were,可以将 if 省略,将 do 或 were 提前 eg. Had you got there earlier yesterday(=if you had got…), you could have caught the bus. eg. Were I you(=if I were you), I would help him. 【2】馒头面条原理 当句子中出现建议、 命令、 要求这三个单词的时候, 不管它是什么词性, 也不管其后接何种从句, 从句中的动词都应使用 should+ 动词原形,should 可以省略。 注:虽为虚拟语气的一种用法,但后面的句子并不表示与事实相反。 常见表示建议、命令、要求的单词:advice, suggest, propose, recommend; order, command; demand, require, insist, urge eg. He suggested that we (should) go to tomorrow’s exhibition together. eg. Mike’s uncle insisted that he (should) not live in this hotel. 注:suggest 表“表明”义时不使用虚拟语气。 eg. Her face suggested that she was ill. So I suggested that she (should) be sent to the nearest hospital immediately. 【3】固定句型 1、It is time that ... It is time that sb. did sth.早该做某事了 It is (high/about) time that… eg. It is time that you worked hard on English. eg. It is already 5 o’clock now, don’t you think it is time we went home? eg. I think it is high time that she made up her mind. 2、Would rather that ..... 只要是与现在或过去相反,从句中 be 动词变成 were,动词变为过去式。如果与过去相反,则用 had+过去分词。 eg. I would rather he came tomorrow than today. eg.John would rather that she had not gone to the party yesterday evening. eg. I would rather everything hadn' t happened in the past. 3、“It is (was)+形容词(或过去分词)+that+ (should) do……”结构中的虚拟语气 eg. It is necessary that we (should)have a walk now. eg. It was necessary that we (should) make everything ready ahead of time. eg. It is required that nobody (should) smoke here. eg. It is important that every pupil (should) be able to understand the rule of school. 4、as if,wish 等后使用虚拟语气 Although it is summer, it seems as if it were spring. He wished we would go there with him. (wish 表示不可能实现的愿望,hope 表示可以实现的愿望)

全部倒装:主谓宾构成了正常的语序,把谓语动词提到了动词的前面,谓语动词直接发生在主语之前,那么就是全部倒装。 1、当首句为方位或时间副词,谓语动词为 go,come 等时通常用全部倒装。如果是进行时态的话,倒装后要改为一般现在时。 eg. The bus is coming here. Here comes the bus. 进行时态在变为倒装的时候要变为一般现在时。 eg. Students went away. eg. The boy rushed out. Away went students. Out rushed the boy.

here/away/out/ 在英语当中称作方位副词或时间副词。 eg. Then came the hour we had been looking forward to. 方位副词或时间副词置于句首 2、如果句首出现了地点状语,句子也可以进行全部倒装。 eg. The old man lives in the city center. In the city center lives the old man. eg. A temple stands on the mountain. On the mountain stands a temple.

2012 新东方考研高级语法 3、当句子当中出现分词结构的时候,可以把现在分词或过去分词和地点状语联系在一起放在句首,把 be 动词留在中间当作谓语 动词,主语放在后面。 eg. Lying on the floor was a boy aged about 18. On the floor lies a boy aged about 18.

eg. Sitted on the ground are a group of young people. eg. 访问北京的是 300 名日本青年。/ 300 名日本青年正在访问北京。 300 Japanese young people are visiting Beijing. Visiting Beijing are 300 Japanese young people. 部分倒装:主谓宾保持原来的形式,谓语动词的助动词放到主语的前面。 1、当句首状语为否定词或带有否定意义的词语时,这个句子就需要部分倒装 这类词语有 hardly, scarcely, rarely, seldom, never, few, little, less, at no time, by no means, in no case, under no circumstance, in no way, on no account, on no consideration, no longer, not only 等。 eg. He never smokes. 他从来不抽烟。Never does he smoke. eg. Not only did the customer complain about the food, he also refused to pay for it. 这位顾客不仅仅 抱怨食物不好,还拒绝付费。 eg. Under no circumstance do I trust you.在任何情况下我都不会相信你。 2、当句首为 only 加状语的时候,这个句子需要部分倒装。 eg. Only with you can I feel happy. eg. Only when you come, can we start the meeting. 只有当你来了这,我们才可以开始会议。 3、so......that 结构中的 so 位于句首时,常引起部分倒装 eg. He runs so fast that I can't catch up with him. 他跑得实在是太快了,以致于我都没有办法追上他。 So fast does he run that I can't catch up with him. eg. The moon was so bright that the flowers bright as by day. 皓月当空,花朵就像白天那样的鲜艳。 So bright was the moon that the flowers bright as by day. 4、句子开头的 as 处在第二个单词的位置上,表示虽然的意思。(表让步) eg. Although I am young, I can live by myself. 虽然我很小但是我却能养活自己了。 Young as I am, I can live by myself.

eg. Although she is a girl, she can support the whole family. 虽然她是个女孩,但是她却可以养活整个家庭的人。 Girl as she is, she can support the whole family. eg. Although I like music very much,.... Much as I like music,..... 5、常见的固定搭配结构中需要用倒装的情况。 (1)hardly/ scarcely.....when.... 一......就...... hardly,scarcely 后面一定要用过去完成时,when 后面用一般过去时。 eg. Hardly had he seen me when he ran away. 他一看到我就跑开了。 eg. Hardly had the baby cried when his mother rushed to carry him. 婴儿一哭,他妈妈就跑去抱他。 (2)no sooner....than..... 一......就...... no sooner 后面一定要用过去完成时,than 的后面用一般过去时。 eg. No sooner had they reached home than it rained more and more heavily. 他们一到家,雨就越下越大起来。 (3)the more ......the more... 越....越.... eg. The harder you work, the happier you feel. 你工作越努力,就越觉得快乐。 总结:倒装分为全部倒装和部分倒装。 全部倒装:

2012 新东方考研高级语法 ①当首句为方位或时间副词,谓语动词为 go,come 等时通常用全部倒装。 ② 如果句首出现了地点状语,句子也可以进行全部倒装。 ③ 当句子当中出现分词结构的时候,可以把现在分词或过去分词和地点状语联系在一起放在句首, 把 be 动词留在中间当作谓语动词,主语放在后面。 部分倒装: 1、当句首状语为否定词或带有否定意义的词语时,这个句子就需要部分倒装 。 2、当句首为 only 加状语的时候,这个句子需要部分倒装。 3、so......that 结构中的 so 位于句首时,常引起部分倒装 。 4、句子开头的 as 处在第二个单词的位置上,表示虽然的意思。 5、常见的固定搭配结构中需要用倒装的情况。 hardly.....when....; scarcely .....when..... ;no sooner....than.....: 面用一般过去时;the more ......the more... 越....越.... ; hardly,scarcely,no sooner 后面一定要用过去完成时,when 后

eg. All the birds can not fly. Not all the birds can fly. 1. 部分否定 eg. All the birds can not fly. 并非所有的鸟都会飞。 None of the birds can fly. 所有的鸟都不会飞。 表示全部意思的代词或副词如 all, both, every, everybody, every day, everyone, everything, everywhere 等与 not 搭配使用时,无论 not 在前还是在后,都表示部分否定,意思为“并非都是"等。 eg. All is not gold that glitters. = Not all is gold that glitters. 发光的并非都是金子。 2. 全部否定 英语中常用 not, none, nobody, nothing, nowhere, neither, never 等表示全部否定的概念。 eg. Nothing in the world is difficult for one who sets his mind to it. 世上无难事,只怕有心人。 双重否定: 1.在一个句子中出现两个否定词:not, never, hardly, scarcely, rarely, seldom, few, little, none 等,双重否定表示肯定的概念。 eg. No one can command others who cannot command himself. A person can command others who command himself. 正人先正己。 不是所有的鸟都会飞。

eg. Without the ability to think critically, to defend their ideas and understand the ideas of others, they can not fully participate in our democracy. 如果没有能力进行批判性思维,维护自己的观点,并理解他人的观点,他们就不能充分的参与我们的民主政治中来。 2.形式否定,意义肯定 eg. A man can never have too many ties. 一个男人可以拥有很多的领带。 对他的成就我们无论怎样赞扬也不过分。 A woman can never have too many dresses. 一个女人拥有再多的衣服也不为过。 eg. We can hardly praise his achievement too much. eg. A mother can never be patient enough with her child. 一个母亲对她的孩子再怎么耐心也不为过。 A teacher can never be strict enough with his students. 一个老师对他的学生再怎么严格也不为过。 3. 形式肯定,意义否定 ①more A than B 意思为“A 不是 B;与其说是 B,不如说是 A” eg. The book seems to be more a dictionary than a grammar. 这本书看起来与其说是一本语法书,不如说是一本词典。 He is more a composer than a singer. 与其说他是一个歌唱家不如说他是一个创作者。 ② anything but 意思为“一点都不是,根本不是,绝对不是” eg. I am anything but a teacher. 我一定不是一个老师。 eg. I will do anything but that. 我决不干那件事。 ③ no more ...than 与 not more ....than

2012 新东方考研高级语法 no more ...than 意为“两者都不....” not more....than 意为“两者都肯定,前者不如后者” eg. This book is no more interesting than that one. 这本书和那本书一样特别没趣。 eg. This book is not more interesting than that one. 这本书不如那本书有趣。 eg. This boy is not more honest than that one. 这两男孩都很诚实,前面的男孩不如后面的男孩诚实。 This boy is no more honest than that one. 这两个男孩都不诚实。 ④ no more than 与 not more than no more than 强调“少” ,译作“只有、不过、仅仅” not more than 是客观叙述,意为“不超过” 。 eg. He said no more than we had expected. 他只是说了我们所预料的而已。 eg. Though they think it takes no more than three days to fulfill the mission, I believe it takes not less than six days. 虽然他们认为完成这 任务只需三天,但我却认为至少需要六天。 eg. He has not more than five dollars on him. 他身上带的钱不超过五美元。 eg. He is not more than 10 years old. 他最多不超过 10 岁。 总结: 1. 部分否定 2. 全部否定 3. 双重否定:①在一个句子中出现两个否定词;②形式否定,意义肯定 4. 形式肯定,意义否定 5. no more .... than 与 not more ....than ;no more than 与 not more than

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