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英语论文格式要求


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目: 记忆策略在英语学习中的应用 院: 外国语学院 英语(师范) 业: 英语(师范)

班级序号: 班级序号: 1 班 18 号 学 号: 20051154010155

学生姓名: 学生姓名: XX 指导教师: 指导教师: XX

2011 201 1 年 5 月

The Application of Memory Strategy in English Learning
Li Qian

A Thesis Submitted In Partial fulfillment for the Requirements of the Degree of

BACHELOR OF ARTS

School of Foreign Languages LIAONING NORMAL UNIVERSITY May, 2011

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Abstract
Memory is the most important factor in one’s intelligence,and most people get good memory by means of proper training. Memory also plays an important part in English teaching. Thus nowadays many foreign language teachers unify memory strategy into the process of English teaching and obtain the remarkable teaching effect. The application of memory strategy has been studied from different perspectives, for example, from psycholinguistics' perspective, the cognitive psychology perspective, and from the linguistics perspective. However, no matter what methods the teacher uses, the final goal is to help the students to use the appropriate memory strategy to improve the efficiency of English learning. By clarifying something about the content of memory theory, elaborating the memory effect of learning under different stages and the important factors of affecting memory, this paper aims to point out the classification of memory strategy, analyzing the memorization of vocabulary, sentence and discourse. It also discusses how the teachers apply memory strategy to teaching practice and unifies the characteristics of original teaching. Keywords: English learning; memory; memory strategy(注意:关键词 3-5 个,词与词之 间用分号分开,除专有名词外,其他单词首字母不大写)

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记忆力是一个人的智力因素中最重要的部分, 大部分人的良好的记忆力是训练出来 的。同时,记忆在英语教学中起到很重要的作用,由此,现今许多外语教师在教课的过 程中利用记忆策略与英语教学相结合都得到了显著的教学效果。 很多国内外教育家从不 同角度提出了记忆策略的应用,例如,从心理语言学的角度,从认知心理学角度以及从 语言学的角度进行研究。然而,无论教师采用什么方式教学,最终目的都是希望帮助学 生使用合适的记忆策略提高英语学习效率。 本文通过简明阐述了记忆理论方面的内容, 以及论述不同个体在不同阶段学习的记 忆效果和影响学习者记忆效果的重要因素,指出记忆策略的分类,分析英语单词、句子 和语篇的记忆学习过程, 并探讨教师如何把记忆策略应用到教学实践中并与原教学特点 结合。

关键词: 关键词:英语学习;记忆;记忆策略;

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Table of Contents
Introduction..................................................................................................1 Literature Review....................................................................................2

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Chapter One Chapter Two

2.1 The Concept of Memory.......................................................................................... 2 2.2 Stages of Memory...........................................................................................................3 2.3 Standard Model of Memory............................................................................................4 2.4 Influences of Forgetting..................................................................................................5 Chapter Three The Application of Memory Strategy......................................7

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3.1 Strategies of Memory.....................................................................................................7 3.1.1 The definition of memory strategy..........................................................................7 3.1.2 The classification of memory strategy....................................................................8 3.1.3 Strategies of memory for different individuals......................................................9 3.2 The Application of Memory Strategy for English Acquisition....................................10 3.2.1 The process of English acquisition........................................................................11 3.2.2 The memorization of English vocabulary..............................................................11 3.2.2.1 Pronouncing...............................................................................................11

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3.2.2.2 Picture/Imagery..........................................................................................11 3.2.2.3 Word formation..........................................................................................12 3.2.3 The memorization of English sentence.................................................................12 3.2.3.1 Pure repetition: rote learning......................................................................12 3..2.3.2 Paring..........................................................................................................12 3.2.3.3 Chunk construction.....................................................................................13 3.2.4 The Memorization of English Discourse...............................................................13 3.2.4.1 Method of loci.............................................................................................13 3.2.4.2 Organization................................................................................................14 3.2.4.3 Association..................................................................................................14 Chapter Four Conclusion................................................................................................15

Works Cited.............................................................................................................................16 Acknowledgements...............................................................................................................18

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Chapter One
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Introduction
Through the observation of the students’ language learning process, it is discovered that

many students can not remember English words effectively. One reason is that they adopt a mechanical method to memorize the words or sentences. So if the students want to make a
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great progress in learning foreign language, it is important for people to apply the appropriate strategies of memory in the learning process. In the past decades, many educational experts have done the researches about memory, including the individual memory system, the memory process as well as the memory rules. These efforts have facilitated the study of memory strategy and its advancement. Therefore, in chapter two, there is an introduction to the concept of memory, stages of memory, standard model of memory and influences of forgetting. Based on memory theory, chapter three elaborates something about memory strategies, including the development of memory strategy, the definition of memory strategy and the classification of memory strategy. There is also a part about strategies of memory for different individuals, which explains the specific methods that an individual could use to study, because everyone learns in a different way. Meanwhile, in the process of English acquisition, this paper illustrates a special language processing which is called “The Components of Language Processing” (Garman, 2002: 137-225), and tries to find out how to unify memory strategy into English learning. As a foreign language teacher, it is important to teach the students how to use memory strategies to learn effectively. According to different characteristics of vocabulary, sentence and discourse, there are several memory strategies for each one to highlight the actual application of them in English learning process and tackle students' memorization problem. Therefore, the application of memory strategy in the foreign language learning will be presented in the last part.

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The Application of Memory Strategy in English Learning

Chapter Two Literature Review
As what has been pointed out in many materials, memory and language learning have long been the interest of psychologists and psycholinguists, but it still remains a comparatively worthy explored area. Many researchers have made their contribution and their constructive researches to pave the way for the present thesis. This part will deal with the basic study of memory.
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2.1 The Concept of Memory

Cognitive psychology has made substantial contributions to the theory of learning and instruction. It presents that human learning is a complex activity, when they are learning they receive, store, integrate, retrieve, and use vast amounts of information. Though memory seems to be understood easily, there are too many definitions for memory. Different psychologists in different times defined it from different points of view. According to Reber, memory is the ability to recover information about past events or knowledge and it deals with the process of recovering information about past events or knowledge (Reber, 1985). According to Chen Xianchun (Chen,1998), the process of memory can be divided into four links: memorization, retention, recall and recognition. People will remember first and then recall. Memorization and retention are to remember. Recognition or reproduction is to recall. Cognitive reconstruction also indicates that memory is the main storage mechanism of human cognitive system and is a skill whose performance depends on application, on practice, and on regular training. Everyone has a first-class memory; and everyone can train and improve its efficiency. In short, memory has to do with recalling and using the retention of information over time. As memory has a great influence on difficulties in English learning, such as the long-term retention of words, the forgetting of words etc, many efforts have been expanded at identifying a variety of ways of English learning. Memory for English not only involves the

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The Application of Memory Strategy in English Learning

memory of pronunciation and spelling, but also involves the memory of meanings, collocations and uses in different contexts. Therefore, in the following parts, memory theory will be introduced in detail.

2.2 Stages of Memory Psychologists consider memory as the process by which people encode, store, and retrieve information. These three stages are not only essential to the process of memory of English knowledge, but also important to the efficiency of memorizing English (Xin, 1986). Encoding refers to learning the material in the first place, taking information from the environment and storing it in long-term memory. It also refers to acquiring new arrangements of knowledge by using the existing knowledge. Encoding is an important part in the process of learning. In this aspect, the teacher could strengthen the consciousness of students’ memory by using consciousness and unconsciousness to achieve the teaching aim. Storage is keeping the material until it is needed. At this stage, the more orderly the information is stored, the easier it is for people to retrieve. The more accurate and complete the information, the better the chance of retrieval will be. There are two conditions to decide how well the information is stored: intensity and frequency. Intensity is related to the vividness of the information and the meaningfulness of the information and the emotion and association in the learner's mind. For instance, it usually takes little time to remember colorful things; it is also easy to remember the content that makes you feel happy. Frequency refers to the times of the information representation. The more frequently one experience with something, the better its memory. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

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Chapter Three The Application of Memory Strategy
During the process of English learning, an overall goal for students is to develop automatic strategy use, as this increases efficiency when learning and studying. While in English teaching, teachers pay attention to what memory strategies to choose and they also should know how to apply them for different learners flexibly. In this chapter, the thesis will present the definitions of memory strategy, its classification and strategies for different individuals. Most important, the application of memory strategy in learning vocabulary, sentence and discourse will be discussed.

3.1 Strategies of Memory Memory theory lays down theoretical foundation for the content of how to teach the techniques, principles and methods of memorization, and memory strategy has been studied for a significant progress. Following are the introduction of memory strategy, including the definition and classification of it. 3.1.1 Definitions of memory strategy Memory strategy mainly refers to the cognitive activity and the behavioral activity which
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Flavell and his colleagues concluded three stages for the development of memory strategy: 1. People have no strategy; 2.People can not apply the strategy initiatively at first, but after the induction, they can use the memory strategy; 3.People can use the strategy initiatively (Flavell 1979: 89-112). Therefore, at early points in the acquisition of memory strategies, children use a strategy when adults instruct them to use the strategy but they do not generate the strategies spontaneously. It shows dramatic improvement when children can effectively use memory strategies. The deliberate tactics for remembering develop over a lengthy period that spans the elementary and middle school years. When they are fully acquired, strategies are applied spontaneously in a wide array of task settings.
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Chapter Four Cononclusion
This paper is a tentative study on the application of memory strategy in the learning of English. In theory, major theories of memory provide a solid theoretical foundation for this study. On the basis of these theories, there is a study of memory strategies and examples are exploited to illustrate the application of the major memory strategies in the study of English words, sentence and discourse. According to the above analysis and research, teachers would consciously adopt different memory theories and techniques to train and instruct students in the process of English teaching, which will greatly shorten the cognitive process from words to sentences then to the discourse. Language learning is the encoding and decoding process of two languages and the internalization of two different cultures. Good memory is essential to English learning. It seems that reciting English words, sentences and discourse is foolish but actually is most effective. Enhancing students' memory ability becomes one of important teaching goals. Trained by scientific memory methods, most students will arrive at surprising achievement during a period time. However, not every memory strategy is effective to all learners. It depends on different learners using different memory techniques and different teachers adopting different memory strategies to instruct their students. Thus, it becomes necessary for the English teachers to learn some basic memory theories and techniques. The study of application of memory strategy can make contributions to English learning in China. When using the memory strategy, the learners must elaborate new information to an unusual extent. That is to say, the memory strategy enhances learning by facilitating positive transfer from existing knowledge to the acquisition of new knowledge. The combination of memory strategy with English learning may play an important role in class, but we must recognize that the use of memory strategy is one skill that must be developed by the learners. The effectiveness of memory strategy depends on the expertise and ability of the learners tested. A distinct set of skills may have to be developed in teachers both for training students to use memory techniques and for creating special techniques. Teachers

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第 二 行 MLA “参考文献 格式范例 参考文献”格式范例 参考文献 悬挂缩 进 4 个 Works Cited 英语字 母 。 1.5 倍行距。 Ashcraft, M.H. Human memory and cognition (2nd ed.). New York: Scott, Foresman and

Company, 1989. Atkinson, R. C.,&Shriffrin, R.M. Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes. New York: Academic Press, 1968. Bower. G.H. A selective review of organizational factors in memory. New York: Academic Press, 1972. Carter, Ronald, ed. Language and Literature: An Introductory Reader in Stylistics. London:
引用同一 作者的多 个 作 品 时,用横 线代替作 者名.同一 年份的加

George Allen & Unwin, 1982a. —— Literary Text and Language Study. London: Edward Arnold, 1982b. Faulkner, William. Absalom, Absalom! New York: The Modern Library, 1936. —— The Sound and the Fury. Middlesex: Penguin, 1964. Craik, F.I. & Lockhart, R. S. Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Behavior, 1972, (11). Dornyei, Z. The Psychology of the language Learner: Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2005. E . Gagne, The cognitive psychology of school learning. Chicago: Scott Foresman, 1985. Flavell. A developmental study of intelligent retrieval. Child development, 1979. Kintsch W. Attention and performance. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associations, 1980. Garman,M. Psycholinguistics. Peking: Peking University Press, 2002. Pressley. Elaboration and memory development. Child Development ,1982. Pettijohn, T. F. Psychology: A Concise Introduction. Sluice Dock: The Dushkin Publishing

a,b,c

Group, Inc, 1992. Reber, A. ed. The Penguin Dictionary of Psychology. Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1985. Richard E. Mayer. Educational psychology: A cognitive approach. New York:Newbery Award Records,1987. S1avin, R.E. Educational Psychology: Theory & Practice. Beijing: Peking University Press, 2004. Thompson, I. Memory in Language Learning. New York: Prentice Hall, 1987. Tulving E. & Conaldson W. Organization of memory. New York: Academic Press, 1972.
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注:英文的书名和期刊斜体。

蔡世文.联想思维在外语词汇教学中的运用.河南职业技术师范学院学报,2002. 陈贤纯.外语阅读教学与心理学.北京:语言文化大学出版社,1998. 桂诗春.记忆和英语学习.外语界,2003,(3). 高文.建构主义学习的特征.外国教育资料,1999,(1). 黄杨倩.英语教学中提高学生记忆效率方法探讨.考试周刊,2007,(27). 韩志伟.记忆策略研究综述.上海教育科研,2001,(12). 罗云春,蔡莹露.记忆策略在外语学习基础教育阶段的运用——从遗忘理论及其规律的 角度分析.经济与社会发展,2006,(9). 王影.科学运用记忆规律帮助学生提高学习效率.中国科教创刊,2008,(5). 欣茨曼.学习与记忆心理学(韩进之等译).沈阳:辽宁科学技术出版社,1986. 杨治良等.记忆心理学.上海:华东师范大学出版社,1999. 郑宗明.组块记忆策略及其应用.安徽教育,2008,(4).

注:汉语的标点和括号都要在英文输入状态下输入。

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Acknowledgements

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