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新交际英语 3 Unit 1 Advertising (Teacher's Book)

BOOK III / UNIT 1/ 1

UNIT 1
Introduction to the unit

Advertising

This unit includes six task series. The teacher can choose to teach all six, using one 80 minute section to cover a series; or the teacher can teach only five, using the last section for student project presentation. For the second option, the teacher needs to organize students into project groups and provide project specification on the first day of class. At the end of this unit of the Teacher‘s Book, there is an example of project worksheet and assessment form for presentation. If the teacher is keen on more writing, a unit writing assignment is also provided.

I. What is a good advertisement? A Criteria for a good advertisement

Summary of task functions & teaching focus Task 1. Are these good advertisements? ? 2. What is a good advertisement? 3. Language work 4. Reassessing advertisement ? Linguistic analysis Consolidation Target ? ? ? ? Task function Priming ? advertisement. Ss prepare material for later application. reading an informative text for specific information; applying information retrieved to problem solving. Ss identify different ways of lexical cohesion Ss apply knowledge acquired to re-evaluate an advertisement Ss practise oral discussion and summary Ss practise Teaching focus Ss activate their current knowledge about assessing

Are these good advertisements? Group discussion
Notes: Four car ads are used for this activity. Ss may find details of language quite difficult. Guide ss to focus on main ideas of the content instead of language used. As this is a priming activity, ss are required to take quick notes and draw on their prior knowledge to come up with standards of evaluating advertisements. Suggestions for administration ? ? ? ? ? Divide ss into groups of four. Play each clip twice before a quick pause for ss to take notes At the end of Clip 3, ask ss to compare their answers and come up with group standards. The teacher should walk around to facilitate group discussion and answer questions. Ask students to come up with at least three standards in complete sentence form: A good advertisement should_ 1

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?

At the end of Discussion, point out that two of these ads provide technical details and two are about images/values attached to the product in order to prepare ss for the next reading activity.

Reference key: Note: There is no definite answer to the question. The key is for the teacher‘s reference only. Ad Brand name : Mercedes Benz Selling point Blind spot assist (new technology) Why I like/dislike this ad This ad makes use of optical illusion that was first created by Erwin Blumenfeld of the Dada school in 1945. The man is presented both in front and profile. This cleverly illustrates the catchy phrase ―look to the side without looking to the side‖. The graphic is eye-catching and to the point. Brand name : Honda Coupe Civic Positive attitude to This ad starts with a negative song and switches to edgy statements about good things of life and cleverly implies that Honda drivers boast of positive attitude of life. It has a very unique angle of presenting value of the product. Brand Porsche name: Plenty technology of new The car must be made for high-end city dweller. The list of new technology leaves an impression of professional perfection and the life style associated with the car is implied in the coastal line, city sky line, nature and the look of the driver. Brand Chevy (Chevrolet) name: People love Chevy. This is Chevy‘s Super Bowl commercial of 2012. It tells a humorous story about graduation gift. In this ad, young people obviously are crazy about Chevy. The ad cleverly spans age group by showing the young man calling his grandma and profiling his neighbour as a grey-haired golfer. embrace today. Honda is one the good things of today.

What is a good advertisement? Reading& discussion
Suggestions for administration ? The teacher can ask divide the task into two parts. Ask ss to finish reading exercises (1, 2, 3) first and quickly compare the answers. Then ask them to apply information learned from the reading to exercise 4.

? This exercise aims to remind ss that different roles might differ in their requirement of an
advertisement. Ss should read the passage to identify the three roles and then classify their standards accordingly. If ss find that their standards are all based on the role of casual viewer, ask them to write down at least one based on the role of a manufacturer.

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Key: 1 1) be interesting, entertaining and amusing 2) provide hard information 3) sell a product 2 3 4 Perspective casual reader/viewer customer manufacturer What makes a good ad Sample: The picture is interesting; the ad is funny. Sample: The ad provides a lot of detailed information. Sample: The ad appeals to the customers; the ad establishes a positive image for the product. our standards of evaluating an advertisement depends on the role we take. 1) M 2) E 3) M 4)E 5) E 6) M

Language work

Lexical cohesion
Suggestions for administration ? ? ? Key: 1 ―Selling, buying and watching‖ defines three major roles involved in advertising. The author structures the article by focusing on one word in a paragraph. 2 3 4 Commercial, advertising, ads. Motive. 1) entertaining and amusing. 2) durability, price; performance, reliability, economy 3) dreams, ambitions Note: If the ss find the language work too easy, the teacher can ask them to work on the addition language work listed here. It may be helpful to explain to ss what cohesion is before the exercise. It may be helpful to provide more examples for concepts illustrated in exercises 2 and 3. When students finish exercise 4, ask them which concept in 2 and 3 are being used to answer the question.

Additional language work and key
LEXICAL COHESION EXERCISE As you have seen in the above exercise, it is often possible to identify a ―chain‖ of related words in a text. This ―lexical chaining‖ is one of the ways in which writers develop and maintain the coherence and cohesion of their texts. Typically a text will have several lexical chains, each of which is used to develop the argument.

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Lexical chains can be maintained in several ways. ? ? ? ?

The most common are:

repetition (simply using the same word several times) repetition + strong collocate (using the same word, but extending its meaning through the addition of strong collocates) ―elegant variation‖ (using near synonyms to maintain the topic without direct repetition. stylistically favoured in formal written English) lexical relations (using antonyms or hyponyms) This is

In the example below the lexical chain associated with ENTERTAINMENT has been marked for you. As it is the second chain used in the passage, it is marked as [2] There are at least four other lexical chains in the text. starts with the word ADVERTISEMENT. text. The most obvious one is first chain [1] that

Work with a partner, and track this first chain through the

If you do this quickly, see how many more chains you can find. Use a different colour or style of

underlining to show each chain, and give each chain a new number to identify it. When you have finished compare your work with another pair and see if you all agree. will give you a key to the task at the end of the activity. What is a good [1] advertisement? The answer to this question obviously depends very much on whether we are selling, buying or merely watching advertisements on TV. If we merely sit watching the commercial breaks on television, we‘ll want an advertisement to be [2] interesting, entertaining and amusing. Advertisements can be [2] fun, and some advertisements have an [2] entertainment value that may be quite independent of their effectiveness in selling the product they are designed to promote. Often, in fact, we remember the advertisement and forget the product. Your teacher

But suppose we‘re looking at an advertisement because we want to buy something. It‘s not [2] entertainment that we want, but hard information about the product that will help us to decide whether to buy it or not. A ―good‖ advertisement in this case is one that tells as much as possible of what we want to know about the commodity—its effectiveness, durability, price, and so on. For the manufacturer, a ―good‖ advertisement is one that will sell his product, and manufacturers now know well enough that they will not sell their products in large quantities just by giving us information about them. Consider this description of the change that has taken place in the advertising of cars.

Originally cars in advertisements were just machines—the ads said they worked but that was all they did say. The promises they made about ―performance‖, ―reliability‖ and ―economy‖ were all related to the cars themselves. It was rare to find any suggestion that owning a car would make you more attractive or more successful. But then in America psychologists began to uncover the deeper motives which made people buy cars. So, instead of merely describing the machine, car ads began to appeal to people‘s secret hopes and dreams and ambitions.

Key:

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What is a good [1] advertisement? The answer to this question obviously depends very much on whether we are selling, buying or merely watching [1] advertisements on TV. If we merely sit watching the [1] commercial breaks on television, we‘ll want an [1] advertisement to be [2] interesting, entertaining and amusing. [1] Advertisements can be [2] fun, and some [1] advertisements have an [2] entertainment value that may be quite independent of their effectiveness in selling the product they are designed to promote. Often, in fact, we remember the [1] advertisement and forget the [3] product. But suppose we‘re looking at an [1] advertisement because we want to buy something. It‘s not [2] entertainment that we want, but [4] hard information about the [3] product that will help us to decide whether to buy [3] it or not. A ―good‖ [1] advertisement in this case is one that [4] tells us much as possible of what we want to know about the [3] commodity—its effectiveness, durability, price, and so on. For the manufacturer, a ―good‖ [1] advertisement is one that will sell his [3] product, and manufacturers now know well enough that they will not sell their [3] products in large quantities just by giving us [4] information about them. Consider this description of the change that has taken place in the [1] advertising of [5] cars. Originally [5] cars in [1] advertisements were just [5] machines—the [1] ads said they worked but that was all they did say. The promises they made about ―performance‖, ―reliability‖ and ―economy‖ were all related to the [5] cars themselves. It was rare to find any suggestion that owning a [5] car would make you more attractive or more successful. But then in America psychologists began to uncover the deeper motives which made people buy [5] cars. So, instead of merely [4] describing the machine, [5] car [1] ads began to appeal to people‘s secret hopes and dreams and ambitions.

Reassessing advertisements Group discussion
? If there is enough time in class after the reading task, the teacher can ask to ss to work on this set before they do the language work.

B

Coca-Cola advertisements

Summary of task functions & teaching focus Task 1. I‘d like the buy the world a Coke 2. Analyzing an advertisement Target Ss practise ? listening to a mini-lecture and taking notes of specific 5 Task function Priming ? Teaching focus Ss get familiar with the subject matter.

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information; ? ? ? 3. Language work 4. Ads out of place Linguistic analysis Extension ? ? ? reading an informative text for key concepts; applying information retrieved to problem solving; applying key concepts to analysis. Ss learn about rhetorical devices. Ss apply rhetorical devices to slogan writing. Ss perform analysis of cultural appropriateness.

I’d like to buy the world a Coke Viewing
Suggestions for administration ? ? ? Ask ss to look at the questions before playing the video. As this ad will be used for further analysis, ask ss to focus only on general impressions for now. If ss cannot arrive at proper answers to question 2), leave it for now as they will answer the same question again when they are provided with further information later in the task series.

1) It appeals to emotional needs of its customers 2) The theme of the advertisement is fraternity. The ad is trying to connect Coca-Cola to
friendliness between different people and different countries; by doing so, it reacts to people‘s craving for peace and love against the gloom of cold war.

3) 1930 can be ruled out because of segregation, 2000 because of fashion and music style and the
quality of film. 1970 is a highly probable answer because of civil rights movement and anti-war protests. Note: Ss may rely on other knowledge. For instance, in the 30‘s color TV was not popular. Try to ask to draw on their knowledge of American history in that case.

Analyzing an advertisement 1. Coca-Cola advertising through the years—listening
Suggestions for administration

? Tell ss that the clip will be played twice and ask them to focus on general idea for the first play
and on details for the second.

? Before the second play, remind ss that they should write down key information in note forms. ? For discussion questions (4), ss might not have the necessary knowledge about history. The
teacher should get ready to explain the cold war to the ss. 1 1) Chronological order 2) Santa Claus and Polar Bear 6

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3) Between 1960 and 1980 when Coca-Cola went global (In 1971). 2 4) No. The 1980 new Coke was a blunder. 1) 1886 text with little creativity 2) 1900‘s young women 3) 1930s–1960s _Santa Claus 4) 1960s–1980s global 5) 1990s Polar Bear 6)Present happy and positive 3

A. 1886, B. 1930s C. Present D. 1900s Coca-Cola started its ad by providing hard information to the customers. Since 1900s, it has shifted to appeal to the psychological needs of its potential customers. In the 1900s, the ad connected Coca Cola to elegance and beauty. In the 1930s, the ad tried to show Coca Cola can be drunk in winter as well as in summer. The appeal is to the general public as Santa is jovial instead of being serious or elegant. At present, Coca Cola tried to connect itself to happiness and the use of the clown image conveys happiness for an ordinary person.

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1) The theme of the advertisement is fraternity. The ad is trying to connect Coca Cola to friendliness between different people and different countries; by doing so, it reacts to people‘s craving for peace and love against the gloom of cold war.

2) Opposition to U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War began slowly and in small numbers in 1964 on various college campuses in the United States and grew into very large demonstrations from 1967 until 1971. This anti-war sentiment developed just after the main events of America‘s Civil Rights Movement. In the Western world in the 1970s, social progressive values that began in the 1960s, such as increasing political awareness and economic liberty of women, continued to grow. 3) Weary of the cold war, people in the world call for love, peace and harmony. This Coca-Cola ad speaks of the craving of the time. 4) Open-ended

2. Preparing for a semiological analysis
Suggestions for administration ? ? Ss may find the concepts of denotation and connotation difficult. The teacher shall be ready to provide more examples to illustrate the concepts. In analysis, focus on denotation and connotation. The analysis is an open one, ss can come up with answers different than the key as long as they can explain their answers. Note: Connotation can refer to association or emotion. In this section, we focus on association. In Part II, C (Language work), we focus on emotion of a word. Key: 7

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1

1) Home: love, security, warmth 2) National flag: patriotism, loyalty, solemnness 3) Panda: China, natural preservation, friendliness

2

1) Admiration, friendliness 2) Being serious about the situation, professional and formal, respect, preparation 3)Being serious about the class, enjoying the class, ready to cooperate.

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Denotative: President Obama brought his wife and children to his inauguration Connotative: As many people of his age take care of a family, this is a gesture to show that the president is one of the common folks and he would take care of them like he would his family.

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Open-ended

3. Semiological analysis—group discussion
1 Denotation lyrics I like to teach the sing White dove Apple trees and Honey bees video Young from and chorus a people wide world Connotation Problem Promise Drinking Coca-Cola provides A song is sign of love and Instability; to friendliness. people you with a sense of peace and Buying people White dovesare used in a suffered from love. variety of settings as symbols of love, peace or as messengers. Apple trees and honey bees are signs of peacefully idyllic life. Young people are signs of future, hope and positive change to life. People of different backgrounds can come together because of love Conflicts arise in the whole world. People in the world can be cold and lonely. Coca-Cola can help bring the world together. the wars. Coca-Cola is sharing love and peace with them.

turtle

range of races countries part. show up in the They stand in a heart shape.

2 1) Yes. The appeal of love, peace and harmony is shared by people globally. 2) Open-ended

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Language work Advertising slogans
Suggestions for administration

? The teacher can provide students with a list of rhetorical devices and ask ss to work on this
assignments at home. Note: A list is provided here. Definition and examples are from http://literary-devices.com/; http://literarydevices.net/ Device Alliteration Allusion Definition Alliteration is a literary device where words are used in quick succession and begin with letters belonging to the same sound group. An allusion is a figure of speech whereby the author refers to a subject matter such as a place, event, or literary work by way of a passing reference. An antithesis is used when the writer employs two Antithesis sentences of contrasting meanings in close proximity to one another. A hyperbole is a literary device wherein the author uses specific words and phrases that exaggerate and overemphasize the basic crux of the statement in order to produce a grander, more noticeable effect. The term ―inversion‖ refers to the practice of Inversion Metaphor changing the conventional placement of words. A metaphor refers to a meaning or identity ascribed to one subject by way of another. In a metaphor, one subject is implied to be another so as to draw a comparison between their similarities and shared traits. Paradox Paradox is a statement that appears to be self-contradictory or silly but may include a latent truth. It is also used to illustrate an opinion or statement contrary to accepted traditional ideas. Parallelism Parallelism is the use of components in a sentence that are grammatically the same; or similar in their construction, sound, meaning or meter. Repetition As a rhetorical device, it could be a word, a phrase or a full sentence or a poetical line 9 I looked upon the rotting sea, And drew my eyes away; Whether in class, at work or at home, Shasta was always busy. I can resist anything but temptation. Agree with you, the council does. Your apprentice, young Skywalker will be. Henry was a lion on the battlefield. When Neil Armstrong walked on the moon it might have been one small step for a man but it was one giant leap for mankind. Hyperbole I am so tired I cannot walk another inch. It‘s no wonder everyone refers to Mary as another Mother Teresa in the making. her own way. Example The Wicked Witch of the West went

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repeated to emphasize its significance in the entire text. Rhetorical question rhyme A rhetorical question is asked just for effect or to lay emphasis on some point discussed when no real answer is expected. A rhyme is a repetition of similar sounds (or the same sound) in two or more words, most often in the final syllables of lines in poems and songs. Key:

I looked upon the rotting deck, And there the dead men lay. ―O Wind, If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind?‖ ―Twinkle, twinkle little star How I wonder what you are‖

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1) Intel Inside. (Intel) Alliteration
2) Impossible is nothing. (Adidas) Inversion 3) Buy it. Sell it. Love it. (eBay) parallelism 4) Got milk? (California Milk Processor Board) Rhetorical question 5) Beyond your dreams. Within your reach. (Alaska) Antithesis 6) Be the best (British Army) Alliteration

3 Brand Maxwell Jaguar Reebok Panasonic Energizer Budweiser Volkswagen Note: 1. “I am that I am” is the common English translation of the response God used in the Hebrew Slogan Good to the last drop. Grace, space, pace. I am what I am. Ideas for life. Keeps going and going and going. The King of beers. Think small. Rhetorical device Parallelism Hyperbole Rhyme Allusion N/A Repetition Metaphor Paradox Harley Davidson American by birth. Rebel by choice.

Bible when Moses asked for his name (Exodus 3:14). It is one of the most famous verses in the Torah. 2. ―Think small‖ contradicts with the more commonly used statement ―Think big‖.

Out of place Group discussion
Suggestions for administration ? This can be used as an in-class discussion or take-home writing assignment depending on class time limit.

Key:
A is inappropriate because the advertisement portrays woman at the level of men‘s shoes. The caption

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reads ―Keep her where she belongs‖, indicating that woman‘s place is as house slave for man. This is apparent gender discrimination. B is inappropriate because of obvious racial discrimination when the white girl innocently accuses the black girl‘s mom as negligent for she failed to wash her child white with Fairy Soap. C is inappropriate because the picture resembles the falling of the Twin Towers in the te rrorists‘ attack of New York. D is inappropriate because the picture is too bloody and the gesture resembles crucifixion of Christ.

II. What is behind a good advertisement? A. What may the customer like?
Summary of task functions & teaching focus Task 1. Which does your partner prefer? 2. How does a business identify its target customers? ? ? 3. Language work Linguistic analysis ? ? 4. Marketing T-shirts Consolidation ? ? Target ? Task function Priming ? subject matter. Ss practise watching a video clip for specific information and do evaluation; reading an informative text for specific information; applying information retrieved to problem solving. Ss identify words that can be used both as verb and noun; Ss learned about word usage in different contexts; Ss do text analysis to learn lexical chaining. Ss apply knowledge learned to project work. Teaching focus Ss create and activate relevant experience on the

Which does your partner prefer? Information exchange—pair work
Suggestions for task administration ? The teacher shall be prepared to explain some of the differences between brands if ss are not familiar with them.

? Ask students to write down a few words about the reasons for further exploration .
Key for reference: Food Drink Car Watch Computer Fashion American food vs Chinese food Personal preference/taste? Gender difference/SUV vs city car Luxury vs trendy/wealthy vs young America vs China/fans/ ordinary users Internet shopping vs department store /age/shopping habit 11

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Note: 1. Patek Philippe is a luxury brand while Swatch is a new entry-level trendy brand. 2. Land Rover features large SUV while BMW Mini features small convertible.

How does a business identify its target customers? 1. Introduction to market segmentation—viewing & discussion
Suggestions for task administration

? The video clip will be played twice. Ask ss to focus on general ideas for the first time and on
details for the second time.

? Ask ss to compare their answers on exercises 1 and 2 about information on the video clip before
they move on the exercise 3 for application and discussion. Key: 1 1)a way of grouping people with similar tastes together 2) age, gender or income 3) that business can decide when where and how to advertise to attract people OR: the manufacturers can market products to the customers more successfully 2 1) age, gender 2) Car New Mini Micra BMW 5 Series Ford Mondeo Kia Picanto Seat Ibiza 3 Segment targeted Younger Older Lower income Higher income Men Women

1) girlish fashion; sexy and swanky fashion; technology and sexy women 2) More or less the same for women. Man‘s magazines seem to be different, due in part to

restrictions of useable pictures in China. Here are a few examples.

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3) Although women have been on the rise as car buyers in China and some of the cars have been associated with woman drivers, no car advertisement has been made to target women as their sole customers. 4) The choice between Coke vs Pepsi, Apple vs Lenovo cannot be explained by the difference in age, gender or income. One might need to consider culture and behavioral patterns.

2. Market segmentation—reading
Suggestions for task administration ? ? 1 Type Geographic profiles Demographic profiles Psychological profiles Behavioural profiles buying patterns, desired product benefits, price sensitivity, brand loyalty personal characteristics, age, gender, income, marital status personality, lifestyle targeted ad or promotional campaign, e.g. ad for an upscale market loyalty building, improve quality, coupon location Key word(s) Solution placing door hangers containing a special offer or mailing coupons to all homes in the area identify group, ad campaign Combine this task with application questions. Ss might read and re-read the text for information to complete the application task. Focus the ss on the last question of developing a profile for their partner so that they may apply what they have learned in this section to problem solving.

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explains how four types of customer profiling can be used to help business. 13

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3. Learning to market a product—pair work
1 2 behavioural profile. Notes: This is an open question. The intention is for students to use profiling and to reflect on Food Drink Car Watch Computer Shopping venue Demographic (age) or psychographic (lifestyle) Behavioural (loyalty) Demographic (gender) or psychographic (lifestyle) Demographic (income) or psychographic (lifestyle) Behavioural (loyalty) Demographic (age, or lifestyle)

personal differences.

Sample profile: My partner is price sensitive. He shows little brand loyalty, but he is devoted to made-in-Chinas. He is a rational shopper and tends to go online shopping.

Language work
Suggestions for task administration

? Assign this as homework. ? Focus on lexical chaining. Ask ss to refer back to the first task series for elegant variation (Page 5,
Student‘s Book). Key: 1. Word usage 1 1 2 3 4 focusing their marketing efforts on specific segments of the market to market to individuals such as age, gender, income level a married, college-educated female aged 30 to 35 Psychological profiles Psychological profiling attempts to… …to identify the business‘s ideal target market and customer The shop owner can target this market… 2 1) the shape of a head or face that is seen or drawn from the side a description that gives useful information 2) the act of moving someone to a higher or more important position or rank in an organization activities to advertise something 3) a connected series of military operations forming a distinct phase of a war a planned series of advertisements 4) members of a royal family an amount of money that is paid to the original creator of a product, book, or piece of music based on how many copies have been sold 2. Lexical chaining 14

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[1] Market Segmentation [2] Businesses can gain a competitive edge by focusing their [1] marketing efforts on [1] specific segments of the market instead of trying to appeal to everyone. [1] Market segmentation involves using [1] market research to identify the business‘s ideal [1] target market and [3] customer. [1] Segmentation can be used to develop several different types of [3] customer [4] profiles. Geographic[4] profiles [3] Customers can be segmented based on their geographic location. For a small [2] business such as a [2] pizza shop, its [1] target market may be all [3] residents within a five-mile radius of the [2] shop's location. The [2] shop owner can [1] target this [1]market by placing door hangers containing a special offer on all [3] homes and businesses within this radius or by mailing coupons to all homes within specific zip codes. [5] Demographic [4] profiles [5] Demographics are [4] personal characteristics used to categorize [3] consumers. [5]Demographics include [3] characteristics such as age, gender, income level and marital status. Through [1]market research, the [2] company may identify its ideal [3] customer as a married, college-educated female aged 30 to 35 with an annual income level of $35,000 to $45,000. This information helps the [2] business owner develop a [1] marketing strategy that appeals to [3] individuals with this demographic profile. For example, [2] an owner of a women’s clothing store might attempt to reach this [1] market by developing an ad campaign to promote a new line of business attire.

Marketing T-shirts Writing & peer-reviewing
Suggestions for task administration

? This can be used as in-class discussion or homework depending on class time limit.

B. Who is the product made for?
Summary of task functions & teaching focus Task 1. Who are the customers? 2. A successful advertising campaign Task function Priming Target ? ? ? 3. Language work Linguistic 15 ? Ss practise reading an informative text for specific information; examining information retrieved from a text. Ss learn about personification. Teaching focus Create a gap of observation for future reading.

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analysis 4. A case of successful positioning in China Consolidation

? ?

Ss distinguish words with similar spellings. Ss apply knowledge learned to project work.

Who are the customers? Comparing & contrasting
Suggestions for task administration ? Key: 1 1954: sick or weak people who need to be taken care of 2 1985: healthy, sporty people who need energy 3 Apparently, the two groups are very different. What connects them could be their need to replete lost energy and stay in good health. The purpose of the task is to give ss some empirical experience to prepare them for the reading. It is acceptable that answers to the questions vary.

A successful advertising campaign
Suggestions for task administration ? ? ? ? Ask ss to focus on the reading tasks. The first task is a scanning task. Give only 2 minutes to force them to speed up. Ask them to reflect on their scanning skills when they finish. Ss may find writing a summary difficult. The teacher can ask ss to share their answers in class and explain how to abstract to write a summary. Ask ss to underline their evidence of judgment when they finished the true and false questions. Ask them to explain their answers to a partner. It is worthwhile to spend some time on this question for it requires careful examination of details of the texts. Key: 1. Lucozade : a strategy for revival—reading 1 2 1)a 1) C 2) Before the campaign Sales Benefit of product Package Targeted market Flavour ? 15 million, static Aids recovery Big bottle Convalescent usage One After the campaign ? 143 million, third largest in the UK Energy replacing One-shot bottle Wider market: in-health energy drink Orange, Lemon, Tropical Barley, Light Version, Lucozade Sport 1) The article illustrates a successful campaign of Lucozade that has increased its sales by nine times and placed it as the third largest in UK in 10 years. In this campaign, Lucozade changed 16 2)b 3)a 4)b

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its image from a convalescent drink to an in-health energy drink, re-packaged from big bottle to one-shot bottle and diversified its flavour from one to five. 2) a. Some people predicted that the new campaign would be a great success. T b. Before the campaign, sales were going down quickly. F c. Before the campaign, Lucozade was used by old people only. F d. Lucozade changed its major ingredient to develop an energy drink. U e. The new Lucozade was packed in bottles smaller than the old one. T f. Daley Thompson was very popular among young people. h. Daley Thompson was the best choice for the campaign. 5) packaging b. Repositioning: change the target customer and market c. Endorsement: appearing in advertisements for or showing support for. 3 ―In his own likeable way, Daley Thompson symbolized raw energy, sporting achievement and an infectious enthusiasm for life, with which the target market could readily identify.‖ Daley Thompson is an Olympic decathlon champion. The ad featured him training, sweating and charging for the finish line. The close-up on his face, muscle and sweat affirms his image as described in the article. T T g. Daley Thompson had to personally sign each bottle of Lucozade sold. U a. Extension strategy: the development of a successful advertising campaign and of new

2. Viewing and discussion
1 Yes. The 2012 ad chose an energetic successful athlete of a present generation. 2 Year of ad 1954 Product function contains glucose, a sugar that is easily changed into 1985 energy by the human body In-health energy drink people who need energy, probably sporty type 2012 Energy-giving drink people who need energy, probably sporty type Faster. Stronger. For longer. Ashley Young the refreshing glucose drink Function statement aids recovery Target market sick people who needs energy the sparkling glucose drink mother serving Lucozade to a sick baby; nurse with a statement Daley Thompson Lucozade is approved by the authority and widely used to take care of the sick. Lucozade provides people with energy when they need it. It improves people‘s performance. Lucozade provides people with energy when they need it. It improves people‘s performance. Slogan Graphics Message

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Language work
Suggestions for task administration

? The tasks are straightforward. Assign these tasks as homework.
Key: 1. Personification 1 2 By the early 1980s,Lucozade, after a long period of prosperity, seemed to be outdated. 1) She has got an opportunity. 2) My computer malfunctions when I try to use it. 3) I was surprised by the news. 4) I want to go to Hawaii. 5) The fire was out of control. 2. Vocabulary building A massive: large Extension: the act of increasing perception: the way you notice things, especially with the senses exploit: to use sth well in order to gain as much from it as possible agency: a business or an organization that provides a particular service especially on behalf of other businesses or organizations personality: a famous person, especially one who works in entertainment or sport identify with: to feel sympathy with someone or be able to share their feelings readily: quickly, immediately, willingly or without any problem agent: a person whose job is to act for, or manage the affairs of other people in business, politics, etc person: a human being as an INDIVIDUAL identify: to recognize sb/sth and be able to say who or what they are ready: prepared and suitable for immediate activity B mass: matter, a large number of people Extensive: covering a large area, great in amount concept: an idea or a principle that is connected with sth ABSTRACT Explore: to search and discover

A case of successful positioning in China Research project
Suggestions for task administration ? Use this task as a research project or in-class oral discussion.

C. What is the real message?
Summary of task functions & teaching focus 18

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Task 1. Steve Jobs‘s speech on marketing 2. ―Think different‖

Task function Priming Target ?

Teaching focus Ss learnabout an abstract idea.

Ss practise ? ? ? watching a video clip for information; exploring cultural information behind a clip; evaluating an abstract idea against a concrete example. Ss learn about emotional connotation of a word. Ss apply an idea learned to solve relevant problems in project work.

3. Language work 4. Core values of my university

Linguistic analysis Consolidation

? ?

Steve Jobs’ speech on marketing

Viewing
Key: 1) values, products 2) that we believe people with passion can change the world for better

“Think different” Viewing & discussion
Suggestions for task administration

? The exercise is designed for ss to focus on different information for different question set. They
can first focus on the general message of the ad, then on the graphics and lastly on the script.

? Ss might be interested in knowing about some of the figures used in the ad. The teacher can
choose a few that interest the class to talk about.

Key:
1 1) The one-minute commercial featured black-and-white footage. The colour choice serves two purposes: it conveys a sense of seriousness as it resembles the colour of documentary; it is distinct and memorable when everything else is coloured in TV. 2) 3) 4) 3 Yes. Life stories of these people and the script do add up to support Jobs‘s idea. The ad tries to establish Apple as a positive and innovative company by connecting Apple with revolutionary figures in history. The message is clear. It intends to portrait Apple as a company with innovative cultures.

1) The following information is adapted from Wikipedia.

Albert Einstein: theoretical physicist. He developed the general theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics for his ―services to theoretical physics‖, in particular his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect, a pivotal step in the evolution 19

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of quantum theory. Bob Dylan: American singer-songwriter, artist and writer. He has been influential in popular music and culture for more than five decades. Much of his most celebrated work dates from the 1960s when his songs chronicled social unrest. His songs such as ―Blowin' in the Wind‖ and ―The Times They Are A-Changin'‖ became anthems for the American civil rights and anti-war movements. Martin Luther King, Jr.: an American Baptist minister and activist who was a leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience based on his Christian beliefs. Richard Branson: an English business magnate, investor, and philanthropist. He is best known as the founder of Virgin Group, which comprises more than 400 companies. John Lennon (with Yoko Ono): an English singer and songwriter who co-founded the Beatles (1960-70), the most commercially successful band in the history of popular music. With fellow member Paul McCartney, he formed a lucrative songwriting partnership. Buckminster Fuller: an American architect, systems theorist, author, designer and inventor. Fuller published more than 30 books, coining or popularizing terms such as ―Spaceship Earth‖, ephemeralization, and synergetic. He also developed numerous inventions, mainly architectural designs, and popularized the widely known geodesic dome Thomas Edison: an American inventor and businessman. He developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and the long-lasting, practical electric light bulb. Dubbed ―The Wizard of Menlo Park‖, he was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of mass production and large-scale teamwork to the process of invention, and because of that, he is often credited with the creation of the first industrial research laboratory. Muhammad Ali: an American Olympic and professional boxer and activist. He is widely regarded as one of the most significant and celebrated sports figures of the 20th century. From early in his career, Ali was known as an inspiring, controversial and polarizing figure both inside and outside the ring. Ted Turner: an American media mogul and philanthropist. As a businessman, he is known as founder of the Cable News Network (CNN), the first 24-hour cable news channel. In addition, he founded WTBS, which pioneered the superstation concept in cable television. Maria Callas: a Greek-American soprano, and one of the most renowned and influential opera singers of the 20th century. Many critics praised her bel canto technique, wide-ranging voice and dramatic interpretations. Her repertoire ranged from classical opera seria to the bel canto operas of Donizetti, Bellini and Rossini and further, to the works of Verdi and Puccini Mahatma Gandhi: the preeminent leader of the Indian independence movement in British-ruled India. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. Amelia Earhart: an American aviation pioneer and author. Earhart was the first female aviator to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean. She received the US Distinguished Flying Cross for this record. She set many other records, wrote best-selling books about her flying experiences and was instrumental in the formation of The Ninety-Nines, an organization for female pilots Alfred Hitchcock: an English film director and producer, at times referred to as ―The Master of Suspense‖. He pioneered many elements of the suspense and psychological thriller genres. He had a successful career in British cinema with both silent films and early talkies and became renowned as England‘s best director.

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Martha Graham: an American modern dancer and choreographer whose influence on dance has been compared with the influence of Picasso on modern visual arts, the influence of Stravinsky on music, and the influence of Frank Lloyd Wright on architecture Jim Henson (with Kermit the Frog): an American puppeteer, artist, cartoonist, inventor, screenwriter, songwriter, musician, film director, and producer who achieved international fame as the creator of the Muppets Frank Lloyd Wright: an American architect, interior designer, writer, and educator, who designed more than 1,000 structures, 532 of which were completed. Wright believed in designing structures that were in harmony with humanity and its environment, a philosophy he called organic architecture. This philosophy was best exemplified by Fallingwater. Pablo Picasso: a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, stage designer, poet and playwright. Regarded as one of the greatest and most influential artists of the 20th century, he is known for co-founding the Cubist movement, the invention of constructed sculpture, the co-invention of collage, and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore. Among his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907), and Guernica (1937). 3) They were all ahead of their time and had passion to change the world for the better. 4) Apple is just like these people. Apple is different and dedicated to changing the world. 5) Open question. Elon Musk, Cuijian, Linhuaimin, Dr. Sun Yatsen. 4 1) The misfits. The rebels. The troublemakers. The round pegs in the square holes. 2) It depends on the connotation with the word. For instance, Martin Luther King was controversial for his time. In leading the civil rights movement, he challenged existing law order and created a lot of unrest in society. But he changed the world for the better. 3) Great pioneers might not be accepted by their time but they will change the world with their passion. 5 1) Yes. The message is clear and the ad is memorable. 2) People who are passionate and who are not afraid to be different. 3) Possibly yes. Conservative people might find this ad self-promoting and inciting anti-social emotions. 4) Some marketing is about values. A lot of marketing stays at the product level. 5) ―I‘d like to buy the world a Coke‖. ― Love Today‖

Language work Words with connotations
? Key: 1 A lot of elegant variations(synonyms). Short phrases, incomplete sentences. Manipulation of connotation. 2 Connotation Word connotation in this section focuses on the emotion a word carries.

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(pos./neg./ neutral) the crazy ones misfits rebels trouble makers round pegs in the square holes see things differently not fond of rules no respect for status quo 1) 2) Negative. The writer attributes positive connotations to these words by giving them a positive tone in reading and by associating them with respectable historical figures. In the text, the writer also claims that these are geniuses push human race forward. 3) The writer reverses the usual connotation of negative words and produces a very strong contrast in the ad. As this is contrary to our usual expectation, this may impress people more and the ad may seem to present a new perspective on life. 3 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) childlike, youthful, childish, young (pos, pos, neg, neutral) disabled, crippled, handicapped, retarded (neutral, neg, neg, neg) slim, skinny, slender, thin (pos, neg, pos, neutral) cheap, frugal, miserly, economical (neg, pos, neg, neutral) inquisitive, interested, curious, inquiring (neg, neutral, neutral, pos (formal)) lovely, knockout, beautiful, stunning (pos, pos(informal), pos, pos) neg neg neg neg neg neutral neutral neutral

Core values of my university Group discussion

? This task can be used either as in-class discussion or a group project.

III. Advertising and culture
Summary of task functions & teaching focus Task 1. English and Chinese Brand names 2. Chinese brand names translated into English Target ? ? 3. Translations of foreign brand names into Chinese 22 Target ? Task function Priming ? conclusion. Ss practise listening for specific information and attitude; comparing information retrieved with different data set. Ss conduct cross-linguistic comparison to reach a conclusion. Teaching focus Ss conduct simple stastic work and reach a

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4. Watch your language

Extension

?

Ss learn about the impact of cross-linguistic difference.

Note: As the whole task series is about language, there is no separate language work for this task set.

English and Chinese brand names Reading for cultural information
Suggestions for task administration ? This task is simple. Allow ss only five minutes to finish all. 1) 1:8 2) 4:0 3) 2:0 4) English, Chinese, animals, places. 5) Some of the translations make no sense while others may present inappropriate associations. But it might be convenient for customers who have already known the product names in Chinese.

Chinese brand names translated into English
Suggestions for task administration ? ? ? Ask ss to take notes of their analysis so that they may make comparison after listening. Ask ss to pay attention to summarizing main ideas after listening. Ask ss to think of more brand names they know of and analyze their appropriateness in English.

Key: 2. Listening 1 Attitude Shoes approval disapproval Flower brand name approval disapproval Attitude Products named ―Great Wall‖ Other brand names approval disapproval approval disapproval ceramic tiles canned meat, lubricant, medicine Laoshan mineral water, Blue Sail Brand beachwear Moon Rabbit batteries, Triangle Brand castors Gold cup sports shoes Panda/Shell/Double Coin/Chung Calling Spring Flower Brand poplin/Lotus Flower glassware Sunflower Brand candles Dialogue 2 Dialogue 1

2

Reason 1: A good name should not make inappropriate associations.

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Reason 2: A good name should not be too long. 3. Application 1 Snack 恰恰 口水娃 QiaQia No (This could be pronounced as No ( it sounds as if 周大福 明牌 ―queer queer‖) Mouth-watering Baby a baby is to be eaten ) Cashmere 鄂尔多斯 鹿王 Erdos(OK, but no special meaning or resonance in English) King Deer (Hmm, why? What have deer to 冠军 do with cashmere? ) 2) Chinese name 腾讯 联想 以纯 匹克 TCL English name Tencent Lenovo Yishion Peak TCL Strategy Coined word that sounds similar to Chinese pronunciation Coined word Coined English name and Chinese translation similar in sound English name and Chinese translation Acronym not translated. 东鹏 Ceramic tile Dong Peng (OK, special meaning or resonance in English) Champion memorable) (OK, but not particularly Jewelry Chou Tai Fook No Ming (―fook‘ is too close to the English ?fuck‘) (OK, sounds exotic)

Translations of foreign brand names into Chinese
Suggestions for task administration

? Ask ss to pay attention to sound and character choice in translation. ? If ss are interested, the teacher can talk about translation theories.
Key: 1. Matching Chinese translation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 精工表 必理痛 可口可乐 百事可乐 美能达 得胜 力多精 一粒克病 Category camera car medicine drink car drink watch medicine 24 Foreign name Lactogen Pepsi Cola Benz Elekiban Datsun Seiko Coca-Cola Panadol

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9

奔驰

powdered milk

Minolta

2. Discussion Standard 1: the translation should sound similar to the original Standard 2: the translation should be given positive associations to the function of the product.

Watch you language
Reading
1) When using a language, one should pay attention to the nuances. 2) By giving a lot of examples. 3) Athlete‘s foot 运动鞋品牌,但英文本义为脚气病。 桃花潭风景区 Peach blossom deep pool scenic spot 由此出口 From this exports 候机室 Hou Machine Room 4) The passage is humorous as it cites a lot of funny examples and uses exaggeration.

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Project worksheet Team project: create an advertisement In your teams select a product and create an advertisement for it.
1) 2) 3) Fill in the Advertisement Planning Form as a detailed proposal for the manufacturer of the product. Present and explain your advertisement to your class. Comment on projects of other teams based on the criteria you have developed from Part I of this unit.

Advertisement planning form
Item Product Name Category Functions Features Manufacturer Similar Products Target customer Age Gender Profession Analysis What do this group of people like or dislike? What can persuade them to buy this product? Are they sensitive to price? Magazine, Poster, Radio, TV or the Internet Image, text, sound, stories, persuasive skills How would the advertisement persuade your target customers? What have you learned? What could have been done better? What could be special about the product Direction

Advertisement

Channel Specification Analysis

Reflection

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Project discussion form Take notes during your classmates‘ presentation. Give them a final rating using a five star scale and prepare a short three-minute oral comment for each team. Team1 General impression Team2 Team3 Team4 Team5

Marketing Product positioning Target Market

Effectiveness of marketing

Technical details Image

Text

Sound

Persuasive skills

Culture Appropriateness Suggestions for improvement

Final rating

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Writing assignment

Write an analysis on one of the two following cover pages of The Economist (2010). Your writing should: ? be no less than 150 words ? provide a description and analysis on the graph and tagline ? give a brief analysis on who the target audience is ? analyze whether the cover page is appropriate ? explain why you like or dislike the cover page

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