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模块八 Unit4 重点单词讲解

Unit 4 Module 8 重点难点讲练 一、重点词汇。
1. finance vt. 给??提供经费; n. 财政,金融;资金 1)He is an well-known expert in finance. 他是知名的金融专家。 例:

2)The repairs to the school will be financed by the educational department. 学校的修缮将由教育部门出资。 3)He took a job _____ _______his stay in Germany. 他找了一份工作以赚钱支付在德国的费用。 4)Unless we can get more______, we'll have to close the store. 除非我们能得到更多的资金,我们将不得不关闭这家商店。 【参考答案】3)to finance; 4) finance 2. hatch vt. & vi. 策划, (尤指)密谋;孵化,付出 n. 孵化,孵出,策划 例: 1)The hatch date for the eggs appears to be determined about a month earlier, when the eggs are laid. 这些蛋孵化的时间,似乎在孵化前一个月,也就是下蛋时便已决定。 2)The male leaves the female to hatch her eggs and looks for food. 雄性离开雌性去孵蛋和寻找食物。 3)Hen's eggs take 21 days to hatch out. 鸡蛋需要 21 天才孵化。 4)Chicks ______ _______from the eggs. 小鸡正从蛋壳里孵出来。 【参考答案】are hatching 【注】hatch 作“孵化”解时,可用作不及物动词,以 egg 作主语时,其主动形 式含有被动意义。 【词组】hatch out 孵出;得出结果 3. sponsor n. 赞助者,赞助商,担保人; vt. 赞助,资助;发起,倡议;主办,举办 例: 1)Your sponsor may assist in organizing this insurance. 你的担保人可以帮助你办理此类保险。 2)Mr. Robert Brown was announced as the ________. 罗勃特〃布朗先生被宣布为赞助人。 3)The senator announced that he would sponsor the health care plan. 这位参议员宣布他将发起这一保健计划。 4)The United States ________the important meeting last year.

美国主办了那次重要的会议。 【参考答案】2) sponsor 4) sponsored 【词形拓展】sponsorship n.赞助;倡议;保证人地位 4. expose vt. 使接触,使体验,使面临;暴露,显露,揭露 1)The reporter was killed because he tried to expose a plot. 这名记者因为试图揭露一个阴谋而被杀害。 2)We should not expose our children to horrors. 我们不应该让孩子看恐怖片。 3)I hate the paparazzi. They always_______ someone's privacy. 我讨厌狗仔队,他们老曝光别人的隐私。 4)Keep indoors and don't ______your skin____ the sun. 待在室内,不要把皮肤暴露在阳光下。 【参考答案】3)expose 4)expose?to? 【词形拓展】 exposure n. 暴露;揭露;胶片;曝光时间;(在电视、报纸等媒体上的)亮相 【词组拓展】 expose oneself in public 抛头露面 expose…to… 使暴露于,使遭受 expose sb to danger 使某人可能遇到危险 expose to the public 向公众露面 【牛刀小试】 1. _____ to sunlight for too much time will do harm to one's skin. A. Exposed B. Having exposed C. Being exposed D. After being exposed 2. His companions have threatened to _____ his crimes to the police. A. impose B. express C. enclose D. expose 【参考答案】 1. C 2. D 5. overlook vt.俯瞰;远眺;没注意到;忽视; 不予理会 n.忽视;远眺 例: 1)My room overlooked the garden. 我的房间俯瞰花园。 2)He overlooked a spelling error on the first page. 他没有看出第一页中有个拼写错误。 3)We are too likely _______our own faults. 我们很容易忽视自己的过错。 4)My house has ____ ______ ______in the hills behind it. 我的房子从屋后的山顶上俯瞰起来很漂亮。 【参考答案】3)to overlook 4)a nice overlook 例:

【注】1. overlook 的基本含义是从高处向下看,即“俯视”; 也可指“忽视” , 即出于无心或由于匆忙而对某人或某物未给予应有的或足够的重 视、注意或忽略做某事;引申还可指“原谅” ,即有意宽容别人的 失误,对某一过失不多加追究。 2. overlook 多用作及物动词,后接名词、代词或动名词作宾语。可用于 被动结构。 3. overlook 由“俯视”的意思可以引申为“监督” ,这和其本有的另 一词义“忽略”正好相反,所以必要时可用 neglect 或 disregard 来代 替 overlook 表示“忽视”; 用 oversee 代替 overlook,表示“监督”, 以免造成歧义。 6. shoot (shot,shot)vt. & vi. 拍摄;射击;打猎;射门,投篮 n. 拍摄,摄像;幼苗,嫩芽,嫩枝 1)This is just a toy gun; it doesn't shoot. 这只是玩具枪, 不能发射子弹。 2)He shot the bird with his gun. 他用枪打鸟。 3)The scene _____ _____on location last year. 这个景是实地拍摄的。 4)The enemies made shoots at us. 敌人向我们发起射击。 5)Two weeks after we'd planted the seeds, little green _____started to appear. 我们播种后两周,绿色的小嫩芽就开始长出了。 【参考答案】 3)was shot 5)shoots 【常见错误】 1. 他向一只鸟射击,但没射中。 误:He shot to a bird, but missed it. 正:He shot at a bird, but missed it. 2. 猎人将狮子射死了。 误:The hunter shot at the lion. 正:The hunter shot the lion. 析:shoot 表示“射死”,是及物动词,后面直接跟宾语; 而 shoot at...表 示“向…开枪”,这时 shoot 是不及物动词,介词 at 不能换成 to。 【牛刀小试】 1. It was cruel _____ . A. of Jim to shoot at the bird B. for Jim to shoot at the bird C. to shoot the bird of Jim D. of Jim to shoot the bird 7. accumulate vt. & vi. 积累,积聚;逐渐增加 例:

1)They set out ______ ______a huge mass of data. 他们开始积累大量的资料。 2)Dust and dirt soon _______if a house is not cleaned regularly. 房屋不经常打扫,尘土很快就越积越多。 【参考答案】1)to accumulate 2)accumulates 【词义辨析】accumulate collect gather pile 这些动词均含“积聚,聚集,积累”之意。 1. accumulate:几乎可用于指任何事物量的增加,侧重连续不断地,一点一 滴地聚积。 2. collect:普通用词,多用于指物,侧重指有区别地作选择或有安排有计划 地把零散物集中起来。 3. gather:普通用词,指人或物或抽象事物都可用。侧重于围绕一个中心的 集合、聚集。 4. pile:着重指比较整齐地把东西堆积在一起。 8. tense adj. 令人紧张的;神经紧张的;绷紧的,不松弛的 vt. & vi 拉紧;使紧绷 n. (动词)时态 例: 1)Try to act naturally, even if you're tense. 即使紧张也不要做作。 2)She was gently massaging the ______ muscles of her neck. 她轻轻地按摩着脖子上绷紧的肌肉。 3)She tensed, hearing that noise again. 她再次听到那个声音就紧张起来。 4)Players get very ______up before a match. 运动员在比赛前都感到神经紧张。 5)The verb is in the present______. 这个动词使用的是现在时态。 【参考答案】2)tense 4) tensed 5)tense 【牛刀小试】 1. Since the matter was extremely _____ , we dealt with it immediately. A. tough B. tense C. urgent D. instant 【参考答案】B。由于情形特别紧张,我们立刻进行处理。 9. parallel adj. 平行的;相同的;类似的;并联的 n. 对比;平行线(面);双杠;相似物;相似特征 vt. 相比;相应;与 ... 平行 1)In the parallel world, there might be an answer for everything. 在平行世界里,似乎有一切的答案。 2)My experience in this matter _____ ______ ______yours.

在这件事情上,我的经验和你的类似。 3)It is inappropriate to draw such a parallel. 这种比拟是不恰当的。 4)The trees stand _____ ______ ______the road. 这些树与公路平行。 5)The gymnast swung on the parallel bars. 体操运动员在双杠上摆动身子。 6)No one can ______him in Math. 在数学方面无人能与他匹敌。 【参考答案】2)is parallel to 4)in parallel with 6)parallel 10. in defence of 为??辩护 例: 1)In defence of his policy, the Minister pointed to the sharp decrease in road deaths. 部长在为自己的政策辩护时指出,交通死亡事故已经锐减。 2)Is there any man unwilling to fight in defence of his country? 难道有谁不愿为保卫自己的国家而战吗? 【注】in defence of 作为介词短语,不能用做谓语,只做状语或表语。类 似的词组 in honor of(纪念), in charge of(负责)等。如: 正: We held a party in honor of Mr. Lu Xun. 误: We in honor of Mr. Lu Xun by holding a party. 11. approve vt. 批准,通过 vi. 赞成,同意 例: 1)The city council approved the building plan. 市议会批准了这项建筑计划。 2)I believe you will approve of the plan. 我相信你会赞成这个计划。 3)You can join the class if your parents_______. 如果你父母同意,你可以参加这个班。 4) I ______ ______your trying to earn some money, but please don't neglect your studies. 我同意你去挣一些钱,可是请不要误了功课。 5)No teacher can_____ ______ ______ in exams. 任何教师都不能允许考试作弊。 【参考答案】3)approve 4)approve of 5)approve of cheating 【牛刀小试】 1. If only the committee _____ the regulations and put them into effect as soon as possible. A. approve B. will approve C. can approve D. would approve

【参考答案】D。本题关键在于 if only(但愿)引导的从句中用虚拟语气。 句意为:但愿委员会通过条例,尽早把条例付诸实施。 12. show off 炫耀,卖弄 1)He likes to show off his strong muscles. 他喜欢炫耀他的新衣服。 2)The girl_____ always _____ ______her new clothes. 那女孩老是炫耀她的新衣服。 【参考答案】 2)is?showing off 【词组拓展】 show-off n. 炫耀;爱卖弄的人 show up 出现,露面 show in 领进来 show out 领……出去 show around 陪同……参观 show business 娱乐业,演艺界 show time 演出时间 13. give thought to 认真考虑,思考 1)A simple man believes anything, but a prudent man gives thought to his steps. 愚蒙人什么话都信;通达人步步谨慎。 2)Please don't _____ _____ ______ ______what she said. 不要太在乎她说什么。 【参考答案】2)give much thought to 【词组拓展】 give consideration to 考虑 give little thought to 不考虑,不注意 be thought (as/to do/to be)被认为 be thought of as 被认为 二、重点句型。 1. Joining us in the studio are Isabel Rose from the Cannes Film Festival, …… and Xu Li from the Shanghai International Film Festival. (P50, L4-8) 这 是 一 个 倒 装 句 。 正 常 语 序 应 为 Isabel Rose from the Cannes Film Festival, …… …….and Xu Li from the Shanghai International Film Festival are joining us. 倒装的原因是由于分词短语 joining us 做表语,而且主语太长。 常见的引起倒装的情况有如下几种: 1. 地点、时间位于句首(主语为代词除外) ; Here comes the bus.(但:Here it comes.) 2. 地点状语、否定副词位于句首;

In front of the house stood a tall tree. 3. 分词短语做表语位于句首; 4. only 引导状语位于句首; Only in this way can you learn a new language well. 5. so 位于句首表示与上文所述情况相同; --I always stay up late during holidays. --So do I. 【高考真题】 1. Only when he reached the tea-house ______it was the same place he’d been in last year. (2011 全国卷 I ) A. he realized B. he did realize C. realized he D. did he realize 【答案】D 【解析】Only 引导的状语从句位于句首,应把主句中动词的助动词提前 构成部分倒装。 2. —It’s nice. Never before____ such a special drink! —I’m glad you like it. (2011 福建卷) A. I have had B. I had C. have I had D. had I 【答案】C。 【解析】never 是否定副词,置于句首,句子要部分倒装;由语意可知说话 人以前从未喝过这样特别的饮料,应该用现在完成时,故选 C 项 2. At our festival, Hollywood films are in the minority, while films that are likely to be overlooked at other festivals, for example at Cannes, have a real chance of becoming champions. (P51, L51-53) while 在本句中表示对比或转折,意为“而,然而” 。位于句首时,相当 于 although/though。 例如: There are plenty of rain in the southeast, while there is little in the northeast. 东南部雨量充足,而西北部则很少下雨。 另外,while 可表示让步,意为"虽然;尽管"。如: While I admit his good points, I can see his shortcomings. 尽管我承认他的优点,但我还是能看到他的缺点。 【高考真题】 1.______ I always felt I would pass the exam, I never thought I would get an A. (2012 湖南卷) A. While B. Once C. If D. Until 【答案】A。 【解析】考查 while 的用法。句意为:虽然我总觉得我考试能过关,但我 从没想过我能得优。这里的 while 等于 although 或者 though。 2. At school, some students are active ______ some are shy, yet they can be

good friends with one another. (2012 四川卷) A. while B. although C. so D. as 【答案】A 【解析】考查 while 的用法。句意为“在学校,一些学生很活跃而一些学生 却很害羞,然而他们都可能彼此成为好朋友” 。根据句意选 while,表示 两个分句中两种情况的对比。 3. However, he later finds out that his father was a wizard and that his mother was a witch, both of whom were murdered by an evil wizard—the same wizard who gave Harry the scar. (P62, L6-9) ①本句中 finds out 后接两个由 that 引导的宾语从句, 考查的内容为第二个 从句的引导词 that 不可省略。如: I wished (that) we could go sighting in Hangzhou this summer and that we could buy some books on our way back in Shanghai. 我希望今年夏天我们能去杭州旅游,并在返程时在上海买些书回来。 ②both of whom 引导非限制性定语从句, whom 指代 his father 和 his mother。 在非限制性定语从句中,介词+关系代词是常考点。介词的选择主要在 于与动词的搭配。如: In the dark street, there was not a single person ____ she could turn for help. A. to whom B. of whom C. from whom D. that 【答案】A。 【解析】本句中考查介词与动词的搭配:turn to sb. for help 向 sb.寻求帮 助。因此选择 A。 【高考真题】 She showed the visitors around the museum, the construction _____had taken more than three years. (2011 江西卷 34) A. for which B. with which C. of which D. to which 【答案】C。 【解析】of 表示所属关系,在本句中 which 指代 the museum,所以 the construction of which 指博物馆的建设。从句的意思为“该博物馆的建 设花费了了三年多时间” 。 4. I think this is more to show off the special effects than to help the film’s plot.(P63, L42-43) 本句中 more…than…意为 “更多的是…而不是…” 、 “与其说…不如说…” , 侧重在 more 后的内容。全句的意思为“我认为这更多的是为了炫耀特技 而不是有助于电影情节” 。再如: The boy is more lucky than clever. 这个男孩更多的是运气而不是聪明。 5. Also, it disappoints me that several interesting scenes are not shown in the film.(P63, L44-45)

本句的重点在于名词性从句,it 作为形式主语,真正的主语为后面的 that 从句。 名词性从句是高考的重点内容, 学生应多加练习。 形式主语的例子: 1. It doesn’t matter _________you turn right or left at the crossing ---both roads lead to the park.(2012 天津卷) A. whether B. how C. if D. when 【答案】A。 【解析】此处 it 为形式主语,后面 whether…or…结构引导的是真正的 主语。句意为:不管你在路口朝右还是朝左都没关系, (因为)两条路都 通往公园。 2. It is by no means clear _____the president can do to end the strike. (2012 全国新课程) A. how B. which C. that D. what 【答案】D。 【解析】此处 it 是形式主语,what 引导的是主语从句,作真正的主语。 What 作 do 的宾语。句意为:总统采取什么行动结束这次罢工一点也不 清楚。 3. It suddenly occurred to him ______he had left his keys in the office. (2012 江西卷) A.whether B.where C.which D.that 【答案】D。 【解析】 it 作形式主语, 真正的主语为 that he had left his keys in the office, 且 that 在句中无意义,并不充当任何成分。句意为:他突然想起他把钥 匙忘在办公室了。 4. Everyone in the village is very friendly. It doesn't matter ____ you have lived there for a short or a long time. (2012 湖南卷) A. why B. how C. whether D. when 【答案】C。 【解析】it 为形式主语。根据空后的 or 可知为 whether…or…短语引导真 正的主语。句意为:村子里每个人都很友好。不管你在那里短期居住还 是住了很长时间都没关系。