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名词性从句学生版


名词性从句 主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句、同位语从句,在整个句子中所起的作用,相当于一个 名词。因此,这四种从句通称为名词性从句。历届高考试题名词性从句考查的焦点主要有以 下六个方面:1. 考查名词性从句的语序问题 2. 考查引导词 that 与 what 的区别 3. 考 查 it 在名词性从句中作形式主语或形式宾语的用法 4. 考查 whether 与 if 的区别 5. 考 查名词性从句中的疑问词+ever 引导的名词性从句与 no matter+疑问词引导的状语从句的区 别 6. 考查名词性从句的虚拟语气问题 引导名词性从句的连接词可分为三类: 连接词:that, whether, if (不充当从句的任何成分) 连接代词:what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose, which. 连接副词:when, where, how, why I. 主语从句 作句子主语的从句叫主语从句。主语从句通常由从属连词 that,whether,if 和连接代词 what,who,which,whatever,whoever 以及连接副词 how,when,where,why 等词引导。 that 在句中无词义,只起连接作用;连接代词和连接副词在句中既保留自己的疑问含义、又 起连接作用,在从句中充当从句的成分。 What he wants to tell us is not clear. It is known to us how he became a writer. Where the English evening will be held has not yet been announced. 有时为避免句子头重脚轻,常用形式主语 it 代替主语从句作形式主语放于句首,而把 主语从句置于句末。主语从句后的谓语动词一般用单数形式。常用句型如下: (1)It + be + 名词 + that 从句 (2)It + be + 形容词 + that 从句 (3)It + be + 动词的过去分词 + that 从句 (4)It + 不及物动词 + that 从句 另注意在主语从句中用来表示惊奇、不相信、惋惜、理应如此等语气时,谓语动词要用 虚拟语气“(should) +do”,常用的句型有: It is necessary (important, natural, strange, etc.) that … It is a pity (a shame, no wonder, etc.) that… It is suggested (requested, proposed, desired, etc.) that… II. 宾语从句 1. 由连接词 that 引导的宾语从句 由连接词 that 引导宾语从句时,that 在句中不担任任何成分,在口语或非正式的文体中 常被省去,但如从句是并列句时,第二个分句前的 that 不可省。在 demand、order、suggest、 decide、insist, desire, demand, request, command 等表示要求、命令、建议、决定等意义的动 词后,宾语从句常用“(should)+ 动词原形”。 I insist that she (should) do her work alone. The commander ordered that troops (should) set off at once. 2. 用 who , whom, which, whose, what, when, where, why, how, whoever, whatever, whichever 等关联词引导的宾语从句相当于特殊疑问句,注意句子语序要用陈述语序。 I want to know what he has told you. She always thinks of how she can work well. She will give whoever needs help a warm support. 3. 用 whether 或 if 引导的宾语从句, 其主语和谓语的顺序也不能颠倒, 仍保持陈述句语序。 此外,whether 与 if 在作“是否”的意思讲时在下列情况下一般只能用 whether,不用 if: a. 引导主语从句并在句首时;b. 引导表语从句时;c . 引导从句作介词宾语时;d. 从句后 有“or not”时;e. 后接动词不定式时。 Whether there is life on the moon is an interesting question.

Everything depends on whether we have enough money. 4. think, believe, imagine, suppose 等动词引起的否定性宾语从句中, 要把上述主句中的动词 变为否定式。即将从句中的否定形式移到主句中。 We don’t think you are here. I don’t believe he will do so. III. 表语从句 表语从句位于连系动词后, 基本结构为: 主语 + 系动词 + that 从句。 有时用 as if 引导。 The fact is that we have lost the game. That is why he didn’t come to the meeting. It looks as if it is going to rain. 需要注意的,当主语是 reason 时,表语从句要用 that 引导而不是 because。 The reason why he was late was that he missed the train by one minute this morning IV. 同位语从句 同位语从句通常由 that 引导,可用于同位语从句的名词有 advice、demand、doubt、fact、 hope、 idea、 information、 message、 news、 order、 problem、 promise、 question、 request、 suggestion、 truth、wish、word 等。 The news that we won the game is exciting. I have no idea when he will come back home. 我不知道他什么时候回来。 The thought came to him that Mary had probably fallen ill. 他想到可能玛丽生病了。 同位语从句和定语从句的区别: that 作为关系代词,可以引导定语从句,充当句子成分,在从句中作宾语时可以省略; that 引导同位语从句时,起连词的作用,没有实际意义,不充当句子成分,一般不能省略。 I had no idea that you were here. (that 引导同位语从句,不能省略) Have you got the idea (that) book gives you of life in ancient Greece? this (that 引导定语从句, 作宾语,可以省略) 高考题链接 1.(11北京)______ Barbara Jones offers to her fans is honesty and happiness. A. Which B. What C. That D. Whom 2. (11北京)The shocking news mad me realize ______ terrible problems we would face. A. what B. how C. that D. why 3. (11上海) There is clear evidence ______ the most difficult feeling of all to interpret is bodily pain. A. what B. if C. how D. that 4. (11上海) The message you intend to convey through words may be the exact opposite of ______ others actually understand. A. why B. that C. which D. what 5.(11山东)I am afraid he’s more of a talker than a doer, which is ______ he never finishes anything. A. that B. when C. where D. why 6.(11山东)We’ve offered her the job, but I don’t know ______ she’ll accept it. A. where B. what C. whether D. which 7.(11江西)The villagers have already known ______ we’ll do is to rebuild the bridge. A. this B. that C. what D. which 8.(11江苏)It was never clear ______ the man hadn’t reported the accident sooner. A. that B. how C. when D. why

9.(11安徽)His writing is so confusing that it’s difficult to make out ______ it is he is trying to express. A. that B. how C. who D. what 10. 11四川) teachers always tell us to believe in ______ we do and who we are if we want to ( Our succeed. A. why B. how C. what D. which 11.(11辽宁)Twenty students want to attend the class that aims to teach ______ to read fast. A. what B. who C. how D. why 12.(11辽宁)When the news came ______ the war broke out, he decided, to serve in the army. A. since B. which C. that D. because 13. (11天津)Modern science has given clear evidence ______ smoking can lead to many diseases. A. what B. which C. that D. where 14.(11陕西)I’d like to start my own business----that’s ______ I’d do if I had the money. A. why B. when C. which D. what 15.(11重庆)It is still under discussion ______ the old bus station should be replaced with a modern hotel or not. A. whether B. when C. which D. where 16.(11重庆)It is not always easy for the public to see ______ use a new invention can be of to human life. A. whose B. what C. which D. that 17. (11湖南) Before a problem can be solved, it must be obvious ______ the problem itself is. A. what B. that C. which D. why 18. 10 福建) should respect food and think about the people who don’t have ______ we have ( We here and treat food nicely. A. that B. which C. what D. whether 19.(10 湖南)Cindy shut the door heavily and burst into tears. No one in the office knew ______ she was so angry. A. where B. whether C. that D. why 20.(10 天津)As a new graduate, he doesn’t know ______ it takes to start a business here. A. how B. what C. When D. which 21. (10 北京)______ some people regard as a drawback is seen as a plus by many others. A. Whether B. What C. That D. How 22.(10 浙江)—How about camping this weekend, just for a change? —OK, ______ you want. A.whichever B.however C.whatever D.whoever 23.10 浙江)It is uncertain ______ side effect the medicine will bring about, although about two ( thousand patients have taken it. A.that B.what C.how D.whether 24.(10 上海)One reason for her preference for city life is ______ she can have easy access to places like shops and restaurants. A. that B. how C. what D. why 25.(10 山东)Before the sales start, I make a list of ______ my kids will need for the coming season.

A. why B. what C. how D. which 26. (10 上海) When changing lanes, a driver should use his turning signal to let other drivers know ______. A. he is entering which lane B. which lane he is entering C. is he entering which lane D. which lane is he entering 27. (10 四川) How much one enjoys himself travelling depends largely on ______ he goes with, whether his friends or relatives. A. what B.who C.how D.why 28.(10 全国Ⅰ)We haven’t discussed yet ______ we are going to place our new furniture. A. that B. which C. what D. where 29.(10 湖北)I want to be liked and loved for ______ I am inside. A. who B. where C. what D. how 30.(10 全国Ⅱ)—Have you finished the book? —No, I’ve read up to ______ the children discover the secret cave. A. which B. what C. that D. where 31.(10 江苏)—I prefer shutting myself in and listening to music all day on Sundays. —That’s ______ I don’t agree .You should have a more active life. A. where B. how C. when D. what 32.(10 北京)Part of the reason Charles Dickens loved his own novel, David Copperfield, was ______ it was rather closely modeled on his own life. A. what B. that C. why D. whether 33.(09 安徽)______ a certain doubt among the people as to the practical value of the project. A. It has B. They have C. It remains D. There remains 34.(09 湖南)She is very dear to us. We have been prepared to do ______ it takes to save her life. A. whichever B. however C. whatever D. whoever 35.(09 江西)The fact has worried many scientists ______ the earth is becoming warmer and warmer these years. A. what B. which C. that D. though 36.(09 海南)Could I speak to ______ is in charge of International Sales please? A. who B. what C. whoever D. whatever 37. (09 上海) a new diplomat, he often thinks of _____ he can react more appropriately on such As occasions. A. what B. which C. that D. how 38.(09 四川)News came from the school office ______ Wang Lin had been admitted to Beijing University. A. which B. what C. that D. where 39.(09 天津)It is obvious to the students ______ they should get well prepared for their future. A. as B. which C. whether D. that 40.(09 浙江)-Is there any possibility ______ you could pick me up at the airport? -No problem. A. when B. that C. whether D. what


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