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Module 5 Unit 1 Grammar-1

To-infinitive & Bare infinitive

Figure out the meanings of the proverbs and the usage of the underlined part. ? To know everything is to know nothing. 什么都知道一如什么都不知道。 ? It is easier to get money than to keep it. 挣钱容易,攒钱难。

The to-infinitive can be

1. subject of a sentence To see is to believe. 1)了解英语是一回事, 会英语是另一回事。 _______ To know something about English is one thing; _______ to know English is quite another.
2)先制定个计划是个好主意。 ________ To make a plan first is a good idea.

3)学好英语很难。

__________________ To study English well is difficult.
= It is difficult __________________. to study English well

4) 再见到你真高兴。
It’s a great pleasure to see you again.

Tips:
1) It is ? to do something.
这时的形容词常为easy, difficult, hard, good,

useful, wrong, right, necessary, impossible, important 等。 名词或词组常为a fact, a great day, a great thing, a pity 等。

Tips:
2) It is ? sb. to do something.
Mr. White thinks that it is right for rich people to help poor people.

3) It is ? sb. to do something. It’s kind of you to help me with my math. 这时的形容词常为kind, nice, clever, wise, foolish, careless, rude, polite, etc.

Tips:
4) It takes / took sb. some time to do something It took him five months to learn to drive.

动词不定式还可以和what, where, how, when, which等连接代词(副词) 连用,在句中做主语。 如何使用电脑是个问题。 _____________________ How to use the computer is a problem.

Tips:

2. object
decide, learn, expect, hope, wish, agree, plan, pretend, refuse, manage, fail, ask, promise, help, want, offer, afford, They _____________ need to look at a map. (需要看)

Tips:
1) understand, wonder, find out, decide, know, tell, forget,+ who, (what, when, where, which, how) to do sth. I didn’t know who to blame.

1) I couldn’t decide which bicycle to buy __________________. (买哪辆自行车) 2) Ask him when _____________. to open it (什么时候把它打开) how to find me 3) I told her _____________. (怎么找到我)

3. object complement
ask tell require wait for forbid permit warn expect teach want like advise allow invite wish get

sb. to do sth.

see sb. do sth. 五看: notice, observe, see watch, look at 二听: hear, listen to

Tips:

一感: feel
三让: let, have, make 一帮: help sb. (to) do sth.

Tips:
hope sb. to do sth. × 用 wish / expect sb. to sth agree sb. to do sth. × 用 allow / permit sb to do sth suggest sb. to sth. × 用 advise sb to do sth

Tips:
She has no house to live in. There is nothing to worry about. I haven’t got a chair ____. C A. to sit B. for me to sit

C. to sit on

D. for sitting

When I handed the report to John, he said that
George was the person _____. C

A. to send
C. to send it to

B. for sending it
D. for sending it to

3. Let’s find a box ____. B A. for us to put the books in it B. to put the books in

C. to put the books in it
D. to put the books

Tips:
不定式还可用来修饰被序数词、最高 级或no, all, any等限定的中心词.

He was the first man to fly across the Atlantic.

Columbus was the first ____ B the New Continent.

A. to have discovered
B. to discover

C. discovering
D. having discovered

4. predicative
sb.+ be / seem + to do sth. It seems to be an interesting book. My job is to help the patient.

5. adverbial
1) 表示目的

(not) to do sth. in order (not) to do sth. so as (not) to do sth (不放在句首)

2) 表示结果。 too…to… / enough for sb. to do sth.

It’s too heavy for little Tom to carry.
Is the river deep enough to swim in?

II.不定式的基本形式
时态/语态 一般式 进行式 完成式 主动 to do to be doing to have done to have been done 被动 to be done

完成式进行 to have been 式 doing sth.

Practice: ? She was too surprised ______ to see (see) how angry her father was.
? I plan to attend the meeting to ________ be held (hold) tomorrow. ? He pretended ____________ to be sleeping (sleep) when I came in.

? I’m terribly sorry ___________ to have kept (keep) you waiting.

? ‘Harry Potter’ series of novels are said ____________________ to have been translated (translate) into dozens of languages.

Tips:
1. Why not, Will you please, You’d better, would rather, 后不用to, 直接跟动词原形。 ? You look rather tired. Why not ____ stop (stop) to take a rest? ? Will you please _____ turn (turn) it down? It’s too noisy.

? 你最好骑车去学校。 You’d better go to school by bike. ? ________________________ I would rather stay at home (我宁愿 待在家里), doing nothing than go to the party with him.

2. and, but*, or, except, than, rather than后 P8。 ? He wants to do nothing but ______ go (go) out. to take ? He wants to believe anything but _______ (take) the medicine.

III. consolidation ? Turn to page 9 and complete the letter. ? Report the letter to your desk mate, using your own language.

Homework:
C1 on page 100 in the Workbook.

1. Jane is said ____ A to China three times. She loves China so much. A. to have been C. to go B. to have gone D. be in

2. With many details ____, B we can’t give you a reply now. A. remain to check
B. remaining to be checked C. remained to check

D. remained to be checked

3. As a young fashion model, she was not yet used ____ B in public. A. to be looked at B. to being looked at
C. being looked at D. to look at

4. I remember putting the bike in front of the building, but it is nowhere ____. B A. to find B. to be found

C. finding

D. to be finding

5. Mrs. Smith again and again warned her husband ____ A after drinking. A. never to drive B. to never drive

C. never driving

D. never drive

6. To master a foreign language, _____. D A. a lot of practice is needed

B. it needs practice
C. practice is in need of

D. one needs a lot of practice

7. Eddie is said ____ C a new computer program recently, but I don’t know when he will finish it. A. to design D. to have designed B. to be designing

C. to have been designing

8. Wu Dong wanted to surf the Internet, but his father told him ____ D .

A. not to do
C. do not to

B. not do it
D. not to

9. ---Do you have anything more ____, B sir? ---No. You may have a rest or do something else. A. typing B. to be typed

C. typed

D. to type

10. She reached the top of the hill and stopped _____ C on a big rock by the side of the path.

A. to have rested
C. to rest

B. resting
D. rest

11. They knew her very well. They had seen her ____ A up from childhood. A. grow B. grew

C. was growing D. to grow

12. The monument was built in honor of the explorer who was believed ____ A the river. A. to have discovered B. to have been discovered

C. to discover
D. having been discovered

A 13. The sun was shining brightly, ____ everything there ____ more beautiful.
A. making; look B. to make; looked
C. and made; looking D. And making; be looked

14. They looked forward with hope ____ D a chance to receive further education. A. for getting C. to get B. of getting D. to getting

15. Towards evening, the patient opened his mouth as if ____ C something to his son.

A. said
C. to say

B. say
D. to have said

16. At no time does the salesgirl get up late in the morning, for she is always too busy ____ A a good rest.

A. to take
C. taken

B. taking
D. took

17. Mr. Green is said ____ B an experiment to prove the new method of solving the problem when young. A. to do B. to have done

C. to be doing D. to have been doing

18. In a word, all of us should spend our valuable time just on the right things we find _____ B .

A. worth being done
B. to be worth doing

C. them worth doing
D. worth doing them

19. ---I’ll be away on holiday for a few days. Would you mind looking after my dog? ---____. D
A. No, I’d like it C. Never mind B. I’d better not D. No, I’d be happy to

20. ---Do you have any trouble in reading

the book?
---No, in fact, I find ____. C

A. easy for reading B. it easy reading
C. it easy to read D. easy to read it